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ABSTRACT

ROSALIND. The Effects of Race Discrimination towards The Aborigines seen in the Main Character in Alice Nannup’s When The Pelican Laughed. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2015.

The object that the writer used in this thesis is a novel entitled When The Pelican Laughed written by Alice Nannup. This novel tells about the life of Alice, the main character in this novel, who faces some unfair treatments. She is taken away from her family since she was twelve. Alice is an Aborigine. The aborigine is described as the colonized, and the white Australian is described as the colonizer. Alice’s struggle in facing the discrimination towards her influences her to have a better life than now.

There are three objectives in this study. Firstly, the writer wants to know the main character’s characterization, and how she is described in the novel. Secondly, the writer discusses the actions done by the whites towards the aborigines which show their identity as a superior. Thirdly, the writer discusses the effect of discrimination that the main character faced which influences her to have a transformation in her life.

The method applied in this study is library research. Library research is used because the data that the writer needs is from the written sources. The primary source is the novel When The Pelican Laughed. The secondary source is the books that contain information related to the primary source that the writer uses. The writer also uses some of the previous studies that have been discussed before. The writer also gains some sources from the internet that contains the information about the novel.

The writer finds out some unfair treatments that the whites have done towards the aborigines. The writer finds out how the main character reacts towards the unfair treatments, and how she struggles in facing those treatments. The unfair treatments that she experiences give the effect to her. She wants to be free and independent. She is trying to get back to her hometown and to have a peaceful life together with her family.

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ABSTRAK

ROSALIND. The Effects of Race Discrimination towards The Aborigines seen in the Main Character in Alice Nannup’s When The Pelican Laughed. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2015.

Objek yang penulis gunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah sebuah novel berjudul When The Pelican Laughed yang ditulis oleh Alice Nannup. Novel ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan Alice, karakter utama dalam novel yang menghadapi berbagai tindakan yang tidak adil. Dia direbut dari keluarganya sejak dia berumur dua belas tahun. Alice adalah seorang Aborigine. Aborigine dideskripsikan sebagai kaum yang terjajah, dan orang Australia kulit putih dideskripsikan sebagai kaum yang menjajah. Perjuangan Alice dalam menghadapi diskriminasi terhadapnya, mempengaruhinya untuk memiliki hidup yang lebih baik daripada hidupnya sekarang.

Ada tiga pokok bahasan dalam penelitian ini. Pertama, penulis ingin mengetahui karakteristik karakter utama, dan bagaimana dia dideskripsikan dalam novel. Kedua, penulis membahas tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan orang kulit putih terhadap orang Aborigine yang menunjukkan identitas orang kulit putih sebagai kaum superior. Ketiga, penulis membahas efek dari kolonisasi yang tokoh hadapi yang mempengaruhinya untuk memiliki transformasi dalam hidupnya.

Metode yang digunakan pada skripsi ini adalah metode penelitian pustaka. Penelitian pusaka digunakan karena data yang penulis perlukan berasal dari sumber-sumber tertulis. Sumber utama adalah novel When The Pelican Laughed. Sumber-sumber-sumber sekunder adalah buku-buku yang berisi informasi yang berkaitan dengan sumber utama yang penulis gunakan. Penulis juga menggunakan beberapa penelitian yang sudah dibahas sebelumnya. Penulis juga menambahkan beberapa sumber dari internet yang berisikan informasi tentang novel.

Penulis menemukan beberapa tindakan yang tidak adil terhadap orang-orang Aborigine. Penulis menemukan bagaimana karakter utama bereaksi terhadap tindakan yang tidak adil, dan bagaimana dia berjuang dalam menghadapi tindakan-tindakan tersebut. Tindakan- tindakan-tindakan tidak adil yang dia hadapi, memberi dampak tersendiri baginya. Dia ingin bebas dan mandiri. Dia mencoba untuk kembali ke kampung halamannya dan memiliki hidup yang damai bersama dengan keluarganya.

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THE EFFECTS OF RACE DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS THE

ABORIGINES SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER IN ALICE

NANNUP’S

WHEN THE PELICAN LAUGHED

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of

Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

ROSALIND

Student Number: 114214090

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

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THE EFFECTS OF RACE DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS THE

ABORIGINES SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER IN ALICE

NANNUP’S

WHEN THE PELICAN LAUGHED

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of

Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

ROSALIND

Student Number: 114214090

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2015

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v

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma

Nama : Rosalind

Nomor Mahasiswa : 114214090

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul

THE EFFECTS OF RACE DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS THE

ABORIGINES SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER IN ALICE

NANNUP’S

WHEN THE PELICAN LAUGHED

Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal 16 Oktober 2015

Yang menyatakan,

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vi

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis

Yogyakarta, October 16, 2015

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Have courage, and be kind.

-

Disney’s Cinderella

-

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This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to

my beloved

parents

,

my

family,

and

my

boyfriend

thank you for your support and everything

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deepest gratitude goes to Jesus Christ. This thesis can be done because of His mercy and grace towards me. He is always guiding me and giving the answer for every problem I face.

I would like to express my big thanks to my family; to my mother Natalia Yanti, to my father Richmond Kesumajaya Soekanto, to my sister Rosanna Soekanto, and to my newborn little brother Rio Alexander Soekanto. I thank them for their pray, their support, and their understanding towards me. They are the reason and the spirit for me in finishing this thesis. I also would like to express my thanks to Vincent Setianto, for his support, love, and patience so that I can finish my thesis.

I would like to express my gratitude to Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum for being my thesis advisor. I thank him for his guidance, for his time, for the corrections, suggestions, and also for always being patient and kind in helping me to finish this thesis. I really appreciate that. I would like to thank Sri Mulyani, Ph.D for being my co-thesis advisor who has read my thesis and also giving corrections to make this thesis better. I also would like to express my gratitude to Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A for being my academic advisor during my study, and all the lecturers who teach me priceless lesson and knowledge.

To my good friends; Leny, Effi, Chatarine, Jessica, Veni, and Nurul, I am thanful for their support, their advice, and for the friendship. To all my friends from Konkuk Winter Program 2015, my friends from English Letters, especially class of 2011, thank you for the good times that we share together. I also want to thank Mbak Ninik, and all the staffs who help me to get information and complete the needs for finishing this thesis. I thank them all for their time, and their attention.

