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Ga m e Ta x on om ie s: A H igh Le ve l Fr a m e w or k for Ga m e

An a lysis a n d D e sign

I n 1999, Doug Church proposed t he use of form al abst ract design t ools for gam e design [ 3] . Part of Church's suggest ion w as t o develop a com m on design vocabulary. I t 's ironic t hat while t he gam e design com m unit y has st art ed t o develop t hese m ore r igorous design principles for gam es, t here is m uch confusion even about t he m ost basic of quest ions, such as what a gam e is, com pared t o a st ory or a sim ulat ion. This confusion only increases w hen w e st art t o consider new and em erging form s like m obile gam es, locat ion- based gam es and pervasiv e gam es. I t 's obvious t hat w e need som e basic dist inct ions and definit ions at t he highest level, so t hat m ore det ailed m et hods can be sort ed int o t heir appropriat e areas of applicat ion.

Developing a basic language for describing different t ypes of gam es requires different dim ensions of

dist inct ions. That is, we need ort hogonal t axonom ies: not everyt hing falls int o a sim ple hierarchical syst em of cat egories and subcat egories. Ort hogonal t axonom ies allow design concerns t o be separat ed. So w e can, for exam ple, consider w het her a gam e is a real- t im e st rat egy gam e or a w arfare sim ulat ion, irrespect ively of whet her it is creat ed for PCs, m obile devices, or t echnologically support ed physical environm ent s. The gam eplay pat t erns for an RTS m ay apply irrespect ively of t he im plem ent at ion st rat egy. Or at least , w e can t hese t hree funct ional and form al aspect s t o differing degrees, depending upon t he part icular gam e or gam e genre. Bey ond t he boundaries of gam es play ed only via com put ers and consoles w e ident ify furt her classificat ion dim ensions, from virt ual t o physical gam ing, and from fict ional t o non- fict ional gam ing.

This t axonom y has been developed w it hin t he Zero Gam e St udio of t he I nt eract ive I nst it ut e in Sw eden [ 9] . We developed t he t axonom y aft er m any long design discussions, and have found t he result ing fram ework t o be very useful, saving t im e and get t ing us past som e very basic quest ions and confusions. I t is, of course, im possible t o precisely classify m any specific gam es, since t heir different aspect s m ay belong t o m ult iple or am biguous classificat ions. Nevert heless, t his schem e provides a heurist ic and pract ical t ool for clarifying m any design issues, saving t im e in proposal w rit ing and design m eet ings, and providing higher level cat egories for ident ifying where m ore det ailed design m et hods m ay be applied.

Ga m e s a n d Ga m e Pla y

Com put er gam es encom pass a vast range of int eract ive m edia product ions. I n t he broadest possible sense w e call all of t hese t hings "gam es" . However, t his is not necessarily useful in underst anding dist inct ions am ong t he different creat ions t hat w e're considering. I t 's m uch m ore useful t o adopt a narrow er definit ion of "gam e" . So let us narrow t he definit ion a lit t le and st at e: a gam e is a goal- direct ed and com pet it ive act ivit y conduct ed w it hin a fram ework of agreed rules. This can be referred t o as t he ludic or ludological definit ion of gam e, t he k ind of definit ion at t he base of t radit ional gam e t heory in disciplines like econom ics.

Giv en t his definit ion of a gam e, it is oft en said t hat learning t o play a gam e involv es learning t he rules of t he gam e. Not ice how ever t hat our definit ion does not require t his. I t does require t hat act ivit y obeys t he rules, and t hat we im plicit ly or explicit ly agree t o t hose rules.

The rules est ablish what as a player you can or cannot do, and what t he behavioral consequences of act ions m ay be wit hin t he world of t he gam e. But , successful play does not necessarily require learning all of t he gam e rules - - only t hose necessary t o support a part icular playing st yle. Learning t o play a gam e, m aking progress w it hin a gam e, and, wit h persist ence and basic abilit y, event ually com plet ing or w inning a gam e are a m at t er of approaches t o progressing t hrough t he gam e and ( perhaps) event ually winning. I n general, it is a part icular w ay of t hinking about t he gam e st at e from t he perspect ive of a player, t oget her w it h a pat t ern of repet it ive percept ual, cognit iv e, and m ot or operat ions.

