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Academic year: 2017



Teks penuh



Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Attainment of the

Sarjana SastraDegree in English Language and Literature

Rizky Fauzia 09211144028






Artinya : ”Barang siapa yang menempuh jalan untuk

mencari suatu ilmu. Niscaya Allah memudahkannya ke

jalan menuju surga”. (HR. Turmudzi)


Doa orang tua adalah kunci keberhasilan kita


Selalu bersyukur atas semua yang Allah berikan tanpa

mengeluh sedikitpun


Semua usaha tak akan pernah sia-sia apabila kita

bersungguh-sungguh dalam menjalaninya


When life gives you a hundred reasons to cry, show life

that you have a thousand reasons to smile


Dream what you want to dream, go where you want to go,

be what you want to be. Because you have only one life

and one chance to do all the things you want to do


If you can do what you do best and be happy, you’re



who won’t quit the fight:

My greatest inspirations and the reason of what I

become today,




Bapak Noer Soleh and Ibu Endang Siti Suwarni

My beloved family who never stop believing in me


My sibling,

Mas Riris

, My sister in Law

Mbak Vivi

, and my

lovely funniest niece


My soul for this struggle who always supporting me

all the way



Alhamdulillahi rabbil ‘alamin, the researcher expresses her highest gratitude to Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala for blessing, love, opportunity, health, and mercy to complete this thesis. What is more, this thesis cannot be finished without some help from other people. Thus, great

gratitude is goes to those who have helped the researcher until this thesis is finished:

1. Dr. Margana, M. Hum., M.A. as the first consultant, who has always guided the

researcher and encouraged her in writing and finishing this thesis. As well, many thanks

are given to Paulus Kurnianta, M.Hum, as the second consultant for the continuous

support , for their patience, motivation, enthusiasm, detailed correction and also guidance

in criticizing this thesis,

2. lecturers in English Language and Literature Study Program and in English Education

Department of Yogyakarta State University, for providing the researcher with knowledge,

guidance, and support up to the final stage of her study,

3. her beloved parents, Bapak Noer Soleh and Ibu Endang Siti Suwarni, the researcher thanks them so much for their affection, advice, guidance, instruction and help in life,

their love is beyond any words,

4. her’s sibling, Mas Riris, her sister-in-law Mbak Vivi, and her lovely funniest niece Ava for their advice, kindness, and even critiques to encourage the researcher to be a better


5. her’s partner, Adhityas Rumwaspodo, for always accompanying and supporting her,

giving many advice, endless protection, and for always making her laugh every time,

6. all her friends in English Language and Literature Department who are there to teach

many valuable things, and special thanks to Kistin Hadiyati and Aghnia Nurrahmah who

have helped the researcher to triangulate this study,

7. her close friends, Fanny Ariesta, Aghnia Nurrahmah, Rulmiyatun and mbak Dinda who have given the researcher a cheerful and joyful world and beautiful togetherness; she will





MOTTOS………... v

DEDICATIONS………..………... vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………....………. vii




ABSTRACT………... xiv


A. Background of the Study………... 1

B. Identification of the Problem….……… C. Research Focus……….. 3 3 D. Formulation of the Problems...……….. E. Objectives of the Problem……….. 4 4 F. Significance of the Study………... 5


A. Theoretical Reviews……….. 6

1. Pragmatics………... 6

2. Context ………... 8

a. Context of Situation.………... 8

1) Setting and Scene………... 9



6) Instrumentalities……….. 10

7) Norm of Interaction and Interpretation……… 11

8) Genre………... 11

b. Cultural or Social Context... 12

3. Language and Conversation……… 13

4. Adjacency Pairs……….. 14

b. The Types of Adjacency Pairs……….... 15

1) Greeting – Greeting………. 16

2) Question-Answer………. 16

3) Request-Refusal/Acceptance………... 16

4) Command-Compliance/Incompliance………. 17

5) Blame/Accusation-Admission/Denial………. 17

6) Offer-Acceptance or Refusal………... 17

7) Assertion-Agreement/Disagreement……… 18

8) Summons-Answer……… 18

9) Farewell-Farewell……… 18

c. The Preference Structure………..………... 18

1) The Preferred Structure………. 20

2) The Dispreferred Structure……….. 20

d. The Function of Response ………. 21

1) Responding to Statement ……… 21

2) Responding to Question ………. 22

3) Responding to Request ………... 24



f. Movie………. 28

a. Elements of Movie……….. 28

b. Movie Genre……… 28

g. The Synopsis ofRomeo and JulietMovie……… 30

B. Related Study……… 32

C. Conceptual Framework………. 33


A. Research Types…...………... 36

B. Data and Source Data……… 37

C. Research Instruments..……….……….. 38

D. Data Collecting Techniques………..……… 40

E. Data Analysis………. 40

F. Trustworthiness of the Data………... 41



1. Frequency of Adjacency Pairs in the Movie………... 43

2. Frequency of the Preference……… 44

3. Frequency of the Function of Response.………. 45


1. Types of Adjacency Pairs inRomeo and JulietMovie……… 46

2. The Preference Sequences inRomeo and JulietMovie…………... 74

3. The Functions of Responses in the Adjacency Pairs in the Movie……….. 78



APPENDIX….………... 92



Figure 1 Analytical Construct………... 35

Table 1 The General Patterns of Preferred and Dispreferred

Structures... 19

Table 2 The form of Data Sheet for Types of Adjacency Pairs, the

Preference Sequences, and the Functions of Responses in the

Modern Script of Franco Zeffirelli’sRomeo and JulietMovie…... 39 Table 3 The Types of Adjacency Pairs in the Modern Script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and JulietMovie.……….. 43

Table 4 The Preference Sequences in the Modern Script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and JulietMovie……… 44

Table 5 The Functions of Responses in the Modern Script of Franco



G-G : Greeting – Greeting

Q-A : Question – Answer

R-FA : Request – Refusal / Accept

C-CI : Command – Compliance / Incompliance BA-AD : Blame/ Accusation – Admission / Denial O-AR : Offer – Accept / Refusal

A-AD : Assertion – Agreement / Disagreement

S-A : Summon – Answer

F-F : Farewell – Farewell

+ : Preferred

- : Dispreferred

S : Statement

Q : Question

R : Request

OI : Offer / Invite

A : Apology

T : Thank


AP : Adjacency Pairs

ACT : Act

S : Scene

P : Page

T : Type

+ : Preferred

- : Dispreferred


Rizky Fauzia 09211144028


This study focuses on the adjacency pairs in the Romeo and Juliet movie, with concentration on the types of adjacency pairs, the preference sequences, and the functions of responses. The aims of the study are: (1) to describe the types of adjacency pairs in the movie entitled Romeo and Juliet, (2) to describe the preference sequences in the movie entitled Romeo and Juliet, and (3) to describe the functions of responses in the film entitledRomeo and Juliet.

