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Academic year: 2022



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In the name of Allah SWT For HIS blessing and the merciful with deep thanks and proud. I dedicate this thesis especially to:

My beloved father “MUDIONO S.Pd” And My beloved Mother “KASINEM S.Pd” who have been caring me with love and affection, teaching, and educating me that Islam be part of

my life

My beloved sister “HABIBAH ANNA RADMIKA S.Pd” for your support, motivation, and suggestion so I can finish this Thesis

And for all my friend I just want to say : thank you so much



Alamat : fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah Keguruan

Jl.Jambi-Ma.Bulian.KM. 16 Simpang Sungai Duren Muaro Jambi 36363 ABSTRACT

Name : Hamzah Fanshuri Department : English

Title :The Teachers’ Strategies in Teaching Speaking at MTs An Nur Tangkit

This study aims to determine the teacher's strategy in teaching speaking at MTs An Nur Tangkit. In conducting research, the author uses qualitative research. In this case a direct analysis of the strategies used by the teacher in teaching English. The arrangement of this research was held at MTs An Nur Tangkit on Pandawa street number 43 Muaro Jambi Tangkit. In this study researchers used observation sheets and interview sheets to collect data.

Based on the research findings, about the teacher's strategy in teaching speaking, the researcher foundthe teacher teaching strategy that is most widely used in teaching speech at MTs An Nur Tangkit Use Records & transcripts, dialogues, discussions, class conversations and casual chat. The teacher uses the technique because it is based on a handbook and is easy to practice. Some other strategies are sometimes used by the teacher, but the frequency is very rare. Based on the discussion, most students like the strategies used by the teacher. They followed the teacher's instructions

Key word : Teachers’ Strategies, Teaching Speaking



Alamat : fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah Keguruan

Jl.Jambi-Ma.Bulian.KM. 16 Simpang Sungai Duren Muaro Jambi 36363

Name : Hamzah Fanshuri Jurusan : Bahasa Inggris

Judul : Strategi Guru Mengajar Berbicara di MTs An Nur Tangkit


Kata kunci: Strategi Guru, Mengajar Berbicara

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui strategi guru dalam mengajar berbicara di MTs An Nur Tangkit. Dalam melakukan penelitian, penulis menggunakan penelitian kualitatif. Dalam hal ini analisis langsung tentang strategi yang digunakan oleh guru dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris. Pengaturan penelitian ini diadakan di MTs An Nur Tangkit di jalan Pandawa nomor 43 Tangkit Muaro Jambi. Dalam penelitian ini peneliti menggunakan lembar observasi dan lembar wawancara untuk mengumpulkan data. Berdasarkan temuan penelitian, tentang strategi guru dalam mengajar berbicara strategi mengajar guru yang paling banyak digunakan dalam pengajaran berbicara di MTs An Nur Tangkit Menggunakan Pencatatan &

transkrip, dialog, diskusi, percakapan kelas dan obrolan santai. Guru menggunakan teknik itu karena didasarkan pada buku pegangan dan mudah untuk dipraktikkan. Beberapa strategi lain kadang digunakan oleh guru, tetapi frekuensinya sangat jarang. Berdasarkan diskusi, sebagian besar siswa menyukai strategi yang digunakan oleh guru. Mereka mengikuti instruksi guru.



PAGE TITLE ...……. i



DEDICATION ...….. iv

MOTTO ...….. v


ABSTRACT ...…... viii

ABSTRAK ...….. ix


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. The Formulation of The Problem ... 4

C. Limitation of the Research ... 4

D. Purpose Of The Study ... 4

E. Significance Of Study... 4


B. Types of Strategy ... 7

C. Teaching Speaking ... 8

D. Strategies in Teaching Speaking ... 15

E. Relevant Studies ... 26


B. Setting and Subject of the Study ... 28


C. Data and Data Source ... 29

D. Data Collecting Method ... 29

E. Data Analysis Method ... 30

F. Trustworthiness of Data ... 31

G. Schedule of the Research ... 32


B. Discussion ... 37


B. Suggestion ... 41




A. Background of the Study

Teaching is the way to convey information about a topic that would be learned by the students. The purpose of the teaching learning process is to make students get knowledge and be able to understand the knowledge. To achieve the purpose of teaching, the teacher is as a key that should be creative in choosing the materials and strategies of teaching to make the students easy to understand the knowldege. Besides that, the role of the teacher is also very important to made learning process well.

According to law of Indonesian No. 14 (2015) Teacher is a professional educator when the first of duty is educating, teaching, aiming, coached, assessment and evaluating the young students of education at education formals and explain on subsection. The educators are a professionallity to prepare, palned doing teaching and learning process.

Furthermore, the basic elemet in teaching and learning is the teacher (Kunandar, 2017).

Teacher is a professional educator who has responsibility in educating, teaching, supervising, directing, training, assesing, and evaluating learners (Depdiknas, 2015). Therefore, the teacher has to be able to create a comfortable and conducive class environment to make the students enjoy the class and learn the material at the same time. As a result, the goal of learning can be achieved. Since students are various in characteristics and background, teacher need to be careful in choosing the right way to be implemented in order to help the students achieve the learning goal. Therefore, a carefully designed procedure is primary in teaching and learning activities. In other words, teacher needs a certain strategy to reach a certain goal in teaching and learning.

However, a professional teacher will produce good students and future competitive era of globalization. Teacher educators must also have good teaching strategies so that the learning process will be easier to provide teaching and students can easily understand about learning, so as to achieve the purpose of teaching and learning.

In fact, there are plenty of options strategies that can be used by a teacher while teaching, not only strategies in the classroom,but also strategies outside the classroom that makes learning more interesting for students so teachers must be active and creative in selecting teaching strategies that better and efficient for students so that the teacher can control the classroom with a good and active.


Moreover, a strategy is defined as a set of procedure in learning, thinking, teaching, etc.