Rosalind

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... ii

APPROVAL PAGE ... iii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE ... iv

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ... v

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ... vi

MOTTO PAGE ... vii

DEDICATION PAGE ... viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... x

ABSTRACT ... xi

ABSTRAK ... xii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Problem Formulation ... 4

C. Objectives of the Study ... 4

D. Definition of Terms ... 5

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ... 6

A. Review of Related Studies ... 6

B. Review of Related Theories ... 10

C. Theoretical Framework ... 16

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ... 18

A. Object of the Study ... 18

B. Approach of the Study ... 19

C. Method of the Study ... 20

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ... 22

A. The Description of the Main Character: Alice Nannup... 22

B. The Discriminations done by The Whites towards Alice ... 27

C. The Effect of Discrimination towards Alice ... 38

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ... 43

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 46

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ABSTRACT

ROSALIND. The Effects of Race Discrimination towards The Aborigines seen in the Main Character in Alice Nannup’s When The Pelican Laughed. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2015.

The object that the writer used in this thesis is a novel entitled When The Pelican Laughed written by Alice Nannup. This novel tells about the life of Alice, the main character in this novel, who faces some unfair treatments. She is taken away from her family since she was twelve. Alice is an Aborigine. The aborigine is described as the

colonized, and the white Australian is described as the colonizer. Alice’s struggle in

facing the discrimination towards her influences her to have a better life than now.

There are three objectives in this study. Firstly, the writer wants to know the main

character’s characterization, and how she is described in the novel. Secondly, the writer

discusses the actions done by the whites towards the aborigines which show their identity as a superior. Thirdly, the writer discusses the effect of discrimination that the main character faced which influences her to have a transformation in her life.

The method applied in this study is library research. Library research is used because the data that the writer needs is from the written sources. The primary source is the novel When The Pelican Laughed. The secondary source is the books that contain information related to the primary source that the writer uses. The writer also uses some of the previous studies that have been discussed before. The writer also gains some sources from the internet that contains the information about the novel.

The writer finds out some unfair treatments that the whites have done towards the aborigines. The writer finds out how the main character reacts towards the unfair treatments, and how she struggles in facing those treatments. The unfair treatments that she experiences give the effect to her. She wants to be free and independent. She is trying to get back to her hometown and to have a peaceful life together with her family.

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ABSTRAK

ROSALIND. The Effects of Race Discrimination towards The Aborigines seen in the Main Character in Alice Nannup’s When The Pelican Laughed. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2015.

Objek yang penulis gunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah sebuah novel berjudul When The Pelican Laughed yang ditulis oleh Alice Nannup. Novel ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan Alice, karakter utama dalam novel yang menghadapi berbagai tindakan yang tidak adil. Dia direbut dari keluarganya sejak dia berumur dua belas tahun. Alice adalah seorang Aborigine. Aborigine dideskripsikan sebagai kaum yang terjajah, dan orang Australia kulit putih dideskripsikan sebagai kaum yang menjajah. Perjuangan Alice dalam menghadapi diskriminasi terhadapnya, mempengaruhinya untuk memiliki hidup yang lebih baik daripada hidupnya sekarang.

Ada tiga pokok bahasan dalam penelitian ini. Pertama, penulis ingin mengetahui karakteristik karakter utama, dan bagaimana dia dideskripsikan dalam novel. Kedua, penulis membahas tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan orang kulit putih terhadap orang Aborigine yang menunjukkan identitas orang kulit putih sebagai kaum superior. Ketiga, penulis membahas efek dari kolonisasi yang tokoh hadapi yang mempengaruhinya untuk memiliki transformasi dalam hidupnya.

Metode yang digunakan pada skripsi ini adalah metode penelitian pustaka. Penelitian pusaka digunakan karena data yang penulis perlukan berasal dari sumber-sumber tertulis. Sumber utama adalah novel When The Pelican Laughed. Sumber-sumber-sumber sekunder adalah buku-buku yang berisi informasi yang berkaitan dengan sumber utama yang penulis gunakan. Penulis juga menggunakan beberapa penelitian yang sudah dibahas sebelumnya. Penulis juga menambahkan beberapa sumber dari internet yang berisikan informasi tentang novel.

Penulis menemukan beberapa tindakan yang tidak adil terhadap orang-orang Aborigine. Penulis menemukan bagaimana karakter utama bereaksi terhadap tindakan yang tidak adil, dan bagaimana dia berjuang dalam menghadapi tindakan-tindakan tersebut. Tindakan- tindakan-tindakan tidak adil yang dia hadapi, memberi dampak tersendiri baginya. Dia ingin bebas dan mandiri. Dia mencoba untuk kembali ke kampung halamannya dan memiliki hidup yang damai bersama dengan keluarganya.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

In the 19th century, the whites in Australia dominated the aborigines. The aborigines are controlled by the whites. This is one example of Colonialism. The era after it is postcolonial. Postcolonial is the era in which the colonizing has ended, but it does not mean that Postcolonial theory is a theory after colonialism. Postcolonial theory is not theory after colonialism. It is a theory which refers to historical phase undergone by Third World countries (Guerin, 2011: 361).

Postcolonial criticism rejects universalism. It is to show its limitations of outlook (Barry, 2002:199). It means that Postcolonial critics see beyond the limitation way of thinking to empathies across boundaries of cultural and ethnic difference. Postcolonial is dealing with the effects of colonization on culture or society.

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how the main character in this novel faces the discrimination and how she struggles to defend her right, and to keep her family safe. She wants to fight against people who treated her and her family unfairly. She thinks that she is being discriminated for no reason, because she never does any mistakes to them. This phenomenon is related to race and culture issue that is very common happen in the late 1800. The writer analyzes it step by step from what kind of discrimination that Alice and her family face, and also Alice‟s behavior in facing the discrimination towards her.

Alice is one of the Aborigines who is discriminated by the whites. In this research, the writer wants to discover how Alice faces the discrimination towards her. The writer wants to know what causes Alice changes her thought in the end.

The theory that the writer uses to analyze the novel is Postcolonial theory. Postcolonial study is talking about the one who colonizes and the one who is being colonized. It happens because the influence of cultural phenomenon. So, this theory is very suitable in analyzing the work.

This study also uses the idea of some Postcolonial study critics, like Edward Said, Homi Bhabha, and Ania Loomba. Since some of them discuss the struggle of the aborigines in fighting against the superior. It is very helpful for the writer to relate it with the topic discussed in this research.