The study applied a qualitative research method and the data were taken from the script of Romeo and Juliet. The script used in this study was the modern English script with the consideration that the modern script is much easier to understand and analyze. This research was also supported by quantitative analysis in which the researcher used numbers and percentages to measure the occurrences. Corpuses of the data were in the forms of adjacency pairs found in the conversations in the movie.

The findings of the research show that: first, there are nine types of adjacency pairs in the movie. From those nine types of adjacency pairs, the most frequent occurrence is question-answer with 22 occurrences, followed by assertion-agreement/disagreement with 20 occurrences. The request-refusal/accept adjacency pair is in the third with 17 occurrences and command-compliance/incompliance is in the fourth with 11 occurrences. The blame/accusation-admission/denial adjacency pair is in the fifth with 9 occurrences and farewell-farewell adjacency pair is in the sixth with 8 occurrences. Offer-accept/refusal is in the seventh position with 6 occurrences and summon-answer is in the eighth position with 4 occurrences. The adjacency pair with the smallest occurrences is greeting-greeting with only 3 occurrences. Second, among the 100 samples from the movie, there are 72 occurrences of preferred social acts and 28 occurrences of dispreferred social acts. Third, there are four types of responses that occur in the movie; the four types are namely responding to statement, responding to question, responding to request, responding to offer and invitation. The other two types of response, namely responding to apology and responding to thank, do not occur in the movie. The study shows that the response to statement dominates the frequency of the occurrences by 36 times, followed by responding to request which occurs 28 times, question by 21 times, and offer and invitation by 15 times.


1 A. Background of the Study

Talking is a way to make people closer their communities. What they have

in their mind can be shared to others by creating a good communication. It can be

said that conversation incidentally deals with the social aspects in people's

behavior. The importance of talking is defined as interaction primarily serving a

social function. When people meet, they exchange everything such as greetings,

experiences, business, etc. They wish to be friendly and to establish a comfortable

zone of interaction with others. The participants in a conversation need more

attention to recognize the meaning in each utterance. The first and the second

speakers are considered as the same place of interpreting. It means that they can

create balanced situation that is involved in the concept of mind and language.

There will be an expectation that the listeners give constant feedback to prompt

the speakers in continuing the utterances. Conveying messages and understanding

the meaning clearly and accurately are the central focus of the existence of


The need of understanding messages in conversation becomes an

important aspect when participants interact with others. They do not have


have the same background knowledge. Therefore, the participants are difficult to

catch the meaning itself.

The world of conversation has an automatic pattern in the structure of the

conversation called adjacency pair. It always consists of the first part and second

part, produced by the different speakers (Yule, 1996: 77). The intimacy influences

how to understand the logical meaning. It is useful to explore aspects of what is

unsaid in the speaker's mind, based on the role of adjacency pairs.

Adjacency pairs exist not only in everyday conversation, but also in

movies. One interesting aspect of a movie is the conversations between the

characters to make the story flow well. Romeo and Juliet is the example of a

movie which consists of good conversations that make up the storyline. It is an

adaptation of one of William Shakespeare’s biggest plays all of time. The

adaptation makes the viewers involve emotionally in the flow of the conversations

among characters in the movie.

The researcher observed that among the conversations in the movie, there

are many adjacency pairs used by the characters. The conversations occurred in

this movie show that the adjacency pairs affect the continuous communication in

the flowing of the story. The sequences can be interpreted well if it is seen within

the aspects of pragmatics. The study of contextual meaning deals with the analysis

of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those

utterances might mean by themselves (Yule: 1996:3).

The researcher is curious to know the types of adjacency pairs, the


Romeo and Juliet movie script. Therefore, the researcher decides to bring the

adjacency pairs topic into a study entitled: A Pragmatic Analysis of the Adjacency

Pairs in the Modern Script of Franco Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet Movie.

B. Identification of the Problems

Daily conversations in human life are very complex dealing with the

interpretations of what messages are delivered by the speaker. It requires the

hearer to pay more attention to the communication, which often make sufficient

variation that cause potential misunderstanding. There is often sufficient variation

to cause potential misunderstanding. That is why adjacency pairs are important to

know in the terms of understanding the meaning of conversations.

Romeo and Juliet movie represents some patterns of conversation, such as

the form of turn taking, opening conversation, closing conversation, and

adjacency pairs. The patterns are used by the speakers throughout the movie.

C. Research Focus

Due to time and resources limitation, it is impossible for researcher to

cover all the topics. Therefore, the research focuses on the types of adjacency

pairs, preference sequences, and the functions of responses in the modern script of

Romeo and Julietmovie. The data were taken from the script ofRomeo and Juliet

in the modern English script with the consideration that the modern script was


D. Formulation of the Problems

Based on the descriptions in the previous part, this research formulates the

research problems as follows.

1. What are the types of adjacency pairs in the modern script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and Julietmovie?

2. What are the preference sequences in the modern script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and Julietmovie?

3. What are the functions of responses in the modern script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and Julietmovie?

E. Objectives of the Problem

In line with formulation of the problems above, the objectives of the

research are:

4. to describe the types of adjacency pairs in the modern script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and Julietmovie,

1. to describe the preference sequences in the modern script of Franco

Zeffirelli’sRomeo and Julietmovie, and

2. to describe of the functions of responses in the modern script of Franco


F. Significance of the Study

In accordance with the formulation of the problems and the objectives of

the research, this study is expected to give contribution to the following parties:

1. Students of the study program of English Language and Literature

majoring in linguistics study. This study is expected to give some

contributions to pragmatic study, especially in adjacency pairs.

2. The English Teachers. This study is expected to give an alternative idea to

teach by using film in language learning.

3. Other researchers. This study expected that the result of this research is



Chapter II is divided into four sections. The four sections namely

theoretical reviews, conceptual framework, previous study and the synopsis of the

Romeo and Juliet movie. In theoretical reviews, the researcher describes several

theories related to the research objective. The theories are pragmatics, context,

language and conversation, adjacency pairs, and movie. Meanwhile, in conceptual

framework, the researcher will explain boundaries of how far she conducts the

study. Then, the researcher provides some previous studies which are similar to

the researcher’s work. At the end of Chapter 2, the researcher will give the

synopsis of theRomeo and Julietmovie.