A part icular gam eplay gest alt could be unique t o a person, a gam e, or even a play ing occasion. More generally t hough, recurrent gam eplay gest alt s can be ident ified across gam es, gam e genres, and players. Som e exam ples of gam eplay gest alt s include:

Act ion gam es: shoot while being hit , st rafe t o hiding spot , t ake healt h, repeat

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St rat egy Gam es: order peasant s, send t o work, order soldiers, send t o perim et ers, repeat while slowly expanding t he perim et ers ( up t o t he point of cat ast rophic w in/ lose) ; OR: m ove x archers t o t ow er y every n m inut es t o head off t he enem y cam el m usket eers from t he east who ar r ive ever y n+ 1 m inut es

I n General: overcom e barrier, save if successful, reload and ret ry if unsuccessful

Such pat t erns m ay or m ay not be explicit ly designed for by t he creat ors of a gam e. They are not gam e design pat t erns in t he sam e sense t hat t he paper/ scissors/ rock syst em is, ie. t hey are not designed int o t he syst em of a gam e. I f designers do t ake t hem int o account , it is in support ing t he developm ent and em ergence of t hese pat t erns in play, nev er, in a good design, by forcing t hem on t he player.

N a r r a t iv e

St ories and narrat ives can be defined as broadly as gam e: everyt hing is a narrat ive/ st ory. Again, t his is not very useful. We can define a narrat ive as an experience t hat is st ruct ured in t im e. Different st ruct ures t hen represent different form s of narrat ive, and a narrat iv e is an experience m anifest ing a specific narrat iv e st ruct ure. A very com m on narrat ive st ruct ure used in com put er gam es, borrow ed from film script w rit ing, is t he t hree- act r est orat ive st ruct ure. The t hree act rest orat ive st ruct ure has a beginning ( t he first act ) in which a conflict is est ablished, follow ed by t he playing out of t he im plicat ions of t he conflict ( t he second act ) , and com plet ed by t he final resolut ion of t he conflict ( t he t hird act ) . This narrat ive st ruct ure also specifically includes a cent ral prot agonist , a conflict involving a dilem m a of norm at ive m oralit y, a second act propelled by t he false t he final resolut ion in act t hree are t ypically achieved by cut scenes, sequences of non- int eract ive video m at erial. level- specific conflict can be enhanced by increasing difficult y t hrough a level, or by an int ernal dram at ic st ruct ure t hat em phasizes t he point of com plet ing t he lev el, such as t he defeat of a lev el boss, t he big barrier conflict s and challenges wit hin a gam e level, which m ay include m onst ers t o be defeat ed or avoided, puzzles t o be solved, or t reasures, clues or keys t hat m ust be found in order t o progress in t he current or fut ure gam e levels, et c. Usually it is only t his low est level of t he act ion gam e plot t hat is highly int eract ive. The linear and non- int eract ive cut scenes fram ing gam e play are r evealed in a predefined order, and w it hin a level all players usually st art in t he sam e place and m ust have com plet ed t he sam e specific set of t asks in order t o com plet e t he