Postcolonial study is used in the research in which the object of the research

is the one who is being colonized. The word “post” here means the era when the

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Alice faces some discrimination from the whites, but she never rebels to them. It can be said that Alice represents Aborigine colonized. She may receive the discrimination from the whites towards her, but she does not want if it happens to her children. In the middle of the story, Alice starts to think that this gap between her culture and the white culture is no needed. She does not want a gap between the aborigines and the whites. She wants a peace among all. She thinks that she must move. She must have a change in her life. It makes the writer curious to know how Alice tries to change her life so that she can go back to her hometown and have a better life than before.

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B. Problem Formulation

There are three problems to be examined in this study. The three problems are formulated as follows:

1. How is the main character, Alice in the novel described?

2. What are the discriminations done by the whites towards Alice? 3. What are the effects of discrimination towards Alice?

C. Objectives of the Study

There are three objectives in this study. The first objective is to know the main

character‟s characterization, and how she is described in the novel. It is easier for

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D. Definition of Terms

In conducting this paper, the writer uses the terms that appear in the title and problem formulations, that is:

1. Race discrimination

Race discrimination is an unfair treatment or abusive behavior towards members of another race. It describes discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis. According to The New Encyclopedia Britannica, racial discrimination denotes all forms of differential behavior based on race. The most notable form of racial discrimination is, physical segregation by race, but there many others, such as rules of etiquette defining form of address between racial “superiors” and

“inferiors”, or choice of friend or spouses (1768:360).

2. The Aborigine

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A. Review of Related Studies

This research focuses on the main character‟s characteristic towards the

discrimination done by the white people. The writer needs to know the development of the character along the story. The writer finds other researches that have been done, which also uses Alice Nannup‟s When The Pelican Laughed. The writer sees the comparison of the writer‟s idea and others writer‟s idea from the researches.

The first research that the writer uses entitled “Racial Discrimination towards The Aborigines in Australia seen through The Conflict in Alice Nannup‟s When The Pelican Laughed”written by Refrita Indraswara. Indraswara‟s research is about the issue of racism towards the aborigines by the white people in Australia. Indraswara focuses on what conflict happens in the novel and how the conflict in this novel reveals the racial discrimination towards the aborigines in Australia.

There are two objectives of the study. First, the writer focuses on

the conflicts that happen in the novel. Second, the writer focuses on how the conflicts in Alice Nannup‟sWhen The Pelican Laughed reveal racial discrimination towards the Aborigines that is practiced by the The Whites in Australia (Indraswara, 2013:xii).

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Indraswara uses is different from theory that the writer uses in this research, yet it is still very helpful for the writer, since the idea in Indraswara‟s research is almost the same to the writer‟s idea in this research, so the writer may find any references

related to the writer‟s research. Indraswara talks about the conflict, while the

writer in this research talks about the treatment that the aborigines received from the whites where Alice, the main character is the representation of the aborigines.

Another research that also discusses Alice Nannup‟s When The Pelican Laughed is “The Indigenous Struggle of Aborigines in Western Australia in the 19th Century as Reflected in Alice Nannup‟s life in When The Pelican Laughed” written by Risang Baskara. Baskara discusses the struggles of Aborigines because of discriminations by the the whites.

Alice has to struggle with the white people that she works for. This part also presents how the Aborigines struggle against all forms of white‟s oppression. The struggle is represented by their view and attitude toward the unequal treatment by the white. Alice‟s awareness to rebel and fight back to the colonizer is indigenous struggle that done by Alice (Baskara, 2010:74).

The idea in Baskara‟s research is almost the same with the idea in

Indraswara‟s research. Both of them discuss the discrimination towards the

aborigines, but Indraswara focuses on the racial discrimination. In analyzing it, they both use different approach. Indraswara uses Social-Cultural Historical approach, while Baskara uses theory of Postcolonial criticism and Indigenous

struggle. The theory that those two writers used is different with the writer‟s

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Those researches are the references for the writer in writing this research. Although the topic in this research is different from the topic of those two studies, but both of them can be very helpful for the writer, since the object of the discussion is the same, talking about the whites and the aborigines.

This research focuses on the characteristic of Alice from her childhood, until she becomes a mother. The writer analyzes Alice‟s life story since Alice was a child until she gets old. The writer also finds out the discriminations that Alice faces when she is working at the camp. The writer sees there is a change of

Alice‟s behavior and also her thought. She wants to get a better life.

The third research that the writer uses entitled “Willie Traynors Reaction to Race Discrimination in The American Society in the 1970‟s Reflected in John

Grisham‟s The Last Juror” by Deva Bharata Probo Handoyo. Handoyo disccusses

the race discrimination of the blacks in Southern. He focuses on the reaction of the main character in reacting against the race discrimination in his society.

The aims of writing this undergraduate thesis were to know further the life, the sufferings, and the race discriminations of the blacks in Southern; and also to highlight the importance of main character of the story in reacting against the race discriminations that happened in the society (Handoyo, 2004:x).

The research conducted by Handoyo is to see the main character‟s important

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against the whites. What makes Handoyo research and this research different is the object of the study. The novel that both writers use is different.

Another study about Alice Nannup‟s When The Pelican Laughed entitled

Aboriginal Women’s Narratives: Reclaiming Identities by Nadja Zierott. In her

study, she says that Alice as Aborigine woman has a motive in writing her biography. She wants to tell the unequal treatment toward her and her race. Alice wants to reclaim the stolen land, and freedom.

From woman like Nannup, it is a basic concern to narrate her lives and revive the past, not only to let others know about injustices, but to reclaim stolen terrain (2005:101).

This study also reviews about the unequal treatment towards The Aborigine, seen in the main character, Alice Nannup. Nadja says in her study that Alice wants to reclaim stolen terrain. Alice wants to have a freedom. The writer in this study also talks about the freedom that Alice wants to get by struggling towards the unfair treatment done by the whites.

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B. Review of Related Theories

In this part, the writer reviews some theories which are going to be used in this study. It is very useful to review some relevant theories in order to give clear understanding in analyzing the topic of the study. Those theories are theory of character and characterization, theory of racism, and theory of Postcolonial.

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

The first theory that the writer uses is theory of character and characterization. Since the writer analyzes the main character in the novel, so the writer needs to find out the characterization of the main character.

