THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WORD WALL VOCABULARY TO TEACH SPELLING AT ENGLISH CLASS STUDENTS IN
MTsN BANGSAL MOJOKERTO
Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S. Pd) in Teaching English
Diyah Wahyuni Maghfiroh NIM. D95212082
ENGLISH TEACHER EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHER TRAINING
SUNAN AMPEL STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SURABAYA
Wahyuni Maghfiroh, Diyah. (2017). The Implementation of Word Wall Vocabulary to Increase Students’ Mastery on Spelling Skill at English Class Students in MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto. A Thesis. English Teacher and Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya. Advisors: Nur Fitriatin, M. Ed. Ph. D Key Words: The Implementation Word Wall Vocabulary Media, Spelling Skill.
Wahyuni Maghfiroh, Diyah. 2017. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WORD WALL VOCABULARY TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON SPELLING SKILL AT ENGLISH CLASS STUDENTS IN MTsN BANGSAL MOJOKERTO. A Thesis. English Teacher and Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya. Advisors: Nur Fitriatin, S. Ag, M. Ed. Keywords; The implementation, word wall vocabulary media, spelling skill, difficulty.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE ... i
APPROVAL SHEET ... ii
ADVISOR APPROVAL SHEET ... iii
MOTTO ... iv
DEDICATION ... v
ABSTRACT ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vii
PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN TULISAN ... ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... x
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xii
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study ... 1
B. Research Problems ... 10
C. The Objective of Study ... 10
D. Significance of The Research ... 10
E. Scope and Limitation ... 11
F. Definitions of Key Terms 12 CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. General of Spelling Skill ... 13
1. Definition of Spelling Skill ... 13
2. The Functions of Spelling Skill ... 14
3. The Correlation about Spelling Skill with other English Skill ... 15
4. Teaching English Spelling Skill ... 17
5. Strategy of Teaching Spelling ... 21
B. Word Wall Vocabulary as a Learning Media ... 24
1. Definition of Word wall Vocabulary as Learning Media ... 24
2. The Function of Word Wall Vocabulary ... 27
3. The Use of Word Wall Vocabulary in Teaching Spelling Skill ... 28
4. The difficulties of teaching learning process .. 30
CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Approach and Research Design ... 35
B. Setting of the Study ... 36
C. Data and source of data ... 36
D. Research instrument ... 38
E. Data analysis technique ... 41
F. Checking validity of findings ... 44
G. Research Stages 44 CHAPTER IV : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Research Findings ... 47
1. The Implementation of Word Wall Vocabulary Media ... 47
a. Using Word Wall vocabulary Media to Teach English ... 47
b. Learning Spelling ... 50
2. The Factors that Influence Students’ Difficulties in Implementing Word Wall Vocabulary ... 52
a. Factor that influence teacher difficult to teaching spelling using word wall vocabulary ... 52
1) Internal Factors ... 52
2) External Factors ... 53
b. Factor that influence students difficulties in learning spelling using word wall vocabulary ... 54
1) Internal Factors ... 54
2) External Factors ... 56
B. Discussion ... 58
CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ... 61
B. Suggestions ... 62 REFFERENCES
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 : Interview Guidelines for Teacher Appendix 2 : Result of Interview the Teacher Appendix 3 : Interview Guidelines for Students Appendix 4 : Result of Interview the Students Appendix 5 : Rubric of Lesson Plan Analysis Appendix 6 : Result of Lesson Plan Analysis Appendix 7 : Rubric of Observation Checklist Appendix 8 : Result of Observation Checklist Appendix 9 : The Teacher’s Lesson Plan Appendix 10 : Letters
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter, researcher will explain about some point, there are research backgrounds, research questions, objectives of the study, significant of the study, scope and limitation of the study and the last is definition of the key term.
A. Research Background
One of the efforts of Indonesian government is to increase English competent of students became as compulsory subject in school for each grade in junior and secondary high school, moreover in elementary.1 This statement is supported by statement of Dardjowidjojo, he said that the government gives the space of English as the compulsory subject of study and also develops English as the language instruction of study at school.2 By using English as a language to teaching and learning process in study English, so teachers and also students can increase their English proficiency. They can use English for communicate each others, and also can applying their English every time. Based on the role of Indonesian’s education authorities, the function of English as the tools of communication is to access information and also used to make relations each other. So, English is important to communicating, looking for information and uniting people in the world.3
On the other hand, there are some problems in the implementation of the role, one of the problems is misspelling or spelling error. Common example of misspelling is the words “ADE LAFWTS KRAMD NTU A LAVATR for Eighty elephants crammed into an elevator”. Others include MONSTR for monster, DRAS for dress, DRAGN for drag on, CHROBL for trouble, PRD for purred, and TIP for type.4 In additional, the
1 Permendiknas, Standart Kompetensi Kelulusan Sekolah Dasar dan Menengah, 2006, 23 2 Dardjowidjojo, S. Bahasa asing sebagai bahasa pengantar dalam sistem pendidikan, Bahasa dan Sastra, 22(1): 48-65. 2002
result of research from undergraduated thesis of Gunadarma University Jakarta, said that English spelling errors are classified into three main categories and divided again into several sub-categories, which are arbitrary errors + error of miss ordering the letter 2% = 65%; consists of error of omitting a letter 35%, error of miss electing a letter 12%, and error of adding unnecessary letter 16%. Word unit errors 6%; consists of two words become one word error 4% and one word becomes two words error 2%. Capitalization errors 29%; consists of capitalization error at the beginning of sentence 5%, capitalization at the middle of sentence 16%, and title and proper nouns error 8%. There are two kinds of causes of error, which are inter lingual error 31%, intra lingual error 69%.5 So spelling error still happened in the many types or kinds of spelling in Indonesian.