That is used as a way to achieve a certain goal (Richards, et al, 1992). Every individual has his or her way to reach the goals that she or he set. It also happens to teacher. A strategy used by one teacher might be different with another teacher. It depends on the needs of their students or the learning objectives that they want to achieve.

As it is known that deciding the teaching strategy should be applied in the class involves a thoughtful design and planning (Orlich, et al., 2010). In teaching, teacher is faced with a group of different individuals that come from different backgrounds and the goal of teaching itself is to bring those differences together into the learning (Silver, Harvey F., Richard W.

Strong, and Mathew J. Perini, 2017). Therefore, teacher should consider the goals that she wants the students to reach. Decision of which approach and method that be used as the basis for using a certain strategy is also important.

Based on the study of Hackarton (2015), Scores on quizzes and exams were fairly high, even when using lecture. It is unfortunate that lecture has earned such a bad reputation. While there may be some exceptions, the current research suggests that, in general, any technique that an instructor uses can be effective, if it is used competently, appropriately, and enthusiastically. So that way the strategy influenced the students’ score.

Thornbury (2005:1) states in his book, speaking is so much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The average person produces tens of thousands of words a day, although some people –like auctioneers or politicians- may produce even more than that.

However, one of the responsibilities a teacher should concern while teaching the students is to create a communicative environment, instead of worrying about the process of teaching and put no regard on the students language ability. Nevertheless, speaking activities in class sometimes do not work properly as the teacher wanted it to be. There are so many factors that make the students feel afraid to express English spoken language in class. The teaching learning process should not only happen between students and their teacher, but also among students. In order to create an environment where the interactions between students may happen, there are so many strategies can be applied.

Brown (2001:14), strategies were the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent with a strategy and therefore were in harmony with aproach as well.

Consequently, Teacher’s strategies in teaching speaking to the students are really important. It is interesting to the researcher to study about these strategies implemented by the teacher, because it is considered that teaching strategies influence the quality of students’

English learning condition and finally the students’ ability in English.


One of school that concern to have bilinguals in teaching and learning activities is MTs AnNur Tangkit. Besides, MTs AnNur Tangkit also has some students that succeess became winner in speech contest, debate and English poet. Additionally, they also use English in daily activity. This school has some areas to make students usual in using English. It called English zone.

Based on pre observation, the researcher found that MTs AnNur Tangkit applied teaching strategies in English learning and it make the students easier to understand English.

Therefore, teaching strategy is important, because it influnced students in learning. The suitable and appropriate teaching strategy in some researchs can improve students’ ability and improve their score. So that, teaching strategy is as a basic to teach for teacher. For addition, this school also concern students to have multilingual skill in daily life. That is why the research about teaching strategy can be a reference for school in order to develop and improve school’s qualities.

As it knows that. to be a teacher must have strategy in teaching in order to make students understand. If the teacher did not using strategies,the probability which can be hapened are the students difficult to understand and they become bored. It caused of students do not familiar to use English in their daily.The students become more understand when the teacher using strategies in teaching.

So far, based on those explanations above, the researcher is interested taking the research which is entitled is “TheTeacher’sStrategies in Teaching Speaking at MTs AnNur Tangkit ”.

B. The Formulation of The Problem

From the background of the study stated above, the researcher formulates the question as follows:

“What are the Teacher’sstrategies in teaching speaking atMTs AnNur Tangkit ?’

C. Limitation of the Research

To limit the problems will be discuss in this research the comprise of: (a) teacher strategies in teaching English at students MTs AnNur Tangkit , (b) the students response of the teacher strategies in teaching English MTs AnNur Tangkit .

D. Purpose Of The Study

Based on the statement of the problem above, this study is aimed at to find out the Teacher’s strategies in teaching speaking at MTs AnNur Tangkit.


E. Significance Of Study

Significance of this study is expect the result of this study to give somecontributions to the success of the teaching and learning English at the elementary. Especially for The teacher is able to select the most appropriate strategy toovercome the problem and the student can understand easily. The result of the research can enrich the previous theories in second language learning. The finding of the research hopefully can be used as valuable theoretical information about strategies in teaching English for any researchers who wants to conduct further research of English language teaching. Then, To the students, this research gives information about how teaching strategies can be implemented to help them learn better.




A. The Teaching Strategy

Word a strategy are meaning about the winer, life or fighting spirit. The meaning are about unable or failure of the company or organization in confron the pressure or problem from inside and outside (Kasali, 1994:173).

Strategies are steps or actiona taken for the purpose of winning a war, other definition of strategy is an effort to achieve of succes goal. In education context, J. R David (in Hamruni, (2017: 1) stated that strategy is a plan, method, or series of activities designed to achieve a particular educational goal.

So, The strategy are the plan long-term and as determinants in long-term and following activities to achieve special purpose. Strategy important to coordinate a organization to achieve a goal. In here strategy is like art that is art bring the army on the battle field with good position.

According to Antony, Parrewe dan Kacmar (2010) In Nainggolan (2017) The strategy as formulation mission and the goal of organization, include the action plans to achieve the goal in explicit, with considered competitive condition and the influences in direct from outside organization or not influences for the directness organization.

According to Brown (2010:113) Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.Then strategy is as a remedy the teacher in making system area thathappened to process teaching learning. (Ahmadi:2015: 32).

According to Chamot (1987) strategies are often more powerful when theyare used in appropriate combinations.

The strategy as general of activities it must do to achieve specific purpose (sanjaya, 2017). Say the general because a strategy in the reality not yet going to the practice, still as plan or full illustration, but to achieve the purpose of strategy in arranged to specific purpose.

So, the strategy are when a person doing activities to achieve specific purpose, have a plan and formulation to get the goal it.Based on those definitions above, strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously.