Character is the intrinsic element in the literary works. It is the person in fiction who is an extended verbal representation of human being. He/she has moral and dispositional qualities.

As the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say (through the dialogue) and what they do (through the actions) (Abram, 1981:20).

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“through our knowledge of the characters, we understand their actions; through

their actions, we understand the characters” (1965:18).

After understanding the character, the writer needs to understand the characterization. According to Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods Jr. in Reading and Writing about Literature, characterization is the process of creating a character done by the author. The author may create his own character as much as he likes. It can be a smart and brave boy, or a tomboyish and persistent girl. There are two means in describing the character. The direct means to describe physical appearance, intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of the character is the first principal way that an author uses to characterize. The second is by using dramatic means and place of the character is by the way the character speaks and behaves (1971:20).

According to M. J. Murphy, there are nine ways an author use to make his characters understandable and come alive for his readers;

1. Personal description: Describing a person‟s appearance and clothes.

2. Character as seen by another: Describing a character indirectly through the eyes and opinions of another character.

3. Speech: Describing a character through what the person says.

4. Past life: Describing a character by letting the reader learn something

about a person‟s past life.

5. Conversation of others: Describing a character through the conversations of other people about him.

6. Reactions: Describing a character by letting the reader knows how that person reacts to various situations and events.

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8. Thoughts: Describing a character by giving the reader direct knowledge of what a person thinks.

9. Mannerism: Describing a person‟s mannerism and habits (1972:161-173)

2. Theory of Racism

The second theory that the writer uses is the theory of racism. Racism in Western Australia in 19th century creates a separation between the blacks and the whites. In a book entitled Racism in America written by Harvey Sales, it is stated that racism can operate on two levels; individual and/or group and institutional. Individual racism is easy to eradicate, while institutional is very difficult to eradicate.

Racism happens because the superiority of the upper class towards the lower class. The whites feel that they are superior, while the aborigines are inferior. The whites have money to pay for the slave, while the aborigines do not have. It is one from some factors that caused the discrimination to happen. The main character in this novel is the representation of the aborigines discriminated. She is the one who experience the discriminations done by the whites. The

discriminations include being forced to work, to follow the white‟s religion, to speak white‟s language, and to learn their history also. Robert Blaunner stated in

his book, racism is caused by the differentiation of colors.

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special privileges, power, and values for the benefit of the white majority (1970:124-125).

In 19th century, the unequal treatment that the blacks face already happened when European comes to Australian. The violence against the aborigines challenges the whole structure of Aboriginal society.

By the middle of the 19th century, violence against the aborigines, the introduction of European disease and spiritual demoralized challenged the whole structure of Aboriginal society

(www.daa.nsw.gov.au/publications/stolengenerations.pdf).

In The New Encyclopedia Britannica, it is said that the term racial discrimination denotes all form of differential behavior based on race. The most notable form of racial discrimination is, of course, physical segregation by race, but there are many others, such as rules of etiquette defining forms of address

between racial “superiors” and “inferiors” (1983:360). In the novel, it is found the

different rules between the whites and the aborigines. The whites can do whatever they want meanwhile the aborigines must be careful with whatever they do. If the whites do not like it, then the aborigines can not do it.

3. Theory of Postcolonialism

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by the colonizer which bring some effects to the people in that land. It happens because there is a clash between two different cultures where one of them is under control by the superior one. Bressler stated that

Postcolonial literature and theory investigate what happens when two cultures clash and when one of them with its accompanying ideology empowers and deems itself superior to the other (2006:265).

Postcolonial deals with the effects of colonization on culture and also societies. Any kind of actions regarding colonial processes from the beginning until the independence is the characteristic of Postcolonial study. Postcolonial

study also talks about the superiority. Edward Said‟s Orientalism discusses the

superiority. It deploys a variety of strategies whose common factor is they guarantee position of superiority for the Westerners over the orient (Baskara 2010:10).

Postcolonial study is highlighting the struggle that occurs when one culture is dominated by other culture. The struggle includes the difference, nationalism, postmodernism, representation and resistance, ethnicity, feminism, language, education, history, place, and production.

Postcolonialist critics state that “European colonialism did occur that the

British Empire was at the center of this colonialism”. The conquerors not only dominated the physical land but also the ideology of the colonized people, and that the effects of the colonization are many and are still being felt today.

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Said explains that the colonized is an integral part of European material civilization and culture. Many writers, poets, novelists, philosophers, political theorists, economists, and imperial administrators, have accepted the basic distinction between East and West (Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, 1995:87-88).

Postcolonial study is based on the „historical fact‟ of European colonialism

and its diverse effects. It discusses about experience of various kinds: migration, slavery, suppression, resistance, representation, difference, race, gender and place (Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, 1995:2).

The main character in the novel When The Pelican Laughed is experiencing migration, slavery, suppression, resistance, representation, difference, race, gender and place. It is the effect of British colonialism to The Aborigines.

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C. Theoretical Framework

The writer uses three theories to be the guideline in conducting this study. The first is theory of Character and Characterization, the second is theory of Racism, and the third is theory of Postcolonial. Besides, the writer also uses some studies that have been conducted before, so that the writer can compare those studies with this study.

The studies that have been done before are the undergraduate thesis done by the seniors. Those studies are needed by the writer in making the analysis because the writer wants to see the difference between those studies with this

study. It is good to see other‟s opinion in analyzing the novel and then compare

those studies with this study.

To answer the first problem formulation that is how the main character in the novel is described, the writer uses theory of Character and Characterization. Since the writer analyzes the main character in the novel, the writer needs to know the characteristics of the main character. Without understanding about this theory, the writer will get difficulty in answering the first problem formulation. The theory of Character and Characterization gives the writer clear understanding of

the meaning of character and characterization and how to identify the character‟s

characteristic or personality.

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the effects of colonization towards the main character, both theory of Racism and theory of Postcolonial are applied.