In additional, Penny Ur write on her research said that:
The mistake when students learning English also influents by several factors about the problems of learning. Firstly, the limited time and opportunities to practice speaking English in the school. Secondly, the students do not talk using English but using their own mother-tongue language. Thirdly, some of the students are afraid of having mistakes when they speak in the class and some of the students to dominate the class in speaking activity.6
Based on the problems above, teachers have to be a motivator of students, teachers can give students opportunities and long time to practice their English, not only in English class, but also in other lessons and for their habitual language. Creating habitual English for students also can limit the space of students to use their own mother-tongue language. So they can get into the habit of using English. Here the definition of teacher to be a motivators for students, teacher can motivate and support students to have much enthusiasm to learn English.
Moreover, Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan said that the component of language such as vocabulary; structure, pronunciation, and spelling have to be taught cohesively with the
5 Seno, Ardianto., under graduated thesis: "an error analysis in English spelling" (Jakarta: Gunadharma University), 2009.
language skill.7 Briefly, in teaching learning process, teachers have to teach all of the English skill cohesively, so students can learn and get of all the skill that have been learn at that day. In addition, spelling is not mention as four of English skill; like speaking, writing, reading and also listening skill, but spelling can cover all of those skills. The common example of the important teaching spelling is student’s difficulties on spelling; also have difficulties on reading and writing.8 So spelling can influence reading and writing skill of students. As well as spelling also has correlation with other skill; such as speaking skills. When students’ can spell in good ways, their speaking skill certain to be good, so increasing speaking skill can make easy to students in increase their English skill. Students experiencing difficulty in reading will be very likely experience difficulty in spelling these words if the issue is related to decoding.9 So, the ability of reading skill also influence by spelling. As the result, the learners will be able to express their ideas to communicate with others correctly and easily to understand.
Additionally, researcher gives specification to subject of research. The researcher takes problem from students of Islamic Junior High School (MTsN) Bangsal Mojokerto at first grade. As a matter of fact, based on the Competency and Basic Competency of School-Based Curriculum, there are three purposes of English in Junior High School; The first is to develop the students’ competence to communicate in oral and written form to achieve the level of functional literacy. The second is to be aware of the need of the nature and importance of English to face the globalization and information era in the 21st century. The third is to develop an understanding about the relationship between language and culture.10 So researcher chooses the subject of
7 Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP). Standar Isi untuk Satuan Pendidikan Menengah dan Dasar: Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar SMP/MTs. (Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional 2006)
8 Department of Education, Newfoundland and Labrador Language Programs. Developing spelling skill in French immersion classroom. (French: New Foundland Labrador 2010) page 9.
research in junior high school because of looking for the role of Indonesian education above. Many English learners in Indonesia, have competent of English, which can be look in some competition in the world. But, there are learner who has lack of spelling. Generally, many learners difficult to spell well and they ability of spelling was not good. Because how to spell English letter and Indonesian letter is not same, they have to memorize each latter or translate from Indonesia to English and the fact is they cannot do that and difficult to memorize the letters. If they cannot memorize, they also difficult and misspelling when spell a words. These problems also happen in first grade students at Islamic Junior High School Bangsal Mojokerto.11 Based on the pre-research done by the researcher to English teacher of Islamic Junior High School Bangsal, the teacher said that English is one of the subject that have priority to increase by teacher. But, some students still has difficulties in learning English and they was lack of motivation. They felt difficult because they did not understand with the language. Indeed, they confused how to pronounce (speak) the word in English, how to read, how to write, and also how to spell the word.12 So, spelling is influence other English skill.
Researcher also asked some questions to some students about English learning. Some students said that English is interesting learning, and they felt easy to study because used interactive media to help them. On the other hand, some students gave answer that same with the answer of teacher. They said that English was difficult, bored, and the method was not interest.13 So teacher in this era, has been a creative and innovative, that can increase students’ to study English. English teacher said that she used an interesting media for teaching learning process. That was new vocabulary media. This media contain new vocabulary based on what things have been studied by students at that day, and they writo to piece of paper, and patched it to the board of new
11 Prihatin Dwi Ari (English teacher in MTsN Bangsal) interview on Wednesday 22th of June 2016 at 10.00 a.m.
vocabulary media.14 In new vocabulary, researcher used wall or board as a media to patch and collect words. Students have to read, write, remember, translate and spell each word. So teacher said that, new vocabulary media is simple and appropriate for teaching English.15
Based on the explanation from English teacher above, researcher concludes that new vocabulary is same with word wall media; it has same concept and meaning. A word wall is a collection of high-frequency sight words that are age appropriate, classified into groups or categories, and is located on the wall of a classroom for children to easily see and learn.16 Some research discussed the word wall that used for teaching descriptive text for writing, reading comprehension and also to teaching vocabulary for students. In this research, researcher wants to know the implementation of word wall media to increase students spelling. Furthermore, researcher believed that word wall can influent and helpful students when they study about language, especially about English and also some other English skills. Teacher can correlate word wall with spelling ability. Students can write down or patch some important word (vocabulary) of the day to the word wall, sometimes can also like a paper in the wall or board. And then they spell each word in front of the class. Moreover, one of the ways to improve the students’ spelling ability is through games. Kavaliauskiene cited in Rahayu, said that using games gives a special chance to students to self-assess their progress in learning vocabulary and to a teacher to assess students’ progress. Game is an activity which is entertaining and engaging, often challenging, and an activity in which the learners play and usually interact with others.17 Generally, students of Junior High School still like game and communicative study, so teacher has to become a communicative teacher and word wall can became one alternative chance to teach spelling ability.