A. Theoretical Reviews

1. Pragmatics

Pragmatics is defined as the study which deals with the relationship

between form of linguistics and the users of it. According to Levinson (1983:9),

pragmatics concerns with the study of relationship which includes language and

the context and becomes the basis in understanding language meaning. Referring

to this statement, pragmatics can be defined as the study which concerns with the

links between language and context have relevance to writing grammar. It

describes the use of language as well as its relationship between language forms

and language uses. Meanwhile, Leech (1983: x) defines pragmatics as the study of


Yule (2006: 112) inThe Study of Languagestates “Communication clearly

depends on not only recognizing the meaning of words in an utterance but also

recognizing what speakers mean by their utterances. The study of what speakers

mean, or ‘speaker meaning’, is called pragmatics”. Furthermore, Yule (2006:112)

reveals pragmatics in a broader definition with four important points. First,

pragmatics is defined as the study of speaker‘s meaning. It relates to the study of

meaning which is communicated by a speaker (or writer) and then interpreted by a

hearer (or reader). Second, pragmatics refers to the study of contextual meaning

including the interpretation of what speaker intends in a given situation and

context and the way the context influences what is said by the speaker. In

addition, pragmatics also considers of how speakers organize what they want to

say in relation to whom they are talking to, where, when, and under what


Third, pragmatics is defined as the study which observes how the unsaid is

understood as a part of what is communicated. It attempts to identify how a hearer

makes assumption of what is said in order to interpret the meaning intended by the

speaker. Last, pragmatics refers to the study about the relation between linguistic

forms and their users.

In short, pragmatics refers to the study of how language is used when

communicating. It is concerned with how people speak a certain the language


2. Context

Context is a vital concept in pragmatic analysis since pragmatics explores

the meaning of words in a certain context or interaction and how the individuals

engaged in the interaction make communication and state information more than

the word they use. In other words, context provides more effects to the

information than the explicit meaning that the words bear. For example, when a

man says “the soup is tasteless” during a lunch, he may want someone to pass him

the salt.

The statement above is in line with Yule’s theory. Yule (2006:114)

mentions that context refers to the physical environment where a word is

employed. Meanwhile, Mey (1993: 39-40) suggests that context is beyond

reference and understanding what things are about. Context allows the speaker to

give a deeper meaning on their utterances. The utterance “It is a long time since

we visited your father”,when spoken in a bed room by a married couple, is totally

different in meaning when it is spoken by a husband to his wife while standing in

front of a monkey at the zoo, since it is considered to be a joke.

The example above reflects the clear case in pragmatics as the study of

contextual meaning. That is why analyzing the meaning of an utterance must pay

attention to the context since the meaning of an utterance will be far different if

the context is different. Context will set the utterance’s interpretation..


Context of situation or situational context means the speakers are aware of

what they can see around them (Cutting, 2002: 3). It becomes a necessary part in

communication. The definition is similar to what Widdowson assumes. He reveals

that a word in spoken or written language is like in real situation, in which the

word can be useless without any context of situation (2004: 37).

Further, Hymes (1974: 55-60) proposes some concepts to explain the

context of situation. For convenience, he finds the term SPEAKING as an

acronym for the various factors he sees as relevant.

1) Setting and Scene (S)

Settingmeans the time and place, i.e. the concrete physical circumstances

where a speech event happens. For example, a bed room in a couple’s house

might be a setting for a love and romantic story. Scene means the psychological

setting which is abstract, or the cultural definition of the occasion, which involves

some features such as range of formality and sense of play or seriousness. For

instance, a love story may be told at a cafe where a couple is sitting and dining. At

this time, the couple would be delightful, while at some other time, they can be

serious and quarelling to each other.

2) Participants (P)

Participants refer to the those who are uttering and to whom they are

uttering. Participants may be speaker and hearer, addressor-addressee, or

sender-receiver. The social factors, namely age, gender, status, social distance, and role

or profession of the participants can be relevant as well, for example, teacher and


3) End (E)

End means the conventionally recognized and expected results of an

exchange as well as the goals of participants that need to be accomplished on

certain occasions. Otherwise, it refers to the purpose, goal, and results of a speech

event. For instance, when an uncle tells a story about a grandfather, he may have

several goals, namely to entertain audience or honor the grandfather.

4) Act Sequence (A)

Act is defined as the actual form and content of what is said, the precise

words employed, the way they are used, and the relationship between what is said

and the actual topic at hand. For example, when a mother is telling a story but

many responses and interruption raise, the story may end up into a gossiping.

5) Key (K)

Key can be defined as clues that set the tone and manner, where a certain

message is conveyed, namely light-hearted, serious, precise, firm, and so on. Key

may also be reflected in nonverbal ways through certain behavior, gesture,

posture, or even deportment. For example, when a teacher is telling a ghost story

to her students, she will imitate monster or a ghost’s gesture.

6) Instrumentalities (I)

Instrumentalities is basically defined as the choice of channel and the

actual forms of speech which is used, including chosen language, dialect, code, or

register. The choice of channel itself can be in the form of oral, written, or


features or employ a more formal register and careful grammar as “standard”

forms when teaching in a class.

7) Norm of Interaction and Interpretation (N)

Norm means the particular behaviors and properties attached to speaking

and also to how it is seen by someone who does not share it. In other words,

norms can be social rules that govern the event, action, as well as reaction of the

participants, for example, loudness, silence, and gaze return.

8) Genre (G)

Genre means types of utterance that are clearly demarcated, for instance,

poem, proverb, riddles, sermon, prayer, lecturer, and editorial. However,

sometimes it is uneasy to search for all elements of the context of situation when

studying an utterance because not every utterance has context of situation. Thus,

only some of them are employed and considered when interpreting an utterance.

For example, the utterance is told in the form of anecdote for entertainment.

Another opinion about context of situation is given by Leech. He suggests

that context involves related aspects of the physical or social setting within an

utterance. In this sense, context of situation plays a major role in the

understanding of utterance’s meaning because through context, the speaker and

the addressee tell their background to catch the meaning of their utterances


context as the environment of text that include environments, both verbal and

situational, where the text is spoken.