The colonization that happens in the 19th in Western Australia creates a separation between two races, the black and the whites. It happens because one race/culture feels more superior to other race. It is one cause of the discrimination and separation that happen in Abydos Station, Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Theory of Racism is used since it gives clear understanding about the racism, and how the racism exists. By using this theory, the writer is able to see the elements that make the racism exists seen from the life of the main character in the novel, while theory of Postcolonial stresses on the struggle of colonized people against the colonizer. It is very suitable with the content of the novel in which the writer uses as the object of the study.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

A. Object of the Study

The object that the writer uses in this study is When The Pelican Laughed, written by Alice Nannup with Lauren Marsh and Stephen Kinnane, first published in 1992 by Fremantle Arts Centre Press, and reprinted in 1993, 1996, 2000. The city of publication was in Western Australia. The genre of this novel is

biographical novel. It provides a fictional person‟s life. This novel tells the

experiences of a person during his/her lifetime. This is a novel that consist the biography of the writer itself. The writer tells her true story of her life. She is also helped by her two best friends in making the novel. This novel consists of four parts. Part one is about Alice with her identity as Aborigine child (Wari), as a young girl. It includes her story since 1911-1925. Part two is Alice Basset, a young woman (1925-1932), part three is Alice Nannup (Ngangka) 1933-1965), and the last part that is part four is Nan, a great grandmother 1968-1991.

This novel is about the personal life story of Alice Nannup, deeply

informed by Alice‟s battling spirit and her particular voice. It is a story of learning

to be strong in who you are.

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with her country”. Alice‟s life story, When The Pelican Laughed compellingly illuminates many aspects of the experience of Aboriginal people taken from their family community in the nineteen twenties and thirties.

B. Approach of the Study

To have a deep understanding about literary work, the writer uses a certain approach to analyze it. This study is related to the colonized people and their land done by the superior one. The writer needs an approach to analyze this kind of phenomenon. To help the writer understands about colonized and colonizer, Postcolonial study is suitable. Postcolonial is the approach in which colonialism is the object of discussion. It talks about the one who colonizes and the one who is being colonized. In this case, the whites (Australian) and the blacks (Aborigines) are the example of colonizer and colonized. This approach is very suitable with the literary work that the writer uses in this study. The work that the writer used is talking about Aborigines who are discriminated by the whites. This is a story that describes about the effect of Colonialism to Aborigine people such as the experience of migration, slavery, difference, and race. So, this approach is chosen in analyzing the novel for this study.

Postcolonial criticism is a theory that discuss about European colonization of the Americas, Africa, Asia, and South pacific which carried out in the

seventeenth through twentieth century‟s (Guerin, 2011:361).

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indeterminacy, defining Postcolonial identities as shifting, hybrid constructions. (Guerin, 2011:364).

Postcolonial characteristic includes give the positive effects to the one who is being colonized by the colonizer. The colonized (orient) can be free and independent after the colonization that he/she experiences.

C. Method of the Study

The method of the study in analyzing the work and answering the problem formulation was library research. Library research is a method that the writer needs to find the books and some sources in the internet. The writer searched for the object for the study first, and then looked for some other books to support the primary source of this study. The primary source of this study is the When The Pelican Laughed novel, while the second source is the theories. The theories are theory of character and characteristic, theory of Racism, and theory of Postcolonial.

After finding the primary source of this study, the writer searched for

books, articles, journals, or eBooks that is related to the writer‟s discussion. After

that, the writer looked for the books that are related to the approach that the writer wanted to use in this study. It is used in analyzing the novel and strengthens the

writer‟s analysis. After the writer found which approach that was suitable for the

writer‟s work, then the writer picked one approach to be applied as the primary

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

This chapter contains the answer of the problem formulations that are already conducted by the writer in Chapter I. In the first part, the writer discusses the characterization of the main character in the novel; in the second part, the writer discusses the whites‟ action/discrimination done toward The Aborigines; while in the third part, the writer discusses how the discrimination in Alice

Nannup‟s When The Pelican Laughed affects the main character.

A. The description of the Main Character: Alice Nannup

In describing the characterization of the main character in the novel, the

writer uses Robert Stanton‟s theory in his book An Introduction to Fiction about

character. Stanton stated that character is the individual who appears in the story.

“It refers to the mixture of interests, desires, emotions, and moral principles that makes up each of these individuals” (1965:17). The main character in this novel is

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Narrator is a character, limited by his own personality and biases, created by the author, who is able to reveal to the reader information beyond the knowledge of the narrator (Rohroerger, and Samuel H.Woods. Jr, 1971:23).

The writer analyzes the characterization of the main character by using

Robert Stanton‟s theory that is based on the emotions, desires, thoughts, author‟s explicit description and comment upon the character; and the character‟s own

dialogue and behavior (Stanton, 1965:17).

1. Tomboyish

Alice is a tomboy. She used to wear boy‟s clothes and be with where the men are. She does not like to do girly things such as cooking in the kitchen with her mother. She prefers something to do with the outdoor activities such as taking care the horse or vans out with her dad and the other men.

I was a real little tomboy; I only ever wanted to be where Tommy and the

men were. I used to be in boy‟s clothes all the time. I used to get around in these little safari suits with a hat on my head, and I‟d have these knee -highboots that buttoned up from the ankle (Nannup, 1992: 23).

Alice prefers to do outdoor work with her father than work inside the

house help her mother. “But I was an outdoor girl, I‟d rather work out in the

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not want to join her mother inside the house, like in the kitchen to cook, which is more comfortable than being outside doing a hardwork.

2. Persistent

Alice‟s mother used to take Alice out for hunting. One day they are

hunting for a kangaroo and they see a race-horse goanna ran into a hole.

Alice‟s mother says to Alice that she is going to get the kangaroo. Her mother

gets off her horse, and so does Alice. When Alice‟s mother is digging down after the kangaroo, it is digging up to get way and start to climb. Alice‟s mother asks Alice to move away because the kangaroo may hurt Alice. “You

better move away from there because if he comes out he‟ll think you‟re a tree

and run up your leg” (Nannup 1992:32). But instead of moving away, Alice stays standing there. The kangaroo jumps out of the hole and run straight up Alice and stand with his back legs on Alice‟s shoulders and his two front feet

on Alice‟s head. “Mother started growling at me in language, „I told you to get away, I told you, but you never do as you‟re told‟” (Nannup, 1992:32).

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care about it. Whether it is her mother or anyone, if she already has her own thought and decision, then she will keep hold it on.

3. Brave

One night Alice finishes trimming the lamps and takes them off to the dormitory. When Alice gets there, a girl is standing on the steps waiting for her. She is blocking Alice‟s way. Alice asks her to get out of the road. She moves aside, but when Alice walks into the room, she shaves Alice in the back. Alice does not take notice about that she just walks into the dormitory. But as Alice is walking out, she stands in the doorway and says that Alice has been talking about her, while actually Alice does not talk anything about her to anyone.