14 Prihatin Dwi Ari (English teacher in MTsN Bangsal) interview on Tuesday 14th of March 2017 at 19.00 p.m.
16 Brabham & Villaume, 2001; Copper & Kiger, 2003
The others ideas to decrease misspelling students based on the research from J. Richard Gentry entitled “Learning to spell developmentally”.18 This research about the way to develop children’s spelling using the concept named Alphabetic spelling, but he assumed that is a primitive concept, so he changes the concept as phonetic concept. Primitive concept based on the journal is the child's first primitive attempt to write with an alphabetic system. Deviant spellings are in essence a random ordering of the letters which the child is able to produce from recall.19 So, primitive concept is like diction, teacher pronounces one or more a word and then students write down the word. And the phonetic concept is the concept or the way to teaching spelling that the students read one, two, three letters spelling that demonstrate correspondence.20 In this stage, students used cognitive students can learn to link letters to sounds, so they can match between sound and letter to written. The result of the study showed that classroom produces language experiences, creative or independent writing, accuracy in spelling and developmental spelling.21 From this research, we can take conclusions that development spelling students not only uses primitive concept, but also using phonetic concept, which more helped students to develop students spelling. In summary, students more like the interesting concepts and strategies from teachers.
In addition, teacher not only using a new concept to develop spelling students, some researchers also held their research about spelling using a bee or competition, this one entitled “Implementing ‘Spelling Bee’ Game to Improve Seventh Spelling Ability” by Rahayu Sekarini. She said in her research that:
Spelling Bee game was a complete package that can train
students’ spelling and vocabulary. The importance of Spelling Bee game is also suitable with the content standard of Indonesian curriculum that states the component of language such as
18 Gentry, J. Richard. " Learning to Spell Developmentally. " The Reading Teacher, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Jan., 1981)
19 Gentry, J. Richard. " Learning to Spell Developmentally. " The Reading Teacher, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Jan., 1981), pp. 378-381
vocabulary; structure, pronunciation, and spelling have to be taught cohesively with the language skill.22
This research investigated how the “Spelling Bee” game could be used to improve the seventh grade’s spelling ability. The result of the research showed that “Spelling Bee game” success to improve the seventh grades’ spelling ability, to increase their motivation and awareness of the use of correct spelling in writing, and to learn new vocabulary items.23 In learning vocabulary, teacher can use game like the research above, and also teacher can use media to teaching learning process. One of the familiar media that can be used by teacher is words wall media.
Word wall media to learn vocabulary as like in the journal research was written by Janiel M. Wagstaff entitled “Building Practical Knowledge of Letter-Sound Correspondences: A Beginner's Word Wall and Beyond”. This study discussed about the development of self-monitoring and searching behaviors in beginning readers. The result of the study showed that using word wall can increase English ability of students; one of the students can scan the word wall until she finds the letters she needs, and then resumes writing. Finally the students can write down her writing.24 From this result, we can take conclusion that word wall can influents English skill students. They can transfer the word in the wall to the papers and created into sentences. So good spellings can influents writing skill students become good writing.
From the explanation about some research above, there are many kinds of media that used to teach spelling and also decrease misspelling of students. Based on the previews research above, the first research discussed about the way to develop spelling. He said that phonetic concept more efficient than primitive concept. Because the concept of phonetic can make
22 Rahayu Sekarini. Implementing “Spelling Bee” Game to Improve Seventh Graders’ Spelling Ability. State University of Malang Press, Indonesia 2012
23 Rahayu Sekarini. Implementing “Spelling Bee” Game to Improve Seventh Graders’ Spelling Ability. State University of Malang Press, Indonesia 2012
students more understand and implement their listening, spelling and also their writing in their words. Then, for the second research about spelling bee game, researcher said that spelling bee game can increase students’ motivation and competence in learn spelling. And the last previews research discussed about the uses of word wall for teaching writing. This idea is appropriate, because based on the research from Janiel, word wall can be effective for increasing writing competence of students. So researcher uses word wall for increasing students’ spelling.
Researcher chooses Islamic Junior High School Bangsal (MTsN Bangsal) because MTsN Bangsal is one of Islamic Junior High School in Mojokerto. This school got many appreciations from some competition, in extra and intra competition and also in language competition. In language competitions, MTsN Bangsal got some appreciation in English competition that the event happened by some universities in Mojokerto, Surabaya and other city, and the event that held by other school. It also happens in Arabic language this school got many appreciations from some competitions. In English competition, MTsN Bangsal students’ got appreciations from English speech competition as the runner up competitor in UINSA Surabaya and UIN MALIKI Malang, English story telling in SMAN 1 Mojokerto, and English speech at SMAN 1 Mojokerto, English debate in Kediri, and many others. In MTsN Bangsal, there is a club of students to increase their English competent, named English Club (EC). English Club in one of organization that builds to developed English competence of students.25 They can share, ask, answer, discuss, try and develop their English. The member of English club comes from students first and second grade, and the goals of English club are increasing students mastery on English skill in academic and non academic (joint Olympiad).26
Additionally, MTsN Bangsal has exclusive class, or “kelas peminatan”. The members of the executive class are student who has a good competence in academic and expanse.27
25 Syaiful, Muhammad (student of MTsN Bangsal) interview on Wednesday 22th of June 2016 at 11.00 a.m.
26 Prihatin Dwi Ari (English teacher in MTsN Bangsal) interview on Tuesday 14th of March 2017 at 19.00 p.m.
Because of the class that has good facilities such as audiovisual class room, the class uses air condition (AC), and there are extra or intensive learning for some lessons; English, mathematics and sciences (biology and physics).28Although English has good priority in MTsN Bangsal, but not all of students there increase their English, because not all of students feel enthusiasm toward English. So researcher chose the school for her research.
Additionally, MTsN Bangsal is the school that has goals to use English as language instruction in teaching learning process. So, teachers and school administrators build the organization or club as a space to increase student’s English skill. Some other school also have English club, but in English club in MTsN Bangal already born students who have god competent in English, especially in English speaking. In fact, there is delegation of students’ who went to abroad and joint in international conference. So, the school administrators believed that English Club can increase student’s ability of English.