Given t hese definit ions, t he quest ion of t he relat ionship bet w een gam eplay and narrat ive can now be phrased m ore clearly. I n part icular, t he apprehension of an experience as a narrat ive requires t he cognit ive const ruct ion of a narrat ive gest alt , a cognit ive st ruct ure or pat t ern allowing t he percept ion and underst anding of an unfolding sequence of phenom ena as a unified narrat ive. The t hree- act rest orat ive st ruct ure is a very com m on, in fact t he dom inant , exam ple of a narrat ive gest alt in gam es and film s. I t is a pat t ern t hat people underst and and expect , and w ill oft en be disappoint ed if it is not sat isfied ( e.g. , if t he st ory ends before t he cent ral conflict is resolved, or if t he hero dies perm anent ly during t he st ory) . I n playing a com put er gam e, one m ust learn and t hen perform a gam eplay gest alt in order t o progress t hrough t he event s of t he gam e. To experience t he gam e as a narrat ive also requires t he creat ion of a narrat ive gest alt unifying t he gam e experiences int o a coherent narrat ive st ruct ure. The t ension bet w een gam eplay and narrat ive can now be view ed as a com pet it ion bet w een t hese respect ive gest alt form at ion and perform ance processes for percept ual, cognit ive, and m ot or effort . Wit hin t he range of effort required for im m ersion and engagem ent , if gam eplay consum es m ost of t he player's available cognit ive resources, t here will be lit t le scope left for perceiving com plex narrat ive pat t erns ( e.g., w e forget t he m ot ivat ion behind t he charact er's bat t les, and what was t he uber- villain's nam e again?) . More t han t his, t he narrat ive adds lit t le t o player im m ersion and engagem ent ( who cares, it 's fun anyw ay) . Conversely , focusing on t he developm ent of t he sense of narrat ive ( e.g., in t he case of m ult ipat h m ovies) reduces t he play er's need and capacit y for a highly engaging gam eplay gest alt .

Good gam e design achieves bet t er int egrat ion of t he gam eplay and narrat ive st ruct ures of t he gam e. This can be done by m et hods like cont inuously but unobt rusively rem inding t he player of t he narrat ive cont ext ( rat her t han having a few perfunct ory cut scenes) , and using cut scenes and cinem at ic sequences as rew ards at appropriat e m om ent s wit hin t he rhyt hm ic pat t erns of gam e play ( so t hey nat urally fall wit hin pauses and rest s, and are not perceiv ed as int errupt ions) .

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w it hin cognit ive, em ot ive, and perform at ive effort . I s it wort h t rying t o j um p over a ravine at t he risk of falling and having t o reload a past gam e st at e for t he sake of a healt h pack t hat m ay help m e t o get past t he t ough enem y ahead wit hout t hen having t o reload and ret ry w hen t he enem y defeat s m e? The conflict is an ergonom ic one w it hin in t erm s of perform ing gam eplay gest alt s. And t his has not hing t o do wit h t he higher-level narrat iv e cont ext . So t he t ension bet w een gam eplay and narrat ive is even m ore fundam ent al t han being a sim ple com pet it ion for cognit ive and perform at ive resources: t he player's invest m ent in t he low level conflict as an act ive part icipant is disconnect ed from any deep narrat ive significance underst ood in t erm s of t he shape of t he higher level narrat ive gest alt . Underst anding t his explains t he perceived t ension bet w een narrat ive and gam e play and suggest s st rat egies for overcom ing t his t ension by developing gam e play m echanics t hat are fundam ent ally dram at ic, in t hat t heir consequences do affect t he higher lev el narrat iv e pat t erns of t he gam e.

Sim u la t ion

Much has been m ade over t he last couple of years of t he view of gam es as sim ulat ions. But what exact ly is a sim ulat ion, such t hat it 's different from a narrat iv e or a gam e? A sim ulat ion can be defined as: a represent at ion of t he funct ion, operat ion or feat ures of one process or syst em t hrough t he use of anot her.

Hence a sim ulat ion m ay involve no specific repet it ive and goal- orient ed act ivit ies ( t here m ay be no obvious end st at e, ot her t han t he player get t ing bored) , and no specific predefined pat t erns in t im e. Tim e pat t erns em erge over t he course of running a sim ulat ion, and can be com plet ely different for different runs. Repet it ive act ion m ay be used t o operat e a sim ulat ion, but m ay not be direct ed t o any specific overall goal.