The girl says to Alice that Alice has been talking about her. Alice is surprised. The girl says “what have you got to say about it now?”, but Alice does not know what the girl is talking about. The girl keeps asking Alice what Alice says about her. Alice just tells the girl to get out of the way, but the girl hit Alice, and Alice hit her back.

But she wouldn‟t tell me, so I told her to get out of the way, and she hit me. So I up and hit her back, I gave her the works. She was a bigger person than me, too, but I just lost my block (Nannup, 1992:71-72).

When Alice‟s friend accuses her for doing nothing that she does not do,

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Alice, and Alice hit her back. If her friend does not hit her first, Alice also will not hit her. Alice just defenses herself.

Another action that shows Alice‟s bravery is when Miss Ryan wants to wash her hair; she splits the water on the floor. She wants Alice to wipe it up, but Alice does not want. Miss Ryan says “Alice, bring a cloth and wipe up this water”. Alice asks “What water?”, Miss Ryan says the water in the passage which Alice just finished polishing. Alice wonders how there is the water there because she already wipe it up. It is Miss Ryan who split the water because she wants to wash her hair. Alice does not want to wipe it. She asks Miss Ryan to wash it by herself. Alice is that annoyed, she goes into Mrs Larsen and tells her what has just happened. Mrs Larsen calls out, „Kathleen‟, and Miss Ryan comes in. Mrs Larsen says to her that if she has split the water on the floor then it is for her to wipe it up, but Miss Ryan does not want to wipe it. She says Alice is the servant, so Alice should wipe it up, but Alice does not want.„No,‟ she says, „she‟s the servant, she gets to do it‟.„Well, I‟m not doing it,‟ I tell her (Nannup, 1992:102-103).

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Those are the descriptions of the main character that the writer finds from the character‟s behavior in the story. The characterization of the character is got by applying the theory of character and characterization. It is got from the speech, direct comment, reaction, and the thought of the character itself.

B. The Discriminations done by the whites towards Alice

The main character in the novel receives some unfair treatments done by the whites. The discrimination includes race and culture. The whites force aborigines to follow their rule, their religion, and also to learn their history. The whites want the aborigines to accept Western perspective. In this part, the writer discusses the unfair treatments that Alice faces when she does her activities which

show the white‟s superiority.

1. Alice in the Hospital

Aboriginal women were not allowed in the main ward in the hospital. When Alice had fever and was very sick, she ended up in the hospital. This hospital was Meekatharra Hospital. It was very different for Aboriginal women in

those days. Alice was separated from other women. “We weren‟t allowed in the

main ward where all other women would be, we had to be kept separate in a little place that was just like a meat-house” (Nannup 1992:155).

Alice uses pronoun “We” which means that it is not only her that is being

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just like a meat-house. The meat-house can be meant a small house where smoke

used to cure meat or fish. It is where the meat stored. The little “meat-house” that

Alice means here can be a disgusting or dark place. It can also a kind of stinky place, which may be not suitable for human.

2. Alice in the Hall

Aborigines were not allowed into the hall where there is a Canadian Barn Dance. It is only a dance for white people. Although Alice only stayed outside the hall, she still was not allowed there. This was a dance for white people only,Alice wasnot allowed into the hall, she should stay out on the ramp. Alice stood there watchingeveryone dancing around enjoying themselves.While Alice was standing outside, the MC came and said that Alice was not allowed there.

After this particular dance was over the MC came out to me and said „Can I help you?‟ „Oh no, I‟m just watching the dancing,‟ I said. „Well, now that it‟s finished,‟ he said, „I want you to leave, because you‟re not allowed to

be here you know (Nannup 1992:160).

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3. Alice in the Cafe

If there was alcohol, white people will not allow Aborigines to be there or

anywhere where alcohol was being served. “Besides, if they had alcohol there then that cancelled us out because we weren‟t allowed to be on a licensed premise,

or anywhere where alcohol was being served.” (Nannup 1992:161).

If an Aboriginal person was caught drinking alcohol they would get a sixmonth gaol sentence (Nannup 1992:181). Alcohol is usually served in a café, restaurant, or in a party. The Aborigine could not be there. Alcohol was usually drunk when there were a special occasion or to celebrate something. The Aborigine could not be anywhere where alcohol is served and caught drinking alcohol or they would get a six month gaol sentence. It was also a threat for the Aborigine to not drink alcohol, so that they could not have fun while drink alcohol. It meant that the Aborigine could not join the whites to have fun in a party, or any events.

4. Alice in a Boarding House

Aboriginal family had to find someone to recommend a place to rent. Even if they had money, they could not find a place to rent. White people had the first option there. Alice was speechless knowing that. She felt terrible, but she said that she was not living there because she wanted to. She had four kids, and steady work wasn‟t easy to get.

Even if you had the money you couldn‟t just go and find a place to rent –

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The Aborigine can not be the first one to choose. They always have the

second options and they are always the second. They have to know what white‟s

decision first, and then they can have what they want. Although The Aborigines have money, they do not have a right and authority because they are inferior, and The Whites are superior. That is why they need someone to recommend them a place to rent. For example; a white man who say that he will not use the place/room where The Aborigines want to stay. It means The Aborigines can use it if the white say that he will give the place for the Aborigine to rent.

5. Alice in Town after Dark

Aborigines were not allowed in town after dark. They were only in freely during the daylight hours. If they want to go to evening pictures, they had to get permission from the police. As the war went on things started getting stricter and stricter. The police rounded up all the foreigners working on farms around the place and held them as prisoners.

Then they brought in a law that Aborigines weren‟t allowed in town after dark. We were only allowed to come in freely during the daylight hours, and if we wanted to go to evening pictures we had to get permission from the police (Nannup 1992:174).

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The Aborigine even had a difficulty to do activity in the evening. They had to get permission first from the police. Although they already asked for permission to the police, the police may not give the permission. If they got the permission, the police would give the Aborigine a little card for proof. It was because someone may ask them whether they had a card or not, which meant they were allowed in town after dark. The whites were afraid if the Aborigine did criminal in town after dark. The whites were being caution and they wanted to make sure that they were safe even if the Aborigine was freely in town after dark.