In summary, there are many kinds of the media or the way to teach spelling, such as using spelling bee game, using concentration game and a telling a story, using new concept like phonetic concept to students, and so many others. So this research, researcher uses word wall media for teaching spelling at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto. Researcher find out the purpose of word walls as a media based on the research of Winda Kurniasih, Regina, Zainal Arifin, said that the purpose of word wall is to help students to collect a variety of describing words like adjectives that they can use in the writing process.29 Based on some previews research and some books about word wall media, spelling and researcher think that word wall media are suitable and interested for students. Spelling and word wall can be cohesive in one media for teaching English for Islamic Junior High School. Since the reasons above, researcher decides to conduct the research entitled “The Implementation of Word
Wall Vocabulary to Increase Students’ Mastery on Spelling
at English Class Students in MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto”.
B. Research Questions
From the research background above, the researcher decided the problem of this research is:
1. How is the implementation of word wall vocabulary to teach spelling at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto?
2. What are the factors that influence students’ difficulties in implementing word wall vocabulary to teach spelling at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto?
C. The Objective of the Study
Related to the research questions and some problems above, the researcher formulated the major objective of the study. It is to describe the spelling students using word wall vocabulary on the first grade of students at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto, as follow:
1. To find the implementation of word wall vocabulary to teach spelling at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto.
2. To find the factors that influence students’ difficulties in implementing word wall vocabulary to teach spelling at MTsN Bangsal Mojokerto.
D. Significance of the Study
The expectations of the researcher form this research is researcher can give a good impact and some contribution:
1. For the teacher, this research can give other references to teacher can also know the problems that students’ get from learning English in class, and the result of this research hoped to give good impact for teacher, so teacher can teach language especially about spelling with medias that interesting for students. Teacher also can decrease the difficulties of teaching spelling and also decrease the difficulties of using word wall media as a media for teaching and learning process.
2. For students, this research can increase students’ mastery on spelling by using word wall media, because the result of this research can make students’ interest in learning English or other lesson that need to spell (the word). 3. For other researcher who are interested in conducting
as a literature review for any further research which focuses on the similar topic with this research.
E. Scopes and Limits of the Study
F. Definition of Key terms
This following terminology is used to contribute to the readers to have the same interpretations in understanding the study:
Implementation also is the learning application used in teaching process to educations’ purpose.30 In this research, implementation is the application of the media that used by teacher in teaching spelling by combining with writing and speaking skill.
Spelling is the system which integrates phonetic and morphemic patterns to produce meaning in writing, also refers to a writer’s ability to use standard or correct spelling.31
In this research, spelling is branch of English skill that integrated with other writing and speaking skill. In teaching spelling, teacher used the media that called word wall vocabulary media.
3. Word wall vocabulary
A word wall is a collection of high-frequency sight words that are age appropriate, classified into groups or categories, and is located on the wall of a classroom for children to easily see and learn.32 In this research word wall vocabulary is the place to collect words or group of words that write down on wall in front of the class. The vocabularies or words in word wall can help students to build the spelling ability of students’ of English.
Difficulty is a problems or situation that needs attentions and needs to be dealt with or solved.33Student’s difficulty in this research is the condition of students who lack of knowledge about the lessons. The difficulties above
30 Theresia Niung P, pengajaran EGL (English as a global language) and method CTL (contextual teaching learning, 2008) Journal.
31 State Literacy Strategy, Focus on Literacy: Spelling, Australia: NSW Department Of Education and Training, 1998, 33
influenced by internal and external factors around of students.
13 CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This research, researcher explained about some parts that give contribution to the research. Therefore, this chapter described about the theory that related to the problems of the study and some parts that can complete the theory about English students’ spelling and words wall vocabulary.
A. Review of Related Literature
1. General Concept of Spelling
a. Definition of Spelling
Spelling is the ability to spell words in the correct way. The first definition by Oxford dictionary that spelling is act of forming words correctly from individual letters; spell is say or writes the letters of a word in the correct order.33 Then, from the other references spelling is the system which integrates phonetic and morphemic patterns to produce meaning in writing, also refers to a writer’s ability to use standard or correct spelling.34 From this definition, spelling has close relations with writing, because it does consist of phonetic and morphemic patterns.
Simonsel and Gunter also have definition about spelling on their research, they said that spelling has been marginalized in education, because of the teachers in some place more importance on other reading and writing skills or believe that the English language spelling system is too irregular and unpredictable to make instruction profitable.35 From this research, we can assume that spelling have not good priority in teaching learning process. Because
33 Oxford dictionary
34 State Literacy Strategy, Focus On Literacy: Spelling, Australia: NSW Department Of Education and Training, 1998, 33
of the teacher more give attention to writing, reading, and other skill of English.
So, from many definitions about spelling above, researcher can take the conclusion that, spelling is the ability to spell word based on the morphemic and phonetic pattern, and spelling also as a foundation of writing or reading. They have correlation in teaching and learning of English language. Moreover, spelling is the ability to increase other skill of language, in this case we talking about English, so spelling influents the ability to writing, reading, listening and speaking skill. Spell is the foundation all of the skill. In a word, spelling is important skill of language.
b. The Function of Spelling
Schlagal said on his book, that spelling is an important skill in the language arts workshop. Because spelling can offers a means for successful expression of thoughts and ideas. Additionally, on the book “Focus on Literacy: Spelling” said that the purposes of spelling are the purposes of language itself, that is: 36
1. To make meaning, and
2. To share meaning in a way that is clearly understood by readers
From the explanation above, we can take the conclusion that spellings have closely relation with meaning of language, because other people can easy to understand with our aim. Then, there are many examples of situations where spelling is important: 37
1. Writing so others can read and understand
36 State Literacy Strategy, Focus On Literacy: Spelling, Australia: NSW Department Of Education and Training, 1998, 7
2. Recognizing the right choice from the possibilities presented by a spell checker 3. Looking up words in a dictionary 4. Filing alphabetically
5. Playing word games like Scrabble
From many kind of activity above, we know that spelling is important in our conversation, teaching and learning process. For our conversation, other people can understand well our main if we speak in correct spelling, and for teaching learning process, spelling can influents our other English skill such as writing, reading and also speaking.
c. The Correlation about Spelling with Other
Spelling is important skill to other skill, such as reading, writing, speaking. For the first, spelling is important for reading skill. Mandi M. John said that Students’ spelling abilities play a factor in their reading fluency, as well as, reading comprehension.38 In sum, spelling has to be accurately and correct well. One reason for the relationship between reading and spelling is the shared role of phonological awareness.39 Coyne, Santoro, & Simmons said that Phonological awareness is explicit knowledge of our language’s sound system.40 So not only influents the comprehension of reading skill, spelling also has correlation with sound system of language that is the phonological awareness.