B. Types of Strategy

Before the strategy, writer will explaine about approach. An approach is a way of


looking at teaching and learning. Underlying any language teaching approach is a theoretical view of what language is, and of how it can be learnt. An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use classroom activities or techniques to help learners learn. After the approach, the strategy become the part of approach,.

According Masitoh (2017 :15-18) there are several types of learning strategies as well as supporting reference by teachers in teaching, such as:

First startegy is learning startegy. Learning Strategies Expository Is a strategies that emphasizes the delivery of content verbally process of a teacher / instructor to sekelomok trainees with the intention that trainees can master the subject matter optimally.

Second is quantum learning. Quantum Learning combines sugestologi, accelerated learning strategies , and NLP with the theories, beliefs, and the specific method. Including concepts: the theory of the right brain and the left brain, the theory triune brain, selection modalities, holistic education, learning with symbols, and simulation, concept of learning Quantum design a learning process harmoniously combines elements of academic skills, physical feats, and skills in life.

Then, the third is cooperative Learning Strategies. Cooperative Learning Strategies is a series of learning do students in small groups with different abilities to achieve the learning objectives that have been formulated.

The fourth is Inquiry Learning Strategy. Teachers act is digging a maximum capacity of students and the potential existing on students in completing the discharge of duties / problems in the learning process

The next strategy is strategy problem based Learning (SPBM). The learning objectives can be achieved if the educational activities focused on tasks or problems that authentic, relevant, and presented in a context, learning begins with problems and these problems will determine the direction of learning in groups.

The other strategy is Contextual Learning Strategies. Contextual Learning Strategies is a learning strategy that emphasizes the process of involvement of students to be able to find the material studied and relate them to real life situations that encourage students to be able to apply it in their lives.

The last is Active Learning Strategies. In active learning activities, it was students who perform the learning activities, it is they who must find and solve problems on their own, finding examples, tries skills, and perform learning tasks that must be accomplished.

Teachers needed some theory strategy for teaching especially in teaching speaking it make easier teachers to teach, as like: Learning strategies expository, quantum learning


strategies, cooperative learning strategies, inquiry learning strategy, strategy problem based learning (SPBM), contextual learning strategies, active learning strategies. To support the teacher in teaching learning listening some strategies can be used in order teaching learning process can be good and interested.

So, the strategy is something that important for teachers to teach and deliver teaching materials properly and to establish a classroom atmosphere becomes more fun and interesting, so that achievement of learning goals, especially speaking comprehension.

C.Teaching Speaking

One of the skills learned in language learning is speaking. Havingthe ability to speak is considered as the successful of language learning. The reason is because speaking may need courageous for language learners. It takes courageous because speaking is not only producingsounds, but it needs the knowledge of how to pronounce, to deliver meaning, and to turn ideas into words. Speaking has some sub-skills and it also may become essential for learners in language learning.

Hughes (2002:6) stated that “Speaking is not a discrete skill.” It cannot stand alone because some complex activities or sub-skills such asvocabulary mastery, grammar competence, comprehension, inputs of language, phonology, and pronunciation are included.

People speak using words in which the words have meaning that the speakers have to chooseand use them appropriately and of course this activity needs a skill in choosing and using the proper ones. Not only does the word order that people should notice, but the knowledge of how to pronounce words is also should be noticed in speaking. The reason of why pronunciatio should be noticed because in speaking in foreign and second language the written form and the pronunciation are far different. Those sub-skills are merely needed for successful of communication activities.

Speaking, according to Bygate in Nunan “Speaking is typically reciprocal:

interlocutors are normally all able to contribute simultaneously to the discourse, and to respond immediately to the each other’s contributions.”(2006:76). The brief explanation about speaking above inspires the writer that in speaking, speakers produce language which has meaning in order to express some ideas or thoughts. In other words, people speak in order to express their ideas and in order to give information to who they talk to. This means that speakers need listeners to keep the conversation going.


Speakers and listeners are interchangeable in their roles. Incommunicative activities, speakers are listeners at the same time because speakers need listeners to listen what they are saying and listeners need spoken language from the speakers to be listened to or to be reacted to what they have heard. When speakers and listeners do their roles in conversation, the conversation will keep going on. This is because listening and speaking are interconnected in which the listener listen to the speaker and make a reaction. Therefore, the comprehension of listening is a way to the listener and the speaker keeps going on a conversation.

In language learning, speaking may essential for learners. Horwitzstated that

“speaking is the hallmark of second language learning. Although some learners may have personal goals for language learning that do not include speaking, most educators accept speaking as an essential goal of language learning and teaching.” (Horwitz , 2008:91).Speaking becomes essential because it is the skill which people can see directly that the learners of a language are succeed. People may judge that the successful of language learning is when the learners can produce the language they are learning. Like what stated by McDough and Shaw “In many contexts, speaking is a skill upon which person is judged ‘at face value’. (McDough& Shaw, 2003:87). In other words, people may sometimes make judgment about language competence from speaking skill rather than any other skill.

Moreover, Farrel, stated that “One of the main sources of evidence of language competency is the ability to speak the language you are learning” (Farrel,2007:143). Therefore, speaking can be a direct judgment for language learners, because speaking performance can define the knowledge of the speakers in using the language.

The skill of speaking refers to the students’ ability to express mind or feeling orally.

Many language learners regard speaking skill as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in term of their accomplishments in spoken communication. They often evaluate their success in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language proficiency.

Oral skill have hardly been neglected in EFL/ESL courses (witness the huge number of conversation and other speaking course book in the market), thought how best to approach the teaching of oral skills has long been the focus of strategyological debate. She nd textbooks make use of a variate of approaches, ranging from direct approaches focusing on specific features of oral interaction (e.g turn-taking, topic management, and questioning


strategies) to inderect approaches that create conditions for oral interaction throguh group work, task work, and other strategies (Richards, 2011).