In addition to context of situation, Holmes (2001: 8) put forwards that in

any situation, linguistic choices represents the influence of one or more of the

following components in general, namely the participants, the setting or social

context of interaction, the topic, and the function. The participants can be the ones

who are uttering as well as to whom they are uttering. The setting or social

context of interaction refers to the situation where they are speaking (physical

setting) and the psychological situation where they are speaking (psychological

setting). Meanwhile, topic is what is being discussed, whose function is why they

are speaking. Those elements become the fundamental components in pragmatics

that describe the reason of everybody to not speak in the same way every time.

b. Cultural or Social Context

Another context that gives impacts to the way people state something is

the cultural or social context. It also influences the linguistic features chosen by

the speaker. In this case, Malinowski in Halliday and Hasan (1986: 6) put

forwards context of culture as the institutional and ideological background that

provides a certain value; it also contains an interpretation. For example, somebody

tells X which is considered as an insult in a conversation of a group that occurs in

a certain place, but X may be considered not an insult in the other conversation

group in another situation, too. This phenomenon occurs since the parties in each


Furthermore, any linguistic interaction includes both the immediate sight

and sound surrounding the event, as well as the whole cultural history of the

participants and the type of practices that they engage in. Thus, it is not proper if

someone only considers the context of situation while neglecting the context of

culture when communicating.

3. Language and Conversation

Conversation plays a pivotal role in human life as it links the inner relationship

between the first and the second speaker. Language contains more complex meaning

than the utterances do. It is reflected from one type of conversation or dialogue.

According to Hornby (1995: 320), dialogue is conversation in the spoken or

written form, talk or discussions between people where opinions are exchanged.

In human communication, talking becomes the basic form of speech. It is a

type of speech where two or more participants freely alternate in speaking.

Conversation among participants occurs almost in communication every day.

Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) argue that there are three characteristics of

conversation, namely performing act, response, and reclassification. In

categorizing an utterance as performing a certain act, the questions asked are

whether it is intended to invite a response, whether it is a response itself, whether

it is designed to mark a boundary in the discourse, and etc. An elicitation can

solicit a response and take place before the initiating move. In the same move, the

concept of continuous classification depends on the type of response.


participants in reclassification. One participant makes an initiating utterance in

order to soliciting a particular response from the others.

A whole conversation usually contains three parts: the opening, the body

and the closing; among which, the opening and the closing affect greatly on the

structure of conversation than the body which may be often varying in the content

of a conversation. When someone needs to conduct a conversation with another,

he or she always starts the conversation in a particular linguistic or nonlinguistic

form, for instance, mentioning the name or title of the addressee, c. g. "Jean", "

Mr. Paul ", " Prof. Tou ", "Excuse me-", 'Pardon me", tapping the addressee on the

shoulder, waving a hand, or making a dry cough to him. The act is followed with

the conversation’s body that may vary in content. It looks there is no certain rule

in formulating the patterns of the body.

The closing means the ending of a conversation. To end a conversation,

some forms of linguistic or non-linguistic signals are used to show the ending of a

conversation. Because a conversation is regarded as a cooperative social

activity, it is quite rude to close a conversation abruptly before the speaker

completes his speech, and it is also inappropriate not to close the conversation

after the speaker ends what he intends to tell.

4. Adjacency Pairs

a. Definition

When one speaker makes an utterance, it is mostly responded by another


forthcoming, interlocutors will show an account of why the response is not

forthcoming. This form of conversational organization is well defined by

Schegloff and Sacks in their concept of adjacency pairs. Two adjacent utterances

made by different speakers are connected to each other in such a way. Through

adjacency pairs, participants are allowed to start conversation, negotiate deal,

relate facts, change topics, and end the conversation (Schegloff and Sacks


The utterances are connected to set pair types, thus, a certain first pair part

forms the expectation of a certain second pair part (Schegloff and Sacks

1973:296). For example, a question will always expect a reply, and an offer also

will always expect an acceptance or decline. The kinds of response may be in the

form of a bound interactional unit among participants. It will raise a problem in

the conversation when the second part response does not happen,. This will result

in a significant absence and hence unmeaning.

In a book entitled Spoken Discourse, Edmondson (1981:46) mentions that

Schegloff and Sacks (1973) have categorized adjacency pairs into five features,

which are: (1) two utterance length, (2) adjacent positioning of the component

utterances, (3) different speakers producing each utterance, (4) relative ordering

and (5) discriminative relations (the pair type of which a first pair part is a

member and this appropriates the choice among second pair parts).

There are a number of possible areas of difficulty that has a relation with

adjacency pairs. First, a certain utterance may be intended as one among several


may be regarded as a greeting, or summon. Third, questions can contain

information questions or requests for action (“would you like do that for me?”) or

criticism (“why did you kill that?”), etc. (Jack C. Richards and Richard W.

Schmidt’s words ,2010:12).

b. The Types of Adjacency Pairs

Adjacency pairs take place when an utterance from one speaker leads to a

particular kind of response very likely. (Schegloff and Sacks 1973:297) divide the

adjacency pairs into nine parts, such as greeting-greeting, question-answer,

request-refusal, command-compliance/ incompliance,

blame/accusation-admission/denial, offer-acceptance or refusal, assertion-agreement, disagreement,

summons-answer, and farewell-farewell. The types of adjacency pairs can be seen


1) Greeting - Greeting

Tom : "Hey.Good morning!" Clerk :Good morning, Tom.

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:297)

The utterances above indicate adjacency pairs with the first part of the

conversation is a greeting and the response of the greeting (1stpart) is a greeting,

too. This type of adjacency pairs is mostly used when starting a conversation.

2) Question - Answer

Tom :What are this, people kissing or something? Olivia :John says they might get married.


The first turn shows a question. Tom asks Olivia about the people he sees kissing

(it is probably done in the waiting room). The second pair part provides a response

to the question, the answer.

3) Request - Refusal/acceptance

John : "Sweetie, you're going to go with Daddy,okay?" The daughter : "Okay."

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298)

In the uterrances above, the first pair part indicates a request from the father

(Tom) to his daughter. He orders his daughter to go with him somewhere. As the

response, in the second pair part, the daughter says her acceptance.

4) Command – Compliance / Incompliance

Olivia : "Now we can go through the cave.Duck!"

John : "All right, going into the cave. That's a big, beautiful cave we're in."

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298) Olivia initiates the utterances above by giving a command to the group of people.

She orders to go through the cave, but they all have to duck first. In the second

pair part, John, a member of the group, gives a response to the command with

compliance as the response.

5) Blame/ Accusation – Admission/ Denial

Olivia : "Man,you're crazy!" John : "I amnot crazy!

I want my goo-gaa!"

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298)

In the conversation above, Olivia makes accusation to John. Olivia accuses John


second pair part, John denies Olivia’s statement by saying that he is not crazy but

then he pretends like a crazy man.

6) Offer - Acceptance or Refusal

Olivia. : "Do you want another cup of tea?" John : "No, Thanks. It’s enough."

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298)

Olivia is offering John another cup of tea when knowing that John’s cup is almost

empty. In the second pair part, John responds with a refusal and says that one cup

of tea is enough for him.