38 Mandi M. Johnson, The Relationship Between Spelling Ability and Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Elementary Students,( Northern Michigan University, 2013), 4 39 Ritchey, K. D. The Building Blocks of Writing: Learning to Write Letters and Spell Words. Reading and Writing, 2008), 27-47.
Then, hundreds of investigations have been conducted to examine factors that influence reading and writing and that, in turn, can be used to explain and predict children’s performance on measures of text-literacy (reading comprehension and writing comprehension) and word-level literacy (word-level reading and spelling).41 Word-level reading and spelling develop earlier than, and provide support for text-level literacy.42 From the explanation above, we can look that there are close correlation about spelling, reading comprehension and writing.
In additional, Based on Singer and Bashir, writing is a mental juggling acting that depends on using basic skills with automatically.43 Spelling is also being a small aspect of writing is often disregarded by both the students and also the teachers, whereas Fergus states that there is a definite need for good spelling in the written communication.44 The difficulty in mastering writing skill is due to many aspects that students should learn in order to gain an understanding writing; one of the aspects is mechanic of writing, such as handwriting, punctuation, and spelling.45 So, researcher concludes that spelling is important for writing.
41 Apel K, The Acquisition of Mental Orthographic Representations for Reading and Spelling Development. Communication Disorders Quarterly, (2009), 42-52.
42 Ehri, L. C., & Snowling, M. J, Development Variation in Word Recognition. in C. A. Stone, E. R. Silliman, B. J. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of Language and Literacy,(New York: Guilford, 2004), 433-461
43 Read Naturally “Spelling Strategies for Teaching Spelling”, (https://www.readnaturally.com/research/5-components-of-reading/spelling), accessed on December 15, 2016 At 14:50:59
44 Fergus, P.M. 1964. Spelling Improvement: A Program for Self- Instruction. New York : Mc Graw- Hill, Inc
d. Teaching English Spelling
Teaching spelling is explicit and systematic.46 That teaching and learning to spell is closely linked to learning speaking or talk, listen, read and writing. So students have to understand about the types of spelling knowledge that are appropriate with their writing purposes and stage of spelling development.47
Based on the book Focus on literacy spelling, said that there are three important dimensions of systematic instructions: The first is the teacher having clear understanding of what knowledge and skill need to be taught.48 Teachers have to understand what they want to teach based on the students’ need to learn and the perception of teacher about the appropriate skill that they teach. The second is teacher required to monitor systematically the need for certain skills to be taught.49 Monitoring the students’ need and the skill that suitable with the skill that want to teach is very important. So teacher not teaches useless. And the last is the instruction should not be left to chance.50 When give the instruction, teacher has to give the chance to students, so they have an experience to try and learn what students teach.
Additionally, the explicit and systematic teaching of spelling means that teachers need to provide, within integrated language learning environment: 51
1. A daily focus on spellings and strategies
46 State Literacy Strategy, Focus On Literacy: Spelling, Australia: NSW Department Of Education and Training, 1998, 13
47 State Literacy Strategy, Focus On Literacy: Spelling, Australia: NSW Department Of Education and Training, 1998, 13
48 Ibid,. 49 Ibid,. 50 Ibid,.
2. Lessons where the purpose and value of the spelling instruction are made explicit to students
3. Teaching of phonological, visual, morphemic and etymology spelling knowledge
4. Teaching of the strategies that can be used when applying this knowledge
5. Frequent exposure to and experience with spelling activities in the context of talking, listening, reading and writing
6. Regular opportunities for students to demonstrate and reflect on their understandings about spelling
7. Explicit teaching of dictionary skills 8. Regular modeling of using dictionaries
9. Regular monitoring, analysis and feedback on spelling performance and progress
10. Explicit teaching and opportunities for students to practice the spelling of words used frequently and those which are essential vocabulary in key learning areas
11. Continuous development of spellings and strategies throughout the stages of schooling
Furthermore, based on writing and spelling strategy books’, an explicit and systematic spelling program should: 52
1. Focus on teaching appropriate words related to: a) The students’ current levels of
b) The class program and student needs 2. Explicitly teach spelling patterns
3. Teach in small chunks
4. Provide opportunity for sufficient practice and feedback
5. Ensure maintenance of previously learned words
6. Provide for generalization of newly acquired spellings
7. Emphasize the importance of correct spelling 8. Include dictionary skills
9. Be integrated across all key learning areas Another key point of the ways to teach spelling based on the book entitled writing and spelling strategy is:53
1. Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching contains the points are presentation and modeling, and also shared practice;54
a) Presentation and modeling b) Shared practice
c) Guide, interactive and cooperative practice
d) Independent practice 2. Segmenting and blending
Segmenting and blending of individual phonemes and sounds, while learning letter-sound correspondences, should be a regular activity in early primary classes.55
And in the next level of class, students need to work with the more complex sounds and spelling patterns of the language.
3. Word work
Word work focused on spelling patterns and letter formations. Word works also the program for all grade level.56 These stages used to
develop the students skill based on the students’ need. So the activity of these stages conducted
53 Department of Education, Newfoundland and Labrador Language Programs. Developing spelling skill in French immersion classroom. (French: New Foundland Labrador 2010) page 14
in whole class and sometimes works in small group activity.