6. Alice in the Aborigine Department

Aboriginal people who received inheritance, any money left to them will become the property of Aborigines department. The Aborigine family could not

have it. When Alice‟s father died, her father left her some money. The money was

sent to the Aborigines department, but Alice said she never got it. The department never even bothered to let her know that her family died. Over the years different people tried to find that money for her, but they never had any luck.

I‟ve since found out that when this happened, if Aboriginal people

received an inheritance, any money left to them became the property of the Aborigines department (Nannup 1992:179).

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they did not have someone to help them with that (lawyer to take care about their problem). They were being looked down by the whites. Even the Aborigine department never bothered to let Alice know that her family died. It meant that the department did not care about it, and they thought it was no need to tell Alice.

7. Alice in the Hotel

Aborigines were not allowed under the premises. When Alice and her kids were standing under the verandah, they were chased away. Aborigines were not allowed in the hotel because it against the law. Alice and her children dashed across the road to shelter under the verandah, and when they got there, the proprietor of the hotel was standing there whistling.

Anyway, he‟s whistling, whistling, and I was just standing there with my poor little kids trying to cool down. Suddenly he turned to me and said,

„Excuse me, madam, but you know you‟re not allowed under these premises.‟ (Nannup 1992:181).

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8. Alice in the Church

When Alice went to the church, and the service was over, the minister would stand at the door and shake hands with everyone, but when Alice came

along, he‟d put his hands behind his back.

Also, when the service was over the minister would stand at the door and

shake hands with everyone as they left. But when we came along he‟d put his hands behind his back and say, „It‟s very nice to see you coming along‟(Nannup 1992:184).

The minister did not want to make a relation with Alice. The minister did not want to greet Alice. He may feel disgusted towards Alice or also other Aborigines. The minister also did not want the whites seeing him and Alice shaking hands. He may be afraid that the whites would turn back from his church to another church if he was being too kind to Aborigine, who is inferior. The whites may think that way, because shaking hands meant greeting each other in order to make a deep introduction. It could be a reason why the minister did not want to shake hands with Alice.

9. Alice in the White’s Environment

The whites forced Aborigines to speak in English language. The whites did

not like Aborigines speak in their language. At the camps where Nor‟westers and Sou‟westers all mixed in together, people spoke in different languages. Alice

picked up quite a bit of South language and Alice used to be able to talk in her

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language, we all had to keep to English, and that way they stamped a lot of it out” (Nannup 1992:85). The black must follow what the white said. They could not

speak in their language, but English. The orient must follow the colonizer‟s rule,

and command because the colonizer wanted their race to be the only one known. The orient could not show their true identity like race and culture.

The whites wanted their culture to be the only one existed in their environment at that time. They did not want any mix culture in their place. The whites thought that because the Aborigine was inferior, so they had to listen to

whatever the whites told them. The Aborigine had to follow the whites‟ rules. The

whites did not want the Aborigine to do their habits like when they were still in their hometown, because when they were in the whites‟ country, it meant they had

to speak what the whites spoke, they had to follow the whites‟ rule, and the whites‟ culture.

10. Alice in Adelaide Terrace

There was a place when Alice used to go. It was tearooms down in Adelaide Terrace. Aborigines could sit there and talk. They could hear everything that was going on outside. The room was curtained off so the other customer would not know who was behind the curtain. The other reason why the owner put the curtain is because the whites wouldn‟t come if they see Aborigines there. “But

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The whites did not want to see the Aborigine in the same café with them. It was a tearoom where the whites often went to. The Aborigine could come there if they wanted. They were not forbid by the owner to come, but they had to keep separate from other customer (the whites). The room was being curtained off. The whites did not want to see the Aborigine there. The whites would not come if they saw any Aborigine there. Seeing the Aborigine there could make the whites lost their appetite, because they did not like to gather with the Aborigine who is the slave and the inferior.

11. Alice in the White’s Society

Aborigines could not marry the whites. The whites wanted to keep Aborigines together, and if Alicehad wanted to marry white, well, that was no no

They wanted to keep all Aborigines together and let them die out. That was their plan. If we inter-married we would still be going on you see but they wanted to brush us all out. I heard that too, you know, just through white people talking, saying they wanted a white Australia (Nannup 1992:147).

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12. Alice in the White Congregation

The minister did not like to sit with the colored people. If there is a white person in the same seat, he would usher them away.

The new minister was a South African and he didn‟t like the coloured people sitting in with the white congregation. See, we‟d go in, sit down

and make ourselves comfortable, but if there was a white person in the

same seat he‟d come and usher them away to another phew (Nannup 1992:

184).

The whites had a higher class than the Aborigine. The whites were the

Aborigines‟ boss. The Aborigine was nothing for the whites. They were just slave.

They should not come and sit together with the whites because the congregation was usually a place where people held a meeting and shared their thoughts. The minister did not want the Aborigine sat there because the Aborigine did not have the high position just like the whites there.

13. Alice and her Children on Sunday School

One day, it was coming up time for the Sunday school picnic for the kids.

Alice‟s children really loved that picnic. The week before the picnic, the minister said to Alice‟s child that she could not come to Sunday school next week. Her

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I wanted to know why too, so I went around and saw the minister. His

answer to me was he didn‟t want any responsibility for looking after our

children, so our kids couldn‟t go (Nannup 1992:184).

The minister did not want to take care of Alice‟s children. The minister thought for what taking care a slave‟s children. It would not give him a benefit

also. Alice was poor; she just gave a little money in the church every Sunday. If the minister was taking care of her children, Alice still could not give anything like money or a gift to the minister as her gratitude feeling towards the minister.

14. Alice in the St John of God Hospital

When Alice went to St John of God Hospital, the lady in the bed next to Alice said to the sister why she screened me off. The sister said that she thought the lady next to Alice did not want to be bedded next to a native. But the lady said

„she‟s a friend, take that screen away‟. The sister removed it, but the other ladies

did not like it. They wanted the curtain pulled around Alice.

So they removed it, but I could hear all the other ladies talking. They

didn‟t like it that I was in full view. They said, „No, that‟s not right,‟ and

they wanted the curtain pulled around me (Nannup 1992:188).

The other ladies did not like to see the Aborigine there because Alice was a slave. She did not have the same position with the whites. The whites felt angry because they thought a slave should be kept separate from the whites. Even by being curtained, it was enough not to see her face around their sight.