As language skill, speaking is the active or productive skill, where the students need to function the language to communicate to someone, talk or to express their ideas so that they will find out that people can respond and understand them.

Meanwhile, Cameron (2015:40) states that speaking is the active use of language to express meaning so that other people can make sense of them.

Meanwhile as a language skill, speaking which is said as has to be interactive, and in other condition, discourse management is also required in speaking.

As Thornbury states (2015) speaking is interactive requires the ability to cooperative in the management of speaking turns.

Nunan (2011:16) Speaking is physically situated face -to- face interaction: usually speaker can see each other and so can refer to the physical context and use a number of physical signals to indicate to the interaction. Their intention to contribute and their attitude towards what is being said.

Based on some opinion above, speaking is the activity to use language to communicate ideas in interactive situation, in doing the activity of communicating the speakers need to show their attitude, and taking turns which us said as having discourse management. The interactive situation itself includes the condition where there are several speaking interactions shown among the students, between students and their teacher in active English. The students attitude should show the students’ ability in speaking regardless that they found obstacles supported with discourse managements where the students and their teacher take turns when they speak and communicate during the learning-teaching progress taking place.

Teaching speaking is the action of guiding the students to be able to communicate and show any interaction to another person involved in the conversation. Thus, in teaching speaking skill it is necessary to make the students have clear understanding involved in speech.

As Brown and Yule (2010: 3) describe that there are significant differrences between spoken and written language in language teaching. Spoken language has been pictured as teaching students to pronounce written sentences in foreign language teaching. Furthermore, Brown and Yule (2010:3) also states, there is no longer a secure, tried-and-tested, teaching tradition to lean upon. The fact that as a teacher, we need to provide the classroom with


appropriate teaching materials, communicative environment of teaching learning process, or the demand to always bring a teaching strategy that will increase the students’ speaking skill.

The term of teaching can be understood by several points of view. Generally, teaching means the action of someone who teaches to let the learner to know certain knowledge or skill, in certain setting of learning and teaching. According to Brown (2010:7), teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Teaching needs to be seen as a process, includes someone who teaches, has the learner, the material, and also the setting. Which all of the components needed in teaching have to be maximized to achieve what it is refered to effective teaching.

Teaching in educational psychology can be seen as both art and science. According to Santrock (2011:25) teaching is linked to both science and art. In terms of art, skillful, experienced practice contributes to effective teaching. In terms of science, information from psychological research can provide valuable ideas.

There are two main ideas that the researcher wants to emphasize from the statement above, effective teaching and provide valuable ideas. To achieve effective teaching, the teacher should namely providing skill, experience, knowledge, and certain informations to themselves to be able to guide and facilitate learner.

According to Brown and G.Yule (2010;6) explain that in teaching speaking the teacher helps their students develop for real life communication situation. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentence that are appropriate to specific context and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.

One of the primary concerns of improving speaking English is to involve students consciously in their own learning process as they work to improve their spoken English.

According to Morley in Manalu (2017: 5), the purpose of teaching speaking is to help the students to accomplish four things:

1. To improve self confident in speaking and listening to English.

2. To improve intelligibility in speaking and listening to speaking English.

3. To improve fluency in speaking English.

4. To improve accuracy in speaking English.

From the explanation from the experts above, the researcher concluded that teaching speaking speaking is the action of facilitating the learning process of the students with various strategies to be able to be said as successful learning.


In teaching speaking, it is then become important to know the characteristic of spoken language that can influence some element of speaking. According to Brown (2010:270-271), there are some characteristics of spoken language can make oral performance becomes easy or difficult:

1. Clustering, fluent speech is phrasal, not by word. Leaner can organize their output both cognitively and physically (in beat groups) through such clustering.

2. Redundancy, the speaker has opportunity to make meaning clear through the redundancy of language. Learners can capitalize of this feature of spoken language.

3. Reduced Forms, contractions, elisions, reduced vowel, etc. All from special problem in teaching speaking English.

4. Performance variables, one of the advantages of spoken language is that a process of thinking as you speak allows you to manifest certain number of performance hesitations, pauses backtracking, and corrections. Learners can actually be taught how to pause and hesitate.

5. Colloquial language, make sure your students ore reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases colloquial language and they get practice in producing these forms.

6. Rate of delivery, another salient characteristic of fluency is rate of delivery. One of your task in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency.

7. Stress, rhythm, and intonation, this is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. The stress timed rhythm of spoken English and it’s intonation patterns convey important messages.

8. Interaction, learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum without interlocutor would rob speaking skill of it’s richest component the creativity of conversational negotiation.

In Teaching speaking is also becomes important to know what exactly the goal of teaching speaking itself. When teaching speaking is meant to be communicative, fluency and accuracy are the most being concerned features.

According to Richard (2010:222-223) fluency and accuracy are as follow:

1. Fluency is the features which give speech the qualities of being natural and normal, including native like use of pausing, rhythm, intonation, stress, rate of speaking, and use of interjections and interruptions. In second and foreign language teaching, fluency describe a level of proficiency in communication, which includes:

a. The ability to produce written and/or spoken language with ease.


b. The ability to speak with a good but not necessarily perfect command of intonation, vocabulary, and grammar.

c. The ability to communicate ideas effectively.

d. The ability to produce continuous speech without causing comprehension difficulties or a breakdown of communication.

2. Accuracy refers to produce grammatically correct sentences but may not include the ability to speak or write fluently. As it is explained above, both fluency and accuracy seems to be contrasted to each other, yet in teaching speaking fluency and accuracy have to be taught at the same time.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that elements of speaking are consist of both strategies and goals. The strategies are related to the linguistic competence, such as pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. Meanwhile, the goals of speaking will influence the speaking fluency and accuracy.

Refers to Richard and Renandya (2012: 208) says that there are two functions of speaking in human interaction, they are Interactional function serves to establish and maintain social relations. In the meantime, transactional function focused on the exchange of information. Speaking in this case aims to give information from one to others that can involve two or more people who use language for interactional and transactional purpose.