I t 's int erest ing t o regard single- play er st rat egy gam es from t he sim ulat ion perspect iv e. During com pet it iv e play, t here is an obvious goal. But m any gam es w ill allow us t o cont inue playing aft er all of t he enem ies are defeat ed. Unt il resources run out , t hese gam es m ay t hen chug along indefinit ely sim ulat ing a sim ple econom ic syst em . There is no m ore gam eplay by our st rict ludic definit ion, and t he narrat ive aft er w inning has no int erest ing t em poral ( dram at ic) st ruct ure. Sim ulat ions like flight sim ulat ors are oft en int erest ing from t he perspect iv e of skill dev elopm ent ; t hey are not int erest ing as gam es or st ories, but for underst anding how a part icular syst em funct ions in different circum st ances.

A Un ifie d Cla ssifica t ion Pla n e

Taking t hese t hree form s, t he ludic gam e, narrat ive and sim ulat ion, w e can const ruct a classificat ion plane as a t riangle wit h one form at each point , as shown on Figure 1. I t is t hen possible, as a heurist ic ( ie. a useful working t ool) for com paring different gam es and genres, t o place gam es and genres on t hat plane, em phasizing t he relat ive degree t o w hich t hey em body elem ent s of ludic gam ing, sim ulat ion and narrat ive.

I n t his schem e w e can place avat ar w orlds and vehicle sim ulat ors at t he sim ulat ion ext rem e. Early avat ar worlds w ere t hree dim ensional virt ual spaces in which a user could be represent ed by a m ov able avat ar. These worlds rarely present ed m uch t o do, how ever, since t hey lacked any ludic or narrat ive cont ent .

Figur e 1 . A 2 - dim e n sion a l cla ssifica t ion pla n e sh ow s t h e com pa r a t iv e de gr e e s t o w hich a pa r t icu la r ga m e or ge nr e is lu dic, n a r r a t iv e , or sim u la t ion - ba se d.

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At t he narrat ive ext rem e w e place t he fixed narrat ive st ruct ures of digit al linear m ovies. Mult ipat h m ovies hint at gam e- like int eract ion by present ing choices for t he view er, while hypert ext advent ures provide a high degree of int eract ion in t he play er's creat ion of specific narrat iv e experiences.

Act ion gam es, st rat egy gam es and RPGs incorporat e prom inent feat ures of all form s, being gam es, sim ulat ors and narrat ives. RPGs generally have m ore narrat ive cont ent t han act ion gam es, and st rat egy gam es have m ore sim ulat ion t han narrat ive.

Ga m blin g a n d A Th r e e - D im e n sion a l Cla ssifica t ion Spa ce

Gam ing is oft en also underst ood in t he sense of gam bling. The world of com put er gam ers usually appears t o be v ery separat e fr om t he world of gam bling, alt hough gam bling com panies are cert ainly gam e com panies t hat deliver m any gam bling product s as gam es. To cont inue w it h our definit ion fet ish, w e can define gam bling as:

decisions of gain or loss m ade by chance w it hin a fram ework of agreed rules.

Chance is cent ral t o t he idea of gam bling. Of course, m any form s of gam bling have scope for skill; but t hese can be placed som ewhere bet ween gam bling and ludic gam ing by t he definit ions present ed here. I n fact , w e can add anot her point t o our classificat ion syst em and ext end our t wo dim ensional classificat ion plane t o produce a t hree- dim ensional classificat ion space, as shown on Figure 2.

Figu r e 2 . A 3 - dim e n siona l cla ssifica t ion spa ce in t r odu ce s pur e st och a st ic, or pr oba bilist ic, de cision pr oce sse s a s a n e w e le m e n t of for m .

The different point s wit hin t his space represent different degrees by which a product ion represent s a gam e, a narrat ive, a sim ulat ion, or a gam bling syst em . For exam ple, t he gam e of poker has elem ent s of pure gam ing and also elem ent s of gam bling, since it present s a w in/ lose scenario played according t o a rule set , in which chance has a significant im pact upon t he out com e but w it hin which skill can also have a m aj or role. I f we look at t he dim ension from gam bling t o sim ulat ion, we ent er a v ery undev eloped zone of virt ual econom ies, while t he dim ension heading t owards narrat ive suggest s experiences st ruct ured in t im e but significant ly det erm ined by chance.