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white people that the main character meets do it. The clash between two cultures is seen here, and it is the characteristic of the Postcolonialism. One of them is showing their superiority to the other, and also dominated the other This is what called as Orientalism. From those evidences, the writer sees how it affects the main character, and the main character‟s reaction in the next part.

C. The Effects of Discrimination towards Alice

From what the writer has discussed in B part, the writer states some discrimination that the main character faced. The discrimination itself is an unfair treatment that Alice got from the white people around her. There is some case that Alice fought back, but there is also some case that Alice did not fight back. The writer sees Alice did the most fight back when it was something related to her children. She did not want her children to feel what she felt. She did not want her children to get hurt.

Alice has been through many things that were really hard for her. She has been living under controlled by the whites. She wanted a change. She wanted independence. She wanted to get equality for her tribe. She wanted a freedom. She wanted to go home. She wanted to have a better life, and see her family again.

1. Alice Wanted Freedom

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accused of leaving the door to the boys‟ dormitory open for them to get out. It

wasnot Alice at all.She knew who was responsible but he never owned up.

Anyway, it made me look like a liar, and when the committee came up and had a meeting I had my say. I told them how upset I was being blamed for

something I hadn‟t done… but after that happened I decided to leave there and go and stay with my daughter and son in Mullewa (Nannup 1992:203). She wanted to go back home with her children. She said when opportunity knocks, she would definitely go. She got that opportunity when her cousin came. It was when her cousin came and found her. Her cousin told her that Aunty

Minnie was sick. “It was the opportunity that is knocking right now, so you come

with me” said Alice‟s cousin to her (Nannup 1992:205). Alice thought while there

was a chance, it was better for her to grab it. She could go away and see her family again because that was what she wanted.

There was a time when Alice was trying to escape from where she worked as a slave, but she failed at that time. She thought she could not go back again to her hometown. It perhaps was the place where she belonged to as an uneducated and poor person, but at the end, she was wrong. She was able to go back to her hometown because she took the chance that came to her. She had to be free from the life that made her stuck there 42 years as a slave.

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because they had no idea how little freedom she and her people had at that time (1992:218).

2. Alice Wanted to Get a Better Life

Alice had struggle for forty two years being a slave. As long as that time, she was also trying to get back to her hometown. At the end, she was able to go back but she did not want to talk about her past anymore. All that she knew was she could come back home peacefully. She wanted to have a better life by forgetting her grey past.

I never spoke much about what had happened to me after I left with the

Campbells. It was just enough for me, and for them, that I‟d finally been

able to come back. Aunty Minnie reckoned Amy bringing me back was the best thing that could have happened (Nannup 1992:211).

Alice who was able to come back home was what needed to highlight. If only her cousin did not come and asked her to go back home together, may be

Alice would still be a servant in other people‟s country now. She was really

thanking her cousin for giving her the chance and encouraging her to leave the place where she worked as a servant so that she may go home.

Alice‟s big love to her family was also the reason why she was

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two years. She might get a better education there and even a better life together with her big family.

Alice and her kids have done well. Alice was proud of her kids. She had thirteen kids with forty children between them, and their kids had forty seven. So all together that made one hundred, and all of them were doing fine now.

3. Alice Wanted to Make Peace with Her Country

The struggle that Alice faced for forty two years was really hard for her.

She thought that she couldn‟t go back to her country anymore. She thought that

her life will be end at the camp where she worked. It was a true going home story for Alice, and also thanked to Amy, Alice‟s cousin that helped Alice to leave the camp, the place where Alice lived and worked for forty two years. Now, Alice was able to come back home. She was going back to make peace with her country.

I suppose you could say I‟ve gone back and visited all the places in my past. Like going to the old settlement and getting back to see my family.To me, going back with Amy is my true going home story, but there is another

part too, and that‟s going back to make my peace with my country

(Nannup 1992:221).

Alice wanted to have equality between her tribe and the white people‟s tribe. She wanted a peace for both her culture and the white‟s culture. She was

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if possible. She wanted other people to be grateful for what they already had because there would always be something to be thanked for in every single day.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

This thesis reveals about the result of colonization towards black people in 19th century which is seen in the main character. The novel that the writer used is an autobiography of the main character who is the writer itself. When The Pelican Laughed is a novel which the view is the social history. It talks about the history of the past life of the main character who is struggling in facing the unfair treatments towards her.

Based on the analysis that has been discussed by the writer, the three problem formulations have been answered. First, the writer discusses about the main

character‟s characterization in the novel. The writer finds out the main character‟s

characterization. Alice, the main character is a tomboy and brave woman. She

used to wear boy‟s clothes and be with where the men are. She does not like to do

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Second, the writer discusses the discriminations that the whites or the colonizer done towards the aborigines. The discrimination itself is an action which is showing their superiority. The aborigines are struggling facing the unfair treatments towards them. They want to fight back, and leave the place where they work as a slave, but they can not. The whites keep holding them there and keep making the aborigines work for them.

The discriminations that the aborigines receive are the unfair treatment

that shows the white‟s superiority. The aboriginal women are not allowed in the

same hall in the hospital where there are the white women. They must be kept separate. The aboriginal family has to find someone to recommend a place to rent. Even if they have money, they can not find a place to rent. The aborigines are only in freely during the daylight hours because they are not allowed in town after dark.

If there is a family member of Aborigine died, any money left to them will become the property of Aborigines department. The aborigine family can not have

it. When Alice‟s father died, her father left her some money. The money is sent to

the aborigines department, but Alice never gets it.

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are kept separate in the room that is curtained so that the whites can not see them. The whites say they do not want to come if they see any aborigine there.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abrams, MH. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Rinehart Winston. Inc., 1981.

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tifin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. London: Routledge, 1998.

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tifin. The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 1998.

Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural history, Manchester: Manchester Universit

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demokrasi memilih golput dalam pemilu sebagai bentuk perlawanan terhadap sistem yang berlangsung selain sebagai bagian untuk memperjuangkan syariat Islam yang

Its expression in various human cells lead us into a question of their involvement in cell proliferation, migration and signaling pathway especially in endothelial

Pendekatan perundang-undangan dilakukan untuk meneliti aturan perundang- undangan yang mengatur tentang tinjuan yuridis kriminologis terhadap tindak pidana pencabulan

D1dutu sbasai Salah SatuEnnt

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