7) Assertion -Agreement, disagreement

Tom : Well, you know, sometimes, these things are like a Band-Aid."

You just have to rip it off. Olivia : "Right.Rip it."

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298)

From the utterance above, it is obvious that the first part of pair delivers assertion.

Tom states that “these things” (probably a problem or something attached) are

similar to band aid that is easy to rip off. In the second pair part, Olivia makes a

response by stating an agreement about to rip the things off.

8) Summons - Answer

Tom : "Olivia!

Where are my notes for the 11:00? Olivia : "Jake. I think they're in there."

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:298)

The first part of the pair denotes summon. Tom is calling for Olivia to ask about

notes for his scheduled meeting. Olivia gives her answer in the second pair part.

9) Farewell - Farewell


Olivia : Bye, Ella.

(Schegloff and Sacks, 1973:299)

The utterances above denote adjacency pairs in the form of farewell – farewell.

Tom is asking Olivia to leave and Olivia says farewell to Ella, her friend. In the

second pair part, Ella makes a response by saying farewell, too.

c. The Preference Structure

Adjacency pairs denote social actions. In general, the first part in the form

of a request or an offer is set typically with an expectation that the second part

will be an acceptance. An adjacency pair is formed through the contents of the

two statements which are uttered successively by two speakers and ordered as the

first part and the second part of the adjacency pair, and are coherent in content in

terms of semantic and pragmatic aspects. An acceptance is more prefered than a

refusal; this structural likelihood is known as preference. Levinson (1983, p. 336)

has divided the structure of preference into two acts: preferred and dispreferred

social acts. The preferred act means the structurally expected upcoming act, while

the dispreferred one is the next act which is structurally unexpected. The

difference between the preferred and dispreferred second parts tends to be

subjective or psychological rather than logical or rational. In an attempt of

avoiding dispreferred or awkward responses (the second parts of adjacency pairs),

the speaker could sometimes perform some tentative speech acts which are called

as pre-sequences. Pre-sequences are defined as the adjacency pairs designed to

meet what is needed in the psychological side. Several every day pre-sequences in


Preference structure has divided second parts into prefered and

dispreferred social acts. The most usual patterns of preference structure are given



Table. 1 The General Patterns of Preferred and Dispreferred Structures (Levinson, 1983)

Preference Structure

First Part Second Part

Preferred Dispreferred

Assessment Agree Disagree

Invitation Accept Refuse

Offer Accept Decline

Proposal Agree Disagree

Request Accept Refuse

When choosing whether request or offers as first parts, acceptance

becomes the prefered and refusal becomes the dispreferred second part. In

examples [-a.-d.], the responses in each second part all denote preferred structure.

That is why acceptance or agreement is the preferred second part in response to a

request [a], an offer [b], an assessment [c.], or a proposal [d].

First Part Second Part

a. Can you help me? Sure

b. Want some coffee? Yes, please.

c. Isn’t that really great? Yes, it is. d. Maybe we could go for a walk That’d be great.

In order to clearly identify how these preferred second parts are expected

in the examples above, people must imagine each first part is met with silence. In

any adjacency pair, silence which positions the second part may be interpreted as

a dispreferred response.


- Father : Hey, you’re gonna do with mommy, Okay? - Son : Okay (accept)

-Father : And I’ll call you every day. - Son : Promise me?

- Father : You’ll be alright. You’ll be alright.

It is obvious that an expectation exists in the next act which contains acceptance,

and thus, this act is considered as a preferred structure.

2) The Dispreferred Structure

- Son : Mom!

- Mommy : Not now, darl -Son : But, Mom, please!

-Mommy : I told you, not now. (Refuse)

And listen to me, Jim. This is the time for mom to work.

The adjacency pair above shows dispreferred structure where the adjacency pairs

indicates unexpected act or refusal from the mommy because she is in a rush

before going to work.

d. The Function of Response

Each dialogue has feedback or response within the conversation topic. For

the response toward answer, the researcher employs Stenström’s theory. He states

that “responding act is addressee’s next obligatory move in the exchange after

speaker’s initiation” (p. 109).

1) Responding to Statement

When a speaker makes a statement, he or she will expect a reply from the

person he or she is talking to. There are three categories of responding to

statement, that is, acknowledging to inform and opine, agreeing to inform and

opine, and objecting to inform and opine.


Acknowledge refers to the signal that the addressee agrees what the

speaker states as a valid contribution to the conversation. The simplest way of

giving a response is by using the “acknowledge” that enables the addressee to

respond without stating whether she/he approves/disapproves of that they have

heard. The markers can be “ah, all right, I see, oh, ok, quite, really, right, gosh, oh

dear, goodness, and so on” (Stenström, 1994:111).

Example: A: I have no news of Wessex at all. B:I see

b) Agreeing to inform and opine

Agreeing indicates that the addressee accepts what the speaker means.

There are some markers of agreeing to inform and opine, such as, “absolutely, all

right, fine, good, ok, precisely, quite, right, that’s right, yes/no, and so forth

(Stenström, 1994: 112).

Example: A: I just found that Dona will stump up any money to cover the girl’s time.


c) Objecting to inform and opine

Objecting means the indication that the addressee does not accept the

speaker’s statement. It is considered strange if the addressee always agrees to all

the speaker states. It would either show that the addressee has no opinion or that

she/he either does not have anything to tell or she/he is not interested in the topic.

Some markers of objecting to inform and opine are “well, yes but, not but”

(Stenström, 1994: 113).


B:Yes butShanti, strong-willed person has to take another for better or worse the same as the one without strong wills.

2) Responding to Question

A question always demands a proper answer. Nonetheless, not all answers

are right in the sense that they do answer the interviewer’s question. In regards to

the response to question, it is categorized into five types, i.e complying, implying,

supplying, evading and disclaiming (Stenström, 1994: 114).

a) Complying

Complying is the only direct and adequate type of response to a question.

The other responses or questions are not exactly or not considered at all straight to

the point. Thus, it is said that complying gives no more than the information being

asked for.

Example: A: When is it?

B: Tomorrow at four twenty.

b) Implying

Implying means the act which indirectly gives answers to the question or

implicitly gives proper information; otherwise, it answers the question indirectly.

Example: A: Do you want the applicants to go to the registry office directly?

B: Not many.

The conversation indicates that B answers the question indirectly. B wants the

applicants to go to the registry office but not many.


Supplying becomes part of an answer that produces inadequate

information. It does not really answer the question or does not give a clear answer.

Moreover, supplying attempts to give additional information that sometimes is

unrelated the question.