Fr om Fict ion t o N on - Fict ion Ga m in g

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Figu r e 3 . Va r ia t ion s in de gr e e of fict ion a l con t e n t a r e inde pe n de n t of t h e

lu dic/ n a r r a t ive / sim u la t ion cla ssifica t ion of a ga m e , a nd so a r e r e pr e se n t e d a long t h e t h ir d dim e n sion of a cla ssifica t ion pr ism .

Milit ary vehicle sim ulat ors lie st rongly at t he sim ulat ion ext rem e, but com bine elem ent s of bot h real and fict it ious worlds. The fict ion is realized by im aginary ( ie. sim ulat ed) com ponent s lik e enem y vehicles and bat t lefields, while t he non- fict ion elem ent s include accurat e funct ional m odeling of real syst em s, and t he use of physical vehicle m odels as int eract ion and st aging t echnology.

Liv e act ion role- play ing, or LARP, gam es involve perform ances of gam e charact ers in phy sical space. LARPing m ay be m ore or less gam e- lik e, depending upon t he degree t o which play ers use rule set s. But m ost of t he experience is a form of im provisat ional t heat re in which t he players ar e t he audience. Hence LARPing t ends t o be highly fict ional, but lies bet ween sim ulat ion and narrat iv e.

Fr om V ir t u a l t o Ph ysica l Ga m in g

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Figu r e 4 . Re pr e se n t in g t he cont inu u m fr om ph y sica l t o v ir t u a l ga m ing for m s a ga m e cla ssifica t ion pr ism cle a r ly diffe r e n t ia t in g liv e a ct ion ga m in g fr om scr e e n - a n

d-k e y boa r d/ con t r olle r - ba se d com pu t e r ga m e s.

Sport s gam es by t his definit ion are very m uch at t he physical ext rem e, while current com put er gam es are predom inant ly virt ual. New form s of locat ion based and m obile gam ing com bine bot h virt ual and physical gam ing, oft en using a com put at ional and m obile infrast ruct ure t o support gam e play act ion in t he real world. Only a sm all num ber of t echnology based gam es have been developed t hat use real- w orld locat ion as a significant fact or in gam eplay. Perhaps t he m ost fam ous exam ple is Bot fight ers, developed by t he sm all Sw edish m obile- gam es st udio I t 's Alive! [ 7] . The gam e t racks GSM- cell locat ion and allow s players w it hin range of each ot her t o score kills and gat her resources t o buy upgrades. Port ugese com pany Ydream s have recent ly launched a Bot fight er- like ant i- t errorist gam e int roducing t he concept of physical sanct uary in cert ain locat ions, m alls and rest aurant s. The proj ect s Can You See Me Now and t he recent Uncle Roy All Around You, creat ed by t he UK m ixed- realit y perform ance group Blast Theory [ 8] , bot h use handheld com put ers, GPS locat ion t racking, and inv isible online play ers t o const ruct gam es where fast physical m ovem ent and dev ice- m ediat ed t eam work are cent ral t o gam eplay.

Use s of Ga m e Cla ssifica t ion Spa ce s

So, w e have a bunch of definit ions, and w e can use t hese t o define som e classificat ion planes and spaces. Of what use is t his in pract ical gam e design?

One use is as a high- level road m ap for m apping out where ot her design t echniques can be applied. I t is very im port ant t o hav e syst em at ic principles for know ing where m ore det ailed t echniques, such as abst ract form al design t ools and gam e design pat t erns [ 4, 6] , should be applied. The dist inct ions of t he t axonom y also allow us t o see where t echniques from ot her fields can be applied. For exam ple, acknowledging t he narrat ive elem ent s of a gam e indicat es w here m et hods for t he const ruct ion of narrat ives, heavily developed for film script w rit ing, can be applied w it hin gam es.