4. Analogy-based work activities
In this stage, helping the students to learn about the regular spelling pattern and used familiar words or phoneme that can get from reading or writing.
5. Word sorts
Word sorts contain 90% knowing vocabulary and 10% new vocabulary. Words might be sorted for one commonality, such as rhyme or alliteration, for students at the phonetic developmental stage.57
6. High frequency words
High frequency words are form for the foundation of fluency on reading and spelling.58
Students will learn to reading before they learn to write (spell). In this stage, the high frequency words can get from the dictionary and also word bank or word wall. So, from the words above, students can learn to spell each word to learn about the spelling pattern, meaning, the use, and the sounds.
7. Analysis of new vocabulary
In analysis of new vocabulary, one of the ways to analyze is using word wall vocabulary. Word wall display new words and make students easy to accessible the words. New vocabulary that collected on the word wall can make students easy for learning to spell the word. After that, students can learn to write the words. Write the word can be influenced by sounds, spelling pattern, meaning, origin and also gender. 8. Visualization
Visualization can be practiced by sorting words with the same shape or by highlighting specific
spelling features.59 Visualization also called
editing or rewrites the missing words. Writer can edit their mistake in writing and the mistake can corrected by other or by their self.
e. Strategy of Teaching Spelling
Strategies based on the book from H Douglas Brown are the specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, or planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.60 From the definition above, we know the definition of strategy focus on method and approach in learning process. The strategy is “Achieving something a plan of operation” while the method is “a way in achieving something”.61 And learning strategies also have definition are the mental processes which learners employ to learn and use the target language.62 Learning strategy is a learning activity that must be done by teachers and students, so that learning objectives can be achieved effectively and efficiently.63 Each teacher and also each lesson have a learning strategy, it’s important to make students easy to understand what they have been learning of the day. In teaching spelling, spelling strategy is a means for a child or young person to retrieve an accurate spelling choice using a method compatible with their learning style.64 So spelling strategy is focus on the method and learning style for teaching spelling.
59 Ibid,. page 15
60 Brown H.Douglas. Teaching by Principles an interactive approach to language pedagogy second edition. (San Francisco: Longman, 2001)p. 210
61 Ibid,. p.81
62 Nunan david, Language teaching methodology. (Sydney: prentice hall international 1991)
63 Wina Sanjaya. Strategi pembelajaran; berorientasi standar process pendidikan (Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group, 2008) p. 80
There are a number of strategies which needed to consider for concentrate on the process of spelling, based on Fulk & Stormont-Spurgin there are:65
1. The purpose of the strategy needs to be explained; for example, to improve students’ learning and memory of spelling words
2. The strategy should be modeled, including thinking aloud to explain each strategy step 3. The importance of effort combined with
strategy use should be stressed
4. Students should be required to practice naming the strategy steps until automaticity is reached. 5. The teacher should observe students as they use
the strategy, providing relevant feedback, as needed.
6. The teacher should instruct students to monitor their strategy use, using checkmarks and a list of steps, if needed.
7. The teacher should emphasize the usefulness of the strategy not only in the classroom but also in other appropriate settings (for example, at home, after school care) to facilitate generalization.
Additionally, from the other reverence on the book entitled “developing spelling in the French immersion classroom”, divided the strategy for teaching spelling are:66
Prediction is used by reader when find or encountering new words, and writer will predict based on their previous knowledge for spelling
65 Fulk, B.M, et.al. Fourteen Spelling Strategies For Students With Learning Disabilities. In Intervention In School And Clinic, 1995, 31 (1), 16-20.
a new word.67 So from writer and reader has a
different concept in prediction. Writer or students used their previous knowledge to understanding the standard of spelling. So Teachers can encourage students to predict with accuracy by using a rhyming word, word family or other benchmark to analyze the new word or compare it to familiar words.68
Confirmation contain about the confirmation after doing prediction.69 Students can confirm
their spelling choices by using peer editing, referring to word walls, dictionaries or other texts. So, students can reinforce accuracy their work by using confirmation to their teacher. 3. Integration
Students develop their skill use prediction and confirmation to integrate the strategies of spelling, such as rhyming, patterning, phonemic segmenting and analysis.70
And the result of the strategies above, writer can integrated into the writing and spelling process.
The other strategy for explicit teaching spelling from New South Wales books, include:71
1. The teacher determines the forms of spelling knowledge to be modeled explicitly to students from a word list
2. The teacher analyses the words he or she has chosen using the preformed on the next page to determine teaching points
3. The process is then modeled to the whole class or group of students followed by guided practice
67 Ibid,. 68 ibid
69 Development spelling in the French immersion classroom, page 13 70 Ibid,.
4. Students in groups, pairs or individually use the Performa to analyze their words (some of the words chosen or even just one or two each day).
2. Word Wall Vocabulary as Learning Media
a. Definition of Word Wall Vocabulary Media as
Media is a communication tool which is used to convey information or messages from the sender to the receiver, messages from the teachers and students in order to stimulate the students’ motivation, and learn to achieve the goal of learning.72 Abdul Wahab Rosyidi also cited on Arsyad, was written by Gagne and Briggs, said that learning media is the tools include some tools that used to media for teaching learning.73 media not only books, paper, and news, but also there are electronic media, and audio visual media, such as tape recorder, cassette, video camera, video recorder, film, slide, photo, picture, chart, TV and computer. So media is the tools to support in teaching and learning process.