Example: A: Was she a personal friend of yours or? B: Hmm…well… She used to be my senior.

Here, B does not necessarily answer the question, because she does not clarify

whether ‘she’ was a personal friend or just a senior. This answer is typically

introduced well, often combined with pauses.

d) Evading

Evading is part of answer which neglects to answer directly.

Example: A: Um..Well do you have any other argument? B: Well, they didn’t give any.

In the example, B neglects to answer the question directly by referring to another

person who is absent.

e) Disclaiming

Disclaiming denotes that the answer is still unidentified. Usually the

addressee states hesitation, and then s/he continues with an answer that is true and

straightforward but it does not clearly provide an answer to the question and does

not pretend to do so.

Example: A: What will happen when somebody breaks in and robs it – am I covered or?

B: Mm… honestly I don’t know


There are two kinds of requests, that is, action request and permission

request. “Request is face threatening acts for two reasons. They are costly to the

addressee and benefiting the speaker and they are open to rejections” (Stenström,

1994: 116). There are three responses which are possible to a request, namely

accepting, evading, or rejecting.

a) Accepting

Accepting is an act that can be both positive and fully satisfactory action.

Example of action request:

A: And could you get us some coffee please? B: I’ll. Yes.

Example of permission request:

A: May I open the window? B: Of course you may.

b) Evading

Evading is the of the addressee’s act to show that she/he cannot do or

avoid to do what the speaker intends.

Example: A : Could you see what’s still to come Mia, coz I think they....there are two performance of each one.

B : Trouble is I don’t regularly have a paper it doesn’t get delivered. So, sometimes buy one and...

In the example above, B really wants to carry out what the speaker asks to, but B

cannot perform the order for an clear reason. She does not say so in ordinary and

straightforward words; instead, she tells the reason.

c) Rejecting

Rejecting is an act of disagreeing the speaker’s request.


B: Sorry he’s going to other city this morning.

Here, rejecting is followed with the reason why. This is regarded as quite

obligatory addition; without it, the speaker is possibly seen as rude.

4) Responding to Offers and Invititation

Offers and Invitations are the opposite of request. It is the addressee who

benefits from the proposed action, not the speaker; even, it is quite costly to the

speaker (Stenström, 1994: 118). An offer or invitation may possibly be responded

by some actions, for instance, as accepting, evading or rejecting.

Example of accepting an offer:

A: Rio, can I get you a snack? B: Yes you can thank you.

Example of accepting an invite:

A: Would you like to have a breakfast with me, young Pauline? B: Thanks. That would be nice

Example of evading:

A: When will you visit us? B: M....

A: Can you inform me before Stephany goes?

B: I think I could manage it, m...it’s...you know things become a lil bit excited but m...

Example of rejecting an offer:

A: What about a coffee? B: I could’n have one, thanks.

Example of rejecting an invitation


B: Yes. But I’m afraid I’m just laid up. I don’t know, maybe it’s headache.

5) Responding to Apologies

Stenström states that “responding to an apology is mainly a matter of

being polite” (Stenström, 1994:120).

Example: A: I’m sorry to disturb you. B: No, not a bit.

6) Responding to Thanks

“Responding to thanks is usually answered by the word thank itself”

(Stenström, 1994: 121).

Example: A: Thanks very much. B: Thank you.

The researcher chooses the theory of types of responding acts to answer

and to analyze the research question number three, that is, “What are the functions

of responses in the modern script of Romeo and Juliet movie?” First, the

researcher will identify the responding acts produced by the main characters in the

movie. Then, she will figure out the function of responding acts by using

Stenström’s six classifications of responding acts.

e. Insertion Sequence

Insertion sequence takes place when speakers pause their utterances and

insert an utterance which is not in line with the main topic. In a conversation,

speakers could interrupt themselves and insert an utterance which seems unrelated


Sometimes, the first utterance of adjacency pairs does not immediately accept the

second utterance. The writer found several occasions where a question-answer

sequence will be retarded, while another question-answer sequence interjects.

Not all first parts are immediately followed with their second parts. It

occurs sometimes when one of the participants delays the question-answer

sequence, then another intervenes. According to Yule (1996:78), "insertion

sequence is one adjacency pair within another". Though the utterance may be in

the form of question-answer sequence, other kinds of social action are also

accomplished within this sequence. Sometimes, the next speaker makes not a

second pair part yet another first pair part, because he either does not understand

or does not commit himself until he knows more or he is simply stalling

(Schegloff in Saadoon, 2005:24). This means that between the first and second

parts of an adjacency pair, there is a sequence of turns which intervene and this is

called insertion sequence.

f. Movie

A movie can be viewed as the real representation of life. Hornby (1995:

434) argues that a set of moving pictures displayed on television or at the cinema

that is recorded and contains a story is categorized as movie of film. Films attempt

to bring effects on viewers as well as providing the viewers experiences that they


actual events, animating objects or pictures, and experimenting in the pure form

(Bordwell & Thompson, 2008:28).

a. Elements of Movie

Before analyzing a movie, the researcher must understand the elements.

Pratista, (2008: 29) suggests five elements which characterize a movie, namely:

1) scene: a section of movie that usually consists of some shots, then unified

by time, setting, character, etc.;

2) plot:the structure of incidents that is unified in a movie;

3) character:individuals in a movie that are imaginary;

4) point of view:the vision’s angle of which a story in a movie is told;

5) conflict: a struggle which involves two or more opposing forces in a movie

or film, usually being resolved when the story is ended.

b. Movie Genres

Though there are a number of movies considered crossbreeds or hybrids

with two or more genres (or sub-genres) which are overlapping, Dirks (2010: 13)

believe that every film contains at least one major genre. Some movie genres are

such as action, adventure, comedy, crime and gangster, drama, epic or historical,

horror, musical or dance, science fiction, war, and western. Romeo and Juliet, a

movie chosen in this study, is considered as a drama movie.

A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film, video


adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions,

expression, and dialogues of the characters are also narrated.


Romeo and Juliet is a 1968 British-Italian romance film based on the

tragic play of the same name (1591–95) by William Shakespeare. The film was

directed and co-written by Franco Zeffirelli, and stars Leonard Whiting and Olivia

Hussey. It is a wonderful drama movie. The story happened in Verona, Italy,

during the later middle ages. It began when two families, the Capulets and the

Montagues, were quarelling and this quarell had lasted for a long time. Romeo,

the son of The Montagues, felt deeply in love with Rosaline but failed to be

together with her. His friends, Benvolio and Mercutio, tried to cheer him up and

then asked him to accompany them for attending the Capulet’s ball that night. At

the ball, Romeo met Juliet, the Capulet’s daughter and then got attracted with her


After the ball party that night, Romeo watched Juliet on her balcony. He

realized that Juliet loved him very much. After that, he made his presence known,

and before morning they decided to hold a marriage secretly. Nonetheless, before

the wedding day ended, Romeo was kept for killing Juliet’s cousin named Tybalt.