Brown (1994) labels speaking as the most challenging skill for students because of the set of features that characterize oral discourse contractions, vowel reductions and elision; the use of slang and idioms: stress, rhythm and intonation; and the need to interact with at least one other speaker.

There are numerous daily life situations where people need speaking, such as talking to someone face to face, communicating through the phone, answering questions, asking for directions, in shops, meetings or chatting with their friends, to name a few. People spend great deal of their time interacting with more people and, each of these situations requires a different register according to the formality of the moment (Lindsay and Knight, 2016: 58).

From the experts above, the researcher concluded that the purpose of speaking is to develop effective speaking skills such that they can be understood by classmates, faculty, staff, and others for academic and social purposes including conversations, classroom discussions and oral presentations.

D. Strategies in Teaching Speaking


As what have been discussed above, the ability of speaking is the language skill that is seen as the evidence and the hallmark of language teaching and learning. Discussing about speaking ability, the question that may appear is to what extend learners can be judged that they have abilityin speaking?

Woods stated that “Speaking effectively depends very much on thespeakers’ ability to interact with an interlocutor.”(Woods, 2005:41). Another statement is stated by Linder that the “Communicative competence is measured according to the degree of fluency with the spoken language, but it also includes comprehension of that language in real-life situation.”(Lander, 1977:5). Referringto the statements of Woods and Lander, it can be concluded that the ability of speaking is the ability to speak and interact with the interlocutor with fluently and comprehensibly.

In classroom, speaking activities may happen to practice communicative competence.

Ur stated some characteristics of a successful speaking activity such as bellow (Ur, 1996:120):

a. Learners talk a lot. As much as possible of the period of timeallotted to the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk. This mayseems obvious, but often most time is taken up with teacher talk orpauses.

b. Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not dominated by amonitory of talkative participants: all get chance to speak, andcontributions are fairly evenly distributed.

c. Motivation is high. Learners are eager to speak: because they areinterested in the topic and have something new to say about it, orbecause they want to contribute to achieving a task objective.

d. Language is of an acceptable level. Learners express themselves inutterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, andof an acceptable level of language accuracy.

Discussing of strategies in English language teaching, it initially cannot be separated with understanding strategy and approach. According to Richards (2010:30), in language teaching, the theory, philosophy and principles underlying a particular set of teaching practices. Language teaching is sometimes discussed in terms of three related aspects:

approach, strategy, and strategy. Different theories about the nature of language and how languages are learned (the approach) imply different ways of teaching language (the strategy), and different strategies make use of different kinds of classroom activity (the strategy).


Meanwhile Brown (2010:14), states that approach is a principled basis upon which the teacher can choose particular designs and strategies for teaching a foreign language in a particular context.

Thus, the researcher concludes that teaching is the series of classroom activities that is chosen by the teacher to be applied in giving the language inputs to the students. In teaching speaking, various speaking strategies are designed to help teacher in teaching English speaking regarding the approach, strategy, or some practical teaching strategies.

Speaking activities which are applied by she nd students in a classroom is crucial to improve their ability in speaking and to avoid the reluctance happens. According to Chastain in Sokowati (2012: 3), speaking competence can not be achieved in a year or even two but given the appropriate classroom activities, one has hypothesize that many students can learn to communicate about those topics covered in their texts. He also claims that the target language. More over the activities that involve students feeling and attitude may give them the satisfaction of expressing themselves.

In selecting speaking activities, the teacher must always remember that the goal is for the students to be able to interact freely with others; to understand what other with to speak in the broadest sense, and to be able to convey the others what they themselves wish to share.

The students need the situation where they are on their own (that is not supported by teahcer or structured exercise) trying to use the foreign language to exchange with others of real interest to them. The teacher can not send the students off in group or pairs and tell them to speak. Motivation to speak must be aroused in some ways. The teacher should propose or encourage the students to develop activities which have an intrinsic interest for them.

A supporting activity argued may enhance students’ speaking skills that can be carried out in classroom is role play. Many students derive a great benefit from role-play.

According ho Harmer (2017: 352), simulation and role-play can be used to encourage general oral fluency or to train students for specific situations.

Tomkins in Sokowati (2012: 4) argues that role play activity can encourage students’

thinking and creativity. Students usually find role playing enjoyable, but students who lack self-confidence or have lower profiency levels may find them intimidating at first. In role plays, students are assigned roles and put into situations thay they may eventually encounter outside the classroom. Because role plays imitate life, the range of language functions that may be used expands considerably. Also, the role relationship among the students as they play their parts calls for them to practice and develop their sociolinguistic competence. They have to use language that is appropriate to the situation and to the characters.


Brown and Yule (2010:25), states that learners learn spoken language through any forms and mostly in written forms, thus they offer some task based strategies:

1. Description task, the learners are asked to be able to describe things by identify and distinguish objects in pictures, which could be helped by providing list of noun or adjective and nouns to stimulate the learners’ speaking production.

2. Instruction/description task, the learners are asked to describe and give instruction by using diagram or series of cards to their partner. The task can be done by two students or more in group.

3. Story telling, the learners are asked to tell a story by using series of pictures where the learners are stimulated to tell a story and have an interaction with their audience.

4. The eye-witness account, the learners need to do this activity with a partner. The learners have to be able to describe things in a picture while the other students guessing the same picture on another place just by listening and have an interaction with their classmate.

5. Opinion-expressing, the learners are stimulate to use spoken language by giving them different topic with the help of watching movie, reading news, or even looking at a photograph therefore the learners can describe their opinion.

Meanwhile, Thornburry (2015), classified teaching speaking strategies into three different categories; awareness-raising activities, appropriation activities, and towards autonomy.