The classificat ion dim ensions also allow us t o separat e concerns. A good exam ple of t his is t he previously described t ension bet w een gam e play and narrat ive. Using definit ions of gam e and narrat ive t hat clearly separat e t hem as form s m akes it clear why t here is oft en a perceived t ension bet w een t hem . The dist inct ion also suggest s a m ore clear- headed approach t o resolving t hose t ensions. I f w e clearly ident ify which aspect s of t he gam e experience are t o have narrat iv e st ruct ure and which are t o be pat t erned gam ing, we can apply narrat ive t echniques at t he right level and consider det ailed m echanics for int egrat ing narrat ive w it h gam e play. We can also ret hink som e m ore fundam ent al quest ions, for exam ple, can w e define gam e m echanics t hat do

seriously advance t he higher- level narrat ive?

The classificat ion dim ensions also support brainst orm ing for gam e ideas. I f a new gam e is placed in a part icular place in t he classificat ion syst em , designers can ask t hem selves about different possible t echniques for int egrat ing t he different form al aspect s of t he gam e. More t han t his, if w e look for areas of t he planes and spaces t hat are em pt y, we can explore new t ypes, form s and genres of gam es. For exam ple, in t he

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The m ost obvious use of t he kinds of definit ions present ed here is t o follow Doug Church's suggest ion of developing a com m on design vocabulary. This m ust begin at t he highest level, and can save m uch t im e and confusion in high levels discussions about w hat a gam e proj ect is going t o be. The dist inct ions present ed here cam e out of pract ical experiences in discussing gam e design, and discussions t hat oft en suffered from confusion due t o t he lack of a w ell est ablished design vocabulary at t he highest level. This happens a lot in discussions about where gam es are going, what w e can expect t o see over a t im e fram e ext ending five or t en years int o t he fut ure. New t echnical possibilit ies for locat ion- based and m obile gam ing present m any new possibilit ies for gam e form and experience. We need clear languages for discussing and m aking decisions about t hese possibilit ies.

High level t axonom ies are also a crucial precondit ion for defining t he scope of gam e design pat t erns [ 4] . While a num ber of pat t erns have been ident ified [ 6] , t his is very prelim inary work, and t he m ost useful form s of design pat t erns m ust be regarded as a t opic of ongoing explorat ion. I n fact , t his work will be endless, j ust as t he scope of possible gam es is endless. Our t axonom ies m ust also cont inue t o evolve, as will t he kind of heurist ic design rules com prising Hal Barwood's " 400 Design Rules" [ 1,2] . All of t hese t ools represent com plem ent ary and evolving m et hods for gam e design. They cannot y et be regarded as st able and fully validat ed, but a high level classificat ion syst em can nevert heless save m uch t im e and confusion in gam e design, and provide a cont ribut ion t o t he event ual developm ent of com prehensiv e and syst em at ic t ools for designing gam es of ever increasing com plexit y.

Re fe r e n ce s

[ 1] Hal Barwood "Four of t he Four Hundred 2001" , GDC lect ure, 2001.

[ 2] Hal Bar w ood and Noah Falst ein " Mor e of t he 400: Discovering Design Rules 2002" , GDC lect ure, 2002.

[ 3] Doug Church, " Form al Abst ract Design Tools" Gam asut ra, July 16, 1999.

[ 4] Bernd Kreim eier, " The Case For Gam e Design Pat t erns", Gam asut ra, Decem ber 12, 2002.

[ 5] Craig Lindley 2002 "The Gam eplay Gest alt , Narrat iv e, and I nt eract iv e St ory t elling", Com put er Gam es and Digit al Cult ures Conference, June 6- 8, Tam pere, Finland, 2002.

[ 6] ht t p: / / ww w.gam edesignpat t erns.org/

[ 7] ht t p: / / ww w.it salive.com / page. asp/

[ 8] ht t p: / / ww w.uncleroyallaroundyou. co.uk/

Gambar

Figure 1 . A 2- dim ensional classification plane show s the com parative degrees to w hich a
Figure 2. A 3-dim ensional classification space introduces pure stochastic, or
Figure 3. Variations in degree of fictional content are independent of the
Figure 4. Representing the continuum  from  physical to virtual gam ing form s a gam e

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