Romeo did it because Tybalt had killed Romeo’s friend, Mercutio. His

camaraderie toward his friend encouraged him to have a battle with Tybalt. Then,

the Prince of Verona had sentenced him to banishment. He then escaped from

Verona without informing Juliet.

In another place, Juliet’s father, Lord Capulet, arranged his daughter’s

wedding ceremony; he had chosen a man he considered as the right husband for

Juliet. Juliet did not agree with the marriage since she did not love the man; her

love was only for Romeo. Then, a friar gave her a drug containing poison which

could make her get into a deathlike trance until Romeo came and took her away

with him. Unfortunatelly, Romeo heard the wrong information and he thought she

had passed away. He then made a trip to Verona and committed suicide by

drinking poison.

Soon, Juliet woke from her trance and saw the dead body of Romeo.

Immediately, she picked off herself with Romeo’s dagger. The two families, the

Capulets and the Montagues, found the tragedy has brought a deep sadness two

both of them. It made them realized to end the quarrel forever.


The researcher refers to some similar studies discussing adjacency pairs

that have been done previously. The first study is a thesis by Fauzi (2010). His

thesis concerns on the conversational turn taking strategies used by the

interviewer of Metro TV Indonesia This Morning. The result of the study reports

that the interviewer employs three kinds of turn taking strategies; they are taking

the turn, holding the turn, and yielding the turn. The interviewer chooses taking

the turn strategy when he wants to begin a conversation or initiate a conversation;

he implements holding the turn when he wants to start speaking; then, he practices

yielding the turn when he has nothing to say again in conversation or he has made

complete sentences. The interviewer also employs questions to take and yield the

turn in the interview process. However, the interviewer does not directly give

questions to take and yield the turn, whereas he usually delivers new statements

first before giving questions. It is aimed to the interviewee in order the

interviewee able to focus on every subtopic question given by the interviewer. In

delivering statement itself, three kinds of turn taking strategies have been used.

Meanwhile, in this study, the researcher does not take turn taking strategies used

by Metro TV interviewer. The researcher’s study is specifically focused on the

adjacency pairs used by Romeo and Juliet movie script only.

The second study is a thesis by Sulistyowati (2009). Her study is entitled

Turn Taking Strategies Used by the Main Character in “The Pursuit of

Happiness” Movie. The study tells about a movie and the researcher analyses of

the turn strategies performed by the main characters in the movie. By referring to


strategies are correlated to each other: starting up strategy, taking over strategy,

and interrupting strategy. Though Sulistyowati’s study also deals with a movie,

her thesis has different focus from this study. She pays more attention on the turn

taking strategies in the Pursuit of Happiness movie, while the researcher in this

study focuses on the adjacency pairs in theRomeo and Julietmovie script.

Aside from those two previous studies that have been reviewed, the

researcher of this study takes a different object to study. The researcher takes a

very famous film adapted from a very popular play entitled Romeo and Juliet, the

most tragic-romantic play ever. The researcher conducts the study about the

adjacency pairs which exist in the movie. The researcher of this study also decides

to use the modern version of the movie script to get better result of the study

because the researcher realizes that modern version is really easy to analyze than

original version.

C. Conceptual Framework

In order to make the study easier to understand, the researcher needs to

construct the theoretical framework. The framework gives the researcher

boundaries of how far she would conduct the study. In this study, the researcher

studies about the main characters’ conversations in the Romeo and Juliet movie

script. The script used in this study is not the original one but the modern one

because the original script is rather difficult to comprehend.

The analysis of the conversations is based on the adjacency pairs study


greeting-greeting, question-answer, request-refusal, command-compliance /

incompliance, blame/accusation admission-denial, offer-acceptance or refusal,

assertion-agreement, disagreement, summon-answer, and farewell-farewell. The

researcher also discusses preference structure that will be divided into preferred

structure and dispreferred structure. Finally, the researcher conducts the study

about function of the responses. To make the framework clear, the researcher



This chapter deals with research methods which include type of research,

data and source of the data, research instrument, data collecting technique,

trustworthiness of the data, and data analysis. Each of which is presented as


A. Research Types

The research employed descriptive qualitative approach by which

descriptive data were gained. Bogdan and Biklen (1982: 39-48) state that

qualitative approach is a research bringing about the descriptive data in the form

of written or oral data from the subjects of the research being investigated.

Meanwhile, Krathwohl (1993: 740) argues that qualitative research describes

phenomena in words instead of numbers or measures.

This research was qualitative in nature due to its data characteristics and

descriptive analysis. The qualitative research was done to describe particular

phenomena or situations analytically that become the focus of the research. This

research was also supported by a quantitative analysis is which the researcher

used numbers and percentages measuring the occurrences of the types of

adjacency pairs, the preferences structures, and the function of responses in the


In this research, the phenomena or situations under observation were the

adjacency pairs of the utterances made by the characters in Romeo and Juliet

movie. There were three objectives in this study, namely to find out the types of

adjacency pairs done by the characters in the movie, to figure out preferences

structure and to define the functions of responses.

B. Data and Source of Data

The data were taken from the script of Romeo and Juliet in the modern

English script with the consideration that the modern script was much easier to

understand and analyze. The difference between the original script and the

modern one lied on the use simplicity of the style. The original script was rather

difficult to understand, as in the following script:ROMEO: “And we mean well in

going to this mask, But ’tis no wit to go”. The modern styles script was much

easier to understand, like the following script:ROMEO: “We mean well by going

to this masquerade ball, but it’s not smart of us to go”. The researcher decided to

use modern script of Romeo and Juliet movie in the study because she thought

that the movie script is easier to analyze since the conversations containing

Adjacency pairs are already written there. It means the data in the form of written


The data were in the forms expressions of adjacency pairs found in the

conversations in the movie. Conversations in a movie are usually organized and

managed by characters sharing the same ideas and information to each other. In


communication, so that the data appear in the form of utterances made by one

speaker as the response to the others.