1. Awareness-raising activities are the activities that are used to uncover the gaps that the students face in their English speaking learning. The gaps mentioned here are such things learners cannot easily do, namely learners’ lack of certain speaking skills (retrieving words at speed, achieving long, pause-free runs) and how things learners do not know, such as how to change a topic or how to respond appropriately to a difficult request. In the second case it is because the learners are lack in the knowledge which can influence their fluency. The awareness-raising activities itself involves the process of how learners pay attention, noticing and understanding things being spoken. The English speaking teaching strategies can be used to support awareness-raising activities include using recordings and transcripts, using live listening and noticing-gap activities.

2. Appropriation activities are the activities that are used to facilitate learners to learn their English speaking from other person as appropriation itself is created to capture better sense of learning, the collaborative construction. Appropriation where the learners need to do such repetition is the stage that can minimalize the learners in making mistake. The


English speaking teaching strategies can be used to support appropriation activities include drilling and chants, writing tasks, dialogues and task repetition.

3. Toward autonomy is the condition where the English speaking teaching strategies are taken further to make the learners build their autonomy. Autonomy in sociocultural terms is the capacity to self-regulate performance as a consequence of gaining control over skills that were formerly other-regulated. Classroom speaking activities that involve minimal assistance, and where learners can take risks and boost their confidence, provide an important launch pad for subsequent real-world language use. The English speaking teaching strategies can be used toward autonomy include presentation and talks, stories, jokes and anecdotes, drama, role play and simulation, discussion and debates, conversation and chat, and outside class speaking.

Based on Brown and Yule (2010) and Thornburry (2015) theory, the strategies that can be used to promote the second language learners to speak based on those three categories mention above are as follows:

1. Using Recordings and Transcripts

This strategy is done to raise learners’ awareness of features of spoken language. It is to expose them to instances. The strategy is done by playing learners recordings of monologue or multiparty talk. By doing this activity, the learners will know how the speaking activity goes and how discourse management is in progress.Example : teacher gave transcript about one topic that suitable with recording. When it play, students listen and speak based on transcri[t imitatate the native speaker from recording.

2. Using Live Listening

This strategy is used to raise learners’ awareness of features of spoken language too.

By using live listening it gives the bigger chance for the students to engage in a learning activity with their teacher. The advantage of live listening is that the learners can interact to ask questions, clarify details, and solicit repeats.Example : Teacher told about a topic, then students paid attention, asking questions, giving critics or argumentation based on topic.

3. Noticing-Gap-Activities

This strategy is used by making the learners to get important messages about their current state of proficiency by attending to their own output, and by making comparisons between their output and that of others. In the learning of speaking, learners may benefit from first “having a go” and then observing a skilled practisioner performing the same


task.Example : Students make a group, each group have a same topic, then they told about the content of the topic and compare it to other group.

4. Drilling and Chants

Drilling and chants are the strategies regard to appropriation activities. Drilling that is imitating and repeating words, phrases and even whole utterances. Thus, after learners have listened to a dialogue the teacher can isolate specific phrases or utterances and ask learners to repeat them. The effect of repeating them is bound to make them more salient. Drilling also provides a means of gaining articulatory control over language-of “getting your tongue round it”. Chants, on the other hand, is a more playful form of practice that replicates the repeating and chunking nature of drilling is the use of chants. Chants is more memorable than in standard drills.Example : students imitate some words and then they memorize it. After that, students back to mention those words again.

5. Writing Tasks

Writing has a useful role to play as an initial stage in the appropriation of newly encountered language for speaking. It can act as a way of easing the transition from learning to using. Learners tend to rely on a very narrow repertoire of memorized expressions in face- to-face interaction. So, an important function of classroom speaking activities is to help learners extend their range of such features. The form of the activities can be in dictation, paper conversations, computer mediated chat and rewriting.Example : teacher told about a story, then students write on paper, after that they retell the story orally.

6. Dialogues

Practicing dialogues has a long history in language teaching-not surprisingly, since language is essentially dialogic in its use, and any grammar structure or lexical area can be worked into a dialogue with a little ingenuity. Dialogue practice also provides a useful change of focus from teacher-led classroom interaction. Even in a large classes with fixed furniture, setting up pairwork is not an insurmountable management challenge.Example : students got a pair with their friends, they practice a dialogue about the topic which has given by teacher.

Dialogue is one of the strategy based on communicative language teaching which provides “whole-task practice”, allows natural learning, and creates a context which supports learning (Littlewood in Liu, 2010:136 )”. Additionally, Richards and Rogers (1986 : 76) mentioned “dialogue as one of the examples of social interaction activities compatible with a


communicative approach which fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal”. Varela and Torre support this idea by stating that” role-play contributes to the development of conversational skills and are suitable to develop student‟s fluency and interaction (2017: 5)”.

Therefore, the main objective of this strategy is to prepare students for the real- life language use by practicing in the classroom the situation that may happen in real life. In practicing transactional-interactional talk where message and interaction are important, dialogue can be used as a strategy that require students to be involved in information sharing and participate a lot in conversation.

In using this strategy, the teacher guides the students how to pronounce some words and expressions related to the certain situation discussed in the classroom. Afterwards, the students have to practice using the words and expressions in a conversation between two speakers. To make it more challenging and to know whether the students are able to link sentences, their conversations are based on cues written on two cards. The students should ask and respond using the words and expressions they learnt before

7. Task Repetition

The contextual teaching can impact the fluency of learnes’ English speaking. This strategy is also influence the students’ accuracy anf complexity of production. With the advent task-based learning, it is found that by manipulating the condition of speaking tasks:

a. Giving learners unlimited time when performing a tsak increases their accuracy, but at the expense of their fluency.

b. Allowing time for pre-task planning enhances fluency, resulted faster speech and fewer silent pauses.

c. Likewise, pre-task planning has a positive effect on the complexity of the language that is produced.

d. Repeating a task shown gains in accuracy (including pronunciation), fluency, and complexity.