Moreover a word wall is an organized collection of large print words on the classroom wall.74 Based on Jennifer Cronsberry; word wall is a group of words that are displayed on a wall, bulletin board, chalkboard, or whiteboard in a classroom.75 Word walls are bulletin boards that contain a
72 Rozak Maulana, Pengembangan Media berupa Alat Peraga Aliran Listrik padaPokok Bahasan Logika Matematika, (Surabaya: Sunan Ampel States Islamic Institute), 15 73 Rosyidi Abdul Wahab, Media Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab, (Malang: Malang State Islamic University press), 26
74 Green. Teaching Vocabulary with word wall. new york. 1993. 75Jennifer consberry. “Word walls” articles vol.1.
(http://www.curriculum.org/tcf/teachers.projects/repository\wordwalls. pdf , accessed on
collection of high-frequency or theme-related words and their activities include games that focus on using the word wall to learn sight words.76 A word wall is a collection of high-frequency sight words that are age appropriate, classified into groups or categories, and is located on the wall of a classroom for children to easily see and learn.77
Kieff also stated that word walls promote independent work habits by providing readily available reference as students complete their reading and writing activity.78 Based on definition above, researcher conclude that the definition of words wall is the media for teaching learning process that uses wall to collect some words for students to learn. The words that collect on the word wall chosen from the theme of lesson today, it can also chosen by teacher.
Additionally, the other definition of word wall, according to Galih, word wall is designed to be an interactive tool for students or other to use, and contains an array of words that can be used during writing or reading.79 Joseph green also said that, the word wall is built upon the spiral theory of mastery-repetition reinforces previously learned contents. The word wall uses throughout the school year allows learners to recycle many words.80
The other ideas from Cunningham and Allington stated that a word wall is a collection of words that displayed ongoing supports teaching and learning in the classroom. Words collects on the
76Joanne Jasmine, Pamela Schiesl, “The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students”. Reading Horizons Journal. Vol. 49, No 4, 2009, 14
78 Kieff, Judith, Winning Ways with Word Walls, (Department of Curriculum and Instruction: University of New Orleans, 2003), 84
79 Galih Ariffansyah, “Teaching Vocabulary; Interactive Word Wall Strategy”,Let’s Study English, 31 May 2013
word wall could be high-utility words. These are words that were used often in an individual classroom. A topical word wall consists of words relates to theme, text, or unit of instruction; for example, the part of body.81 Based on Janet Allen stated “word walls were absolutely essential in our classrooms, because teacher and students worked together in texts through your shard and reading when students encounter unfamiliar words, and when we build concept-related words or topical categories, we need to have the words in full view so that the student can see them and use them in reviews their writing”.82
Based on the definition above, researcher found Kinds of Word Wall vocabulary media, there are:
a. Quick definitions
Students choose and write the word to match the definitions. Repeat the process encouraging students to review all the words as they select the answer.
b. Word Picture
Working in teams, students select one of the words from the word wall and illustrate it on the board. The opposing teams got a point for a correct guess and illustrate another word.83 c. Guess the Word
Students guess what the word meant and it was definition in Indonesian.
d. Mind Readers
The teacher thought of a word on the word wall and gave five clues to that word. By the fifth clue, students should all know the word. If
81 Janet Allen, Inside Words: Tools for Teaching Academic Vocabulary Grades 4-12, Stenhouse Publishers, 2007, p. 119.
82 Janet Allen, Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12, Portland: Stenhouse Publishers, 2006, p. 70.
success clues confirm a student’s earlier guess, students can just write the word again.84
b. The Function of Word Wall Vocabulary
According to Crosnberry in his research, there are many functions of word wall: 85
1. Provide an approach to meaningful teaching of vocabulary with an emphasis on student engagement and higher level thinking skills; 2. Build vocabulary, thereby improving reading
comprehension and writing style;
3. Reinforce understanding of subject-specific terminology with a focus on students internalizing key concepts;
4. Help students improve spelling and awareness of spelling patterns;
5. Provide visual cues for students;
6. Encourage increased student independence when reading and writing.
Additionally, there are two primary ways to use Word Walls.86 First, wordplay activities related to the Walls promote automaticity with letter–sound correspondences, spelling patterns or chunks, high-frequency words, and language conventions. Second, ongoing demonstrations of how to use the Walls promote application of skills and strategies in real reading and writing situations. Therefore, word wall activities provide interactive ways to learn high-frequency words as they build word recognition by providing a visual and active engagement with words.87 Then, Harmon, Wood, Hendrick, Vintinner, and Willeford found that word
84 Lori Jamison Rog, Climbing the Word Wall, www.lorijamison.com, p. 7.
85 Crosnberry, Jennifer, Word Walls a Support for Literacy in Secondary School Classroom, (Canada: Curriculum Services, 2004), 3
86 Janiel M. Wagstaff, Teaching Reading and Writing with Words Wall, (New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1995)
walls have the potential for enhancing vocabulary learning in seventh grade students in conjunction with other instructional methods.88 Additionally, word wall vocabulary also has benefit to improve students’ ability of reading, spelling, and vocabulary skills.89 So, vocabulary can increase using word wall vocabulary in teaching learning process. Word wall is a tool to teach integrated skill in the classroom, one media for many skills. So, word wall vocabulary is effective media to teaching learning English and also other lesson in school.
c. The Use of Word Wall Vocabulary in Teaching
Teaching spelling can be combine with other skill, for example; teaching writing can also uses to improve their spelling, because spelling can influent other English skill. There are series that should be following in setting up the word wall media to teaching English spelling:
1. Firstly, teacher determines some word which focused today
2. Secondly, some students write the word to the word wall
3. Thirdly, teacher chooses some students to spell the word. Not only spell it, but students have to remember the word and translate the word into Indonesian language
4. Then, the next meeting teacher asks about the word to build the students memory about the lesson in previews meeting
So, students not only can improve their spelling, but also their other skill. Based on the book
Instant Word Wall High Frequency Words, the way to used word wall for teaching spelling are:90
1. Use the overhead and the Spelling Grid sheet 2. Teacher chooses a word from the word wall 3. Teacher starts writing the word on the grid by
writing the first letter of the word in the first box at the top
4. Call on student to come up and write the first two letters in the boxes in the row
5. The next student writes the first three letters in the boxes. Continue until the word has been spelled
Moreover, using word wall to teach spelling for students can also created by:91
1. Pass out 5 colored strips of paper to each student, size 1x5
2. Have one student choose a word wall word and everyone writes and chants that word
3. Call on another student to find a word wall word that starts with the last letter of the first word. Students write and chant the word 4. Call on additional students to continue finding
words that start with the last letter of the previous word
5. Glue the strips together to make a chain As a matter of fact, teacher can modified the way to teach spelling using word wall vocabulary media based on the students’ need and the condition in the classroom. Different classroom condition, students’ need and students’ conditions, the way to teach is also different. So teacher can be innovative and creative to modify the media and the class.