C. Research Instruments

Since this research was qualitative, the main instrument of the research

was the researcher itself; this is in line with what has been stated by Bogdan and

Biklen (1982: 27). In this study, the researcher played the role as the designer, the

data collector, the analyst, the data interpreter, and eventually the reporter of the

research findings. In addition, data sheets served as secondary instruments to

guide the process of identification and analysis. After all data had been identified,


D. Data Collecting Techniques

In preparing the data, the researcher did not only collect the data but also

selected and classified the data according to particular classifications that had

been prepared. In collecting the data from written sources, the writer applied

simak and catat (read and write) technique. Sudaryanto (1993:132) says that

simak and catat technique is aimed to record relevant data which match the

objective of the research. The data collection of this research was done by making

transcription according to its classification. The data were documented along with

their context or setting to get a complete understanding on the situation.

Therefore, the writer watched, listened, and took notes from the conversations in

theRomeo and Julietmovie.

E. Data Analysis

Data analysis is a process of organizing and classifying the data into a

patterned category and a unit of analysis in order to find a theme and to formulate

working hypothesis as the data suggest (Moleong, 2001:103). In analyzing the

data in the movie, the writer worked under comprehensive framework in

analyzing data. The framework used in this research consisted of the description

regarding the types and the function of adjacency pairs.

The data analysis in this study was done by observing the data obtained

and then classifying them into three categories: the type, the function, and the


After the data were classified and analyzed based on the data sheet and

theories in Chapter II, the writer drew conclusions. The conclusions were the

answers to the objective of the study as stated in Chapter I.

F. Trustworthiness of the Data

Credibility in research is measured by seeing how credible the research

finding is. Meanwhile, credibility is different from transferability. To achieve the

transferability in this research, the writer sought and gathered empiric events

related to the same context. The dependability was closely related to the data

themselves. The last was the criteria of conformability; in this case, the

conformability was to make sure that the research is objective. In this research, the

writer applied the credibility and conformability to gain trustworthiness.

To achieve the credibility of the data, the writer performed comprehensive

observation on the data, so the data were regarded as credible. The credibility of

the data was also obtained through triangulation technique. There are four main

types of triangulation: by sources, by methods, by researchers or observers, and by

theories. In this research, the writer used sources and observers. The sources of

this study were in the forms of books, papers, journals; some written sources from

internet related to pragmatics theories were also used in the research. In addition,

peer discussion was conducted to check the data analysis. The researcher

discussed the data with her colleagues from English Department who are majoring


Moreover, the writer also employed conformability to demonstrate the

neutrality of the research interpretations. The conformability was checked by

measuring how far the findings, while the interpretation of the data was truly

based on the data. The writer firstly confirmed the research data to Dr. Margana,

M.Hum., M.A as the first consultant, and then to Paulus Kurnianta, M.Hum as the

second consultant. The researcher also invited the other competent partners from

linguistics class as the triangulation partners. They were Kistin Hidayati and

Aghnia Nurrahmah.

In this research, dependability was also tested through triangulation

technique. Triangulation is the combination of methods in studying and observing

several same phenomena. Triangulation utilizes something outside the data to

verify the data themselves or to compare them. Some basic elements of

triangulation technique are sources, methods, observer or researcher, and theories.

In this research, the validity of the research was done by repeating the observation



This chapter consists of two parts, research findings and discussions. The

research findings part discusses the data obtained from Romeo and Juliet movie

script and covers the frequencies of the occurrence of adjacency pairs in the

conversations in Romeo and Juliet movie script, the frequency of the occurrence

of the preference, and the frequency of the occurrence of the function of the

response. The discussions part explains the findings in more details.

A. Research Findings

1.Frequency of Adjacency Pairs in the Movie

The frequency of adjacency pairs in Romeo and Juliet movie script is


presented in Table 3 below.

Table 3. Frequency of Adjacency Pairs in the Movie Adjacency Pairs in the Movie










Freq 3 22 17 11 9 6 20 4 8

% 3% 22% 17% 11% 9% 6% 20% 4% 8%

Tot 100

Table 5 shows nine types of adjacency pairs, namely (1) greeting-greeting

(GG), (2) question-answer (QA), (3) request-refusal/acceptance (R-FA), (4)

command compliance/incompliance (C-CI),(5)


assertion-agreement/disagreement (A-AD), (8) summons-answer (S-A), and (9)

farewell-farewell (F-F). Table 5 also shows the percentage of each type of adjacency pairs.

The most often occurring type is question-answer with 22% or 22 times, followed

by assertion-agreement/disagreement with 20% or 20 occurrences.

Request-refusal/acceptance adjacency pair is in the third rank with 17% or 17 occurrences

and command-compliance/incompliance in the fourth rank with 11% or 11

occurrences. Blame/accusation-admission/denial adjacency pair is in the fifth

position with 9% or 9 time occurrences, while farewell-farewell adjacency pair is

in the sixth position 8 occurences or 8%. In addition, offer-acceptance/refusal is

in the seventh position with 6% or 6 occurrences and summons-answer is in the

eighth position with 4% or 4 occurrences. The type of adjacency pair with the

smallest occurrences is greeting-greeting with only 3% or 3 occurrences. Based on

the data above it can be concluded that in Romeo and Juliet movie, the highest

occurrences of adjacency pairs is Question -Answer and the least one is Greeting

– Greting.

2. Frequency of the Preference


To show the frequency of the preference, the findings are given in Table 6 below.

Table 4. Frequency of the Preference Preference

Preferred Dispreferred

72 28

72% 28%


Table 4 shows that among 100 sample pairs from the movie, Preferred


3. Frequency of the Function of Response


The frequency of the function of Response is displayed in Table 7 as follows.

Table 5. Frequency of the Function of Response

Function of Response (Responding to…)

Statement Question Request Offer &

Invitation Apology Thank

36 21 28 15 0 0

36% 21% 28% 15% 0% 0%


Table 5 shows six types of responses, namely (1) responding to statement,

(2) responding to question, (3) responding to request, (4) responding to offer and

invitation, (5) responding to apology, and (6) responding to thank. Table 7 shows

that the response to statement dominates the frequency of occurrence by appearing

36 times or 36% followed by responding to a request that appears 28 times or

28%. The smallest occurrence is the response to apology and thank that has 0%

occurrence. The last two functions of response have no occurrence because they

do not exist in the story/script. The cause is probably related to the social context

of the story in which the story is dominated with hatred and desire to take revenge

between two families, the Montaque and the Capulet. Because of the hatred and

desire to take revenge between those families, apologies and thanks are hard to


B. Discussion

In this part, the researcher discusses the adjacency pairs, the preference


1. Types of Adjacency P


Figure 1Analytical Construct……………………………………………...
Table. 1 The General Patterns of Preferred and Dispreferred Structures
Table 3. Frequency of Adjacency Pairs in the Movie
Table 4. Frequency of the Preference


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