8. Presentation and Talks

Whether or not learners will have to give presentations or talks in real life, the experience of standing up in front of their colleagues and speaking for a sustained turn is excellent preparation for real-life speaking. This is especially the case if they also have to respond to questions. Example: she sked students to present about a topic then another student will ask it.


9. Stories, Jokes and Anecdotes

Storytelling is a universal function of language and one of the main ingredients of casual conversation. Through their stories learners not only practise the essential skill, but they can also get to know one another: we are our stories. Narration has always been one of the main means of having learners recount folk tales, or amusing or dramatic incidents based on a series of pictures. The value of encouraging learners to tell their own stories has been recognized, and coursebooks now include personalized narrating tasks, whether monologic or dialogic, as matter of course.Example :She sked students to read a fairy tale, then she sked them to retell orally about the story that they have read.

Story telling is a creative art form that has entertained and informed across centuries and cultures ( Fisher in Handayani, 2010) and its instructional potential continues to serve teacher. Storytelling or oral literature has many of its roots in the attempt to explain life or the mysteries of world and the universe – to try to make sense out of things ( Tway in Sokowati 2012:14). Story telling has been used as a means of communication since earliest times, but at now, storrytelling is becoming one of the key ingredients to managing communications, educations, training and inovation. Highlights for begginer educational storytelling is dedicated to helping children grow in basic skills and knowledge, in creativeness, in ability to think and reason, and many more.

In Speaking, story telling can be a method to improve the students’ speaking. Based on Chastain in Sokowati (2012:3) speaking an active activity, so the students need to make utterance. She also add about the procedure of this method. First, students can briefly summarizeda tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also help students express ideas in the format of beggining, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have. Second, students also can tell riddles or jokes. For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening. In this way, not only will the she ddress students’ speaking ability, but also get the attention of the class.

Using the medium of the performing arts, Remenyi (2015) reports that storytelling is a fundamental method for sharing knowledge among people as it allows participants to be transported to another time and place. Through the use of descriptive oral language, students are able to have an enhanced experience with literature. Then , It means story telling is a creative art form that has entertained and informed across centuries and cultures. It also has


good potential to motivate students in speaking. The important thing that this strategy is suitable to junior high school students.

10. Drama, Role-play, and Simulation

Speaking activities involving a drama element, in which learners take an imaginative leap out of the confines of the classroom, provide a useful springboard for real-life language use. Situations that learners are likely to encounter when using English in the real world can be simulated, and a greater range of registers can be practiced than are normally available in clasroom talk. Moreover, simulation and artifice suit the temperament of certyain learners, who may feel uncomfortable “being themselves” in a second language.Example :she sked students to make script of drama, then they must present it in front of the class.

11. Discussion and Debates

The best discussion in the classroom is the one that is spontaniously arise in the English speaking class, either it is because of the students’ personal experience that they report in the classroom or from a text or topic in the textbook that triggers some debate. It is become important to the teacher to be able to raise the situation where discussion and debate can be formed in more formal way for teaching English speaking.Example : Teacher gave students a topic, then teacher divided students to some groups. After that students asked by teacher to debate about the pro and contra of the topic content.

12. Conversation and Chat

Classroom conversation and casual chat have varied over the years. Conversation and chat provide a good condition in English as a second language class. Conversation and chat is best to be applied in a traditional grammar-focused class.Example :She sked students to have practice with their friends.

13. Outside-class Speaking

Learners can improve their speaking ability with the ease of the transition from classroom to the outside world, the teacher can use the strategy as a task to do outside class.Example :she ccompanied students to go out calss. She skerd students to observe around of them. Then, she sked students to tell what have they seen about their environment orally.


Regards to the given classifications of English speaking teaching strategies by Brown and Yule (2010) and Thornburry (2015) above, the researcher concludes that the classification of English speaking teaching strategies are based on the learning theories namely behaviorist, cognitivist and sociocultural theories. The English teaching strategies offered by the experts above can be used in an English as second language speaking class.

The researcher uses the classification of the strategies offered by Thornburry (2015) since they can be used in classroom speaking activities, especially in MTs AnNur Tangkit . The strategies have also covered what learners needs in learning English speaking. The researcher also concludes that the strategies are better in the term that they fulfill learning theories of cognitivism and sociocultural theories. Thus, the researcher uses the English speaking teaching strategies offered by Thornburry above in composing the research instrument.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that teacher strategy is a way of making decisions about a course, an individual class, or even an entire curriculum, beginning with an analysis of key variables in the teaching situation. These variables include the characteristics of the learners, the learning objectives, and the instructional preferences of the teacher. Once these variables have been analyzed, informed decisions can be made about course content, structure, methods of assessment, and other key components..

E.Relevant Studies

There are three relevant studies that the writer takes about english Teacher’s strategies in teaching english. They are teacher’s strategy in teaching english at junior high school and teacher strategy they are :

The first is study from Sujayani (2017) with the title “The Strategies in Teaching English Speaking as an Extracurricular Program at SMPN 01 Batu”. The research design, used in this study was descriptive research. Based on the research finding, the researcher concludes that the English teacher of the extracurricular program at SMP 01 Batu teacher used several strategies, they were: game, discussion, interview, tour, oral report, question and answer and sentence correction. The teacher combines the strategies in order that the students can easily understand the lesson that the teacher teaches. If the students can easily understand the lesson that the teacher teaches, it means that the teacher has made the students perform better in their learning activity.

The second is the study of Rahmawati (2013) about “Teacher Strategies in Teaching English (A Case Study of Hearing Impaired Students in SMPLB Prof. Dr. Sri Soedewi Masjchun Sofwan, S.H. Jambi)”. This study was qualitative research with a case study


approach. This research found that students with hearing impairement is supposed to more focus in reading and writing skills. It is because those skills is possible to do by them.