90 Gruber B, Instant Word Wall High Frequency Words, (CA: Practice & Learn Right Publications, 1998).
d. The Difficulties of Teaching Learning Process
The difficulty of learning process is the distance between the goal of academic achievement and the result of academic achievement that achieved by students in fact.92 The difficulties of learning process because of some classroom problems. Some problems in the classroom happen because of many factors;93 such as the different level of students, the classroom is very big, students using their own language, students are uncooperative, etc. by the problems above, teacher has to decrease many factors that happen in the classroom. So, the goal of teaching learning process can achieve.
In addition, based on the educational psychology, there are two factors that influence the difficulties of learning process;94 internal factors and external factors. An internal factor includes:
1. Intellectual achievement 2. Feeling and confidently 3. Motivation
4. Ages 5. Gender
6. Learning habitually 7. Memorizing achievement
On the other hand, an external factor includes: 1. Teacher
2. Learning quality 3. Hardware and software 4. Social environment 5. Nature
92 irham Muhammad - novan ardy wiyani, Psikologi pendidikan, teori dan aplikasi dalam proses pembelajaran (Ar ruzzmedia: Jogjakarta, 2013)
93 Harmer, Jeremy. How to Teach English. P. 17
In addition, the difficulties in learning or in doing something have two factors; there are internal factor and external factor. Dalyono explained that internal factor comes from inside their self, and external factor comes from outside their self.95
a. Internal Factors
1. Cause from the physical of the students: sick and physical defect
2. Cause from inside their body: Intelligent, motivation, talent and interest;
This factor becomes the mind effect in learning process. Thus, if students have problem in learning process but there is no support from their parents, it is make the students failed in learning process b) Motivation
Motivation Students, who have low motivation to accept the lesson in learning process they will feel lazy, give up etc96
Every student has different talent, students who give lesson that different from their talent they will feel bored and lazy to accept the lesson
Interest factor very important in learning process, by having interest in each lesson the student will enthusiast easy to accept the material and student who don’t have interest do otherwise
b. External Factors
1. Family Factor: that’s about how the way parents treat their child into education, parents and child relationships. Situation factor: the house situation very crowded. Economic factors: Poor Family condition. 2. School factor: such as teacher factor the
teacher is not qualified, lack of teacher interaction with the students, lack of teacher method. Instruments factor: lack of instrument since teaching and learning practice. Building and facilitation factor: lack of facilitation, lack of Wi-Fi. Lack of the media use in teaching and learning.97
B. Reviews of Previous Studies
Researcher used previous studies for references to conduct this research. Researcher used some previews research that related or has close idea with this research. There are five previews study that have been read by researcher.
The first research from Septian Maharani, entitled “Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Through the use of
Wall Chats”.98 Her research discussed about the word chat that can improve students’ vocabulary mastery and students’ motivations. The objectives of her research are the wall chart can improve students’ vocabulary mastery in English and also the wall chart can increase students’ motivation in teaching learning English. This research used classroom action research to found the result of the research. The result of this research is the wall chart became an interesting media to increase students’ mastery of vocabulary. Wall chart also can motivate students to learning English. Researcher has assumption that word wall is like a wall chart, because both of them has same concept. Wall chart is large sheet of paper which contained written, pictures, or diagram which is gave information and useful for present new vocabulary
97 Dalyono, M. Psikology. pendidikan.Jakarta:Rineka Cipta.(1997) P.239
98 Septian Maharani, Thesis: “Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery Through the Use
that display in the wall or blackboard.99 In addition, word wall also used wall, papers or board for presenting the words. Word wall and wall chart has the same purpose, there are to make students interest with the lesson and make students easy to remember the word that they have studied.
The second previews research entitled “Learning to spell developmentally” from J. Richard Gentry.100 This research about the way to develop children’s spelling using the concept named Alphabetic spelling, but he assumed that it was a primitive concept, so he changed the concept as phonetic concept. Primitive concept based on the journal is the child's first primitive attempt to write with an alphabetic system. Deviant spellings are in essence a random ordering of the letters which the child is able to produce from recall.101 Generally, in learning speaking, primitive concept is like diction, so teacher pronounced one or more a word and then students write down the word. And the phonetic concept is the concept or the way to teaching spelling that the students read one, two, three letters spelling that demonstrate correspondence.102 In this stage, students used cognitive to learn linking letters to sounds, so they can match between sound and letter to written. The result of the study showed that classroom produces language experiences, creative or independent writing, accuracy in spelling and developmental spelling.103 From this research, we can take conclusions that development spelling students not only uses primitive concept, but also using phonetic concept, which can more helping students to develop spelling students.
The third, research from Rahayu Sekarini entitled “Implementing ‘Spelling Bee’ Game to Improve Seventh Spelling Ability”.104This research investigated how the “Spelling Bee” game could be used to improve the seventh graders’
100 Gentry, J. Richard. " Learning to Spell Developmentally", The Reading Teacher, Vol. 34, No. 4, January 1981, 378-381
101 Ibid., 102 Ibid., 103 Ibid.,
104 Rahayu Sekarini. Thesis: “Implementing “Spelling Bee” Game to Improve Seventh