Teacher especially the English teacher needs strategy to teach them. In conclusion, there some strategies that can used by teacher to teach students with hearing impairement. They are advertising me, drama, story writing and making dcision. The dominant strategy is story writing because the student can explore their feeling and wishing in written. This strategy works well because it is appropriate to the students with hearing impairemen’s skill commonly

The last is resesarch by Bambang Hendri (2016) with the title EnglishTeacher’s Strategies in Teaching Speaking at MTs AnNur Tangkit in academic Year 2015/2016. The research designed in this study was a descriptive qualitative Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that the most Teacher’s teaching strategy that used in teaching speaking in MTs AnNur Tangkit are using recording & transcripts , dialogues, discussion, Classroom conversation and casual chat . Teachers used those techique because it is based on handbook and it is easy to practice. Some other strategy sometime used by teachers, but the frequency is very rare. The most used are dialogues and conversation and chat and jokes. Based on discussion, most students like the strategy that used by the teacher. They followed teacher’


The similarity of those last research to this present research is about the focus of study, that is teaching strategies. The diffirences are those last study used regular junior high school as a sample, kind of research methodology and strategies theory. This present research used Islamic junior high school as subject, then the descriptive qualitative used as a method then, the researcher used strategy theory by Wina Sanjaya, Nainggolan and Yi Guan.




This chapter consists of research design, data and data source, subject of the study, research instruments, data collection method, and data analysis method.

A. Research Design

The type of this research was qualitative research. Frankel et al (in Cresswell, 1994,p.162) states the qualitative study produces paragraph data that are obtained in form of word or picture rather than numbers .

Five features of qualitative research according to Yin (2011:7) : 1) Studying the meaning of people’s lives, under real-world conditions, 2) Representing the views and perspectives of the people (participants) in a study, 3) Covering the contextual conditions within which people live, 4) Contributing insights into existing or emerging concepts that may help to explain human social behavior, and, 5) Striving to use multiple sources of evidence rather than relying on a single source alone.

Considering the features above, the writer has an opinion that this research posses the features as like the second feature, it is representing the perspective of people in study, in this case the directly analysis about the strategy used by teacher in teaching English.

B. Setting and Subject of the Study

The setting of this research hold at MTs AnNur Tangkit at Pandawa street number 43 Tangkit Muaro Jambi. The writer took the subjects of research to get the data through purposive technique. The subjects of study, the writer focuses on the . The writer took the English teacher at second grade of MTs AnNur Tangkit as the subject of the research

C. Data and Data Source

The data taken by observation and interview result. Then, the data source came from English teacher at second grade.


D. Data Collecting Method

This research used observation and interview.

1. Observation

For doing observation the observer directly observed the strategy used by teacher in teaching English. In the meantime, documentation using video recording of the whole proceeding was also made to acquire more complete data about the speaking performance process. In collecting the data, the writer conducted non- participant observation, in which the writer as the passive participant. It means that the writer didn’t involve herself in the subject activities in the classroom.

The observation hold 3 times meeting in each clases for a month.The data of Teacher’sstrategy in teaching English will be collected by doing classroom observation, which was the most widely used instrument in collecting data about all kinds of classroom verbal and non-verbal behavior. The observation divided into three parts, pre, while and post activity.

2. Interview

Then in this research, the writer conducted face to face interviews with participants to get some information that are needed for this research. The writer will propose some questions related to the research title. To get information, the writer interviewed the participant to explore their opinion more deeply. The writer used mobile phone as instrument to record the data from interviewes. The interview based to theory of Masitoh about the teacher strategy types.

E. Data Analysis Method

After the data are collected through doing observation and interview, then the data are analyzed. The data analysis for the present study is done by applying the procedures suggested by Miles and Huberman (2014) covering data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing that is done interactively.

1. Data Reduction

Data reduction is a form of analysis that sharpened sorts, focuses, discards, and organizes the data in such a way that final conclusion can be drawn and verified.

In data reduction, the writer selects, focus, simplify, abstract, and transform the data that appear in written up field notes or transcriptions.


2. Data Display

Data display is a form of analysis that describes what is happening in the natural setting so that it finally can help the writer to draw a final conclusion. In this research, the writer used cross – case analysis. The principles applied in analyzing across cases essentially parallel those employed in the intra-case analysis. The writer made a table to separate the teacher .strategies.

3. Conclusion Drawing

Conclusion is the last of procedure of analyzing the data of the study. In the context of the study, after the data is displayed, a conclusion is drawn. There are two kinds of conclusions that the writer draws in this study, they are temporary and final conclusion drawing. If the temporary conclusion drawing is valid in that it can answer the research problem being investigated in the study, the writer can use it as a final conclusion drawing.

On the other hand, if the data does not valid or the result unclear, the writer should repeat the process starting from displaying the data in order to check whether the data display are in line with the formulation of the research problems being investigate in the study or not. In other words, final conclusion can be made whether the data display answer the research problems being investigate in the present study or not.

F. Trustworthiness of Data

In qualitative research, there is a common technique usually used to check the trustworthiness of the data. To get the trustworthiness in this research, more than one instrument was used to collect the data. So, the researcher used triangulation techniques.

The purpose of triangulation is to increase the credibility and validity of the findings.

Source of data triangulation is processes in which various source of data are collected.

The variety of sources can refer to time, place, and person. In the present study the sources of data referred to the teachers and students. Methodological triangulation is a process in which various method are used to measure the same unit. Methodological triangulation was done by employing different method of collecting data, namely observation, and interview.


G. Schedule of Research

NO Activities


November December January February March April

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 Preparation x

2 Arranging

proposal x x x x x x x 3 Preparation

of seminar x

4 Improvement

of seminar x


Making research permission


6 Collecting

data x x x

7 Arranging

research list x

8 Writing final

report x x x x x

9 Examination x


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