A study of semantic change: pejoration analysis in American History X Movie (1998) - USD Repository

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Teks penuh

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This soul prayeth not for victory, but for loss. This body kneeleth not in vain, but in blood. These eyes seeth not nil, but truth.

These words are spoken not by me, but through.

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Be now by my side,

O spirits that serve the Lord of the Bloody Scythe.

Guide my steps towards Your Kingdom,

And enlighten me with death's Blackened Light.

 

For Thee,

Love, and The Cult.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and Foremost, I would like to give my deepest gratitude to my

supervisors, Dr. Fr.B. Alip, M.Pd.,M.A., for his patience, immense knowledge,

and motivation. Thank you for the support and suggestions. I am inspired of this

undergraduate thesis and finally make it presentable. I am indebted to my co -

advisor, Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum., for her guidance in writing this

undergraduate thesis, and the suggestions and corrections for the improvement of

this undergraduate thesis. I also want to express my sincere gratitude to my fellow

music, especially to my band Exhumation. Thank you Grave and Bones for

sharing the same passion, dedication, and devotion through death music. Thank

you for being there and helping me regain some sort of beautiful art in Death

music. I also own endless gratitude to Iannoh, Dedhy, Matias, TJ, Tataa, Aryo

Jungs, Deris, Mutia, Icha, Bayu Putrasangfajar, and Nikko. Last but not least, I

would like to give my best regards to my dearest Yunior family. I thank my father

and mother for supporting me throughout my studies at Sanata Dharma

University. Thank you for helping me focus on my ideas. None of this would have

been possible without your love and patience.

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ABSTRACT

YOGA GHOTAMA.A Study of Semantic Change: Pejoration Analysis in

American History X Movie. Yogyakarta. Department of English Letters, Faculty

of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014.

This undergraduate thesis concerns primarily in the pejoration of semantic change in American History X movie. The movie scripts provide a substantial number of offensive words that play an important role in the movie.

The problems revealed for this undergraduate thesis are related to two matters as follows: (1) the identification of pejorative expression in the movie and (2) the analysis of pejorative expression as part of pejoration.

In conducting the research on the subject matter, the researcher collected data by reading the dialogues on the script writing of the movie from David McKenna which provides 19040 words and 203 pages. The analysis of pejorative expression used two instruments, namely Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) and Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003). The theory of pejorative by Richard Nordquist also supports the analysis of the first problem. The analysis of the pejorative expression is given on random technique. In order to analyze the second problem, the researcher used the theory of pejoration from Michel Breal (2001).

There are several results of this research. (1) 29 pejorative expressions were found in the movie. (2) There are 16 pejorative expressions that used as part of pejoration expression in the movie. Therefore, not all of the pejorative expressions were used as pejoration expressions in the movie.

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ABSTRAK

YOGA GHOTAMA.A Study of Semantic Change: Pejoration Analysis in

American History X Movie. Yogyakarta. Department of English Letters, Faculty

of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014.

Skripsi ini pertama-tama berkonsentrasi pada masalah perubahan semantik pejorasi dalam film American History X. Naskah film tersebut menyajikan kata-kata offensif dalam jumlah yang banyak dan memainkan peran pentingnya di dalam film tersebut.

Masalah yang diangkat dalam penelitian ini berkaitan dengan dua perumusan masalah, yaitu: (1) Penemuan ekspresi merendahkan di dalam film (2) Analysis ekspresi merendahkan sebagai bagian dari peyorasi.

Dalam melakukan penelitian ini, penulis mencari dan mengumpulkan data dengan membaca seluruh dialog draf naskah film dari David McKenna yang menyajikan 19.040 kata dan 203 halaman. Analisis ekspresi pejoratif dipilih dengan menggunakan dua instrumen yaitu Kamus Cambridge Advanced Learner's 3rd Edition (2008) dan Kamus Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate (2003). Teori pejoratif dari Richard Nordquist juga mendukung untuk analisa materi pertama. Analisa ekspresi pejoratif dikumpulkan dengan metode acak. Untuk menganalisis materi kedua, penulis menggunakan teori pejorasi dari Michel Breal (2001).

Hasil dari penelitian ini mencakup beberapa kesimpulan. (1) Terdapat 29 ekspresi pejoratif di dalam film. (2) Terdapat 16 ekspresi pejoratif yang digunakan sebagai ekspresi pejorasi di dalam film. Oleh karena itu, tidak semua ekspresi pejoratif merupakan bagian dari ekspresi pejorasi di dalam film. 

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Movies have been an important part of the cultural aesthetic for many

years and it continues until today. It is an art form which widely acceptable for all

over the world. Movies also become the new innovation of the entertainment

world. It is also grown as valuable source where people able to gain inspiration

and information from movies. On the other hand, linguistics is the study of

language and it works on human language and how they communicate with an

individual or even a group. Linguistics also focuses on the elements such as

grammar, phonology and syntax in order to help people to understand the barriers

of language.

In some cases, they are both connected since language can determine the

quality of a film based on its dialogue on the movie script. Nowadays, movie

scripts play an important role in the movie. The words of the movie scripts, good

or bad, they are appearing in order to show the connection of the dialogue and the

image of the movie.

American History X is a powerful movie in recent years. The direction of

the movie creates an atmosphere of a strong performance of white supremacy in

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The movie also provides some provocative thoughts which turn out to be

worth a story and offer a wide range of speakers from diverse social classes and

therefore shows explicitly their distinctive usage of language. To sum up

American History X provides plenty interesting discussion about racism words

which build the tension among the audience. It is not a surprise that American

History X shows a lot of dialogues that reflect the bad situation that happened.

There are also so many offensive words, a form of racist language they

demonstrate how language may function to set some actions in the movie. As for

the example, the offensive speech in the movie is intended to ridicule, poses a

threat, and belittle a person because of the cultural, racial origin, religious

practice, political beliefs, and sexual orientation.

Movies and linguistics are important for this research. It is important to

understand the connection between them. Of course, the purpose of this research

is to understand the linguistics used in the movie. Semantics as part of linguistic

studies is the best way to approach the description and explanation of the word

meaning in several scopes. In this research, semantics is the tool to generate the

analysis of word meaning in movie script. It is also the foundation that language

expression not only able to determine the quality of movie script but they have a

meaning.

Language expression is developed every day and the semantic

representation of words is absolutely developed, by becoming broader or

narrower, or by shifting. The new meanings which are developed by these cases

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There are a number of ways in which semantic change can occur; for

example the use of words can be narrowed down: 'acorn' used to mean ‘fruit’ in

Early Modern English, but today it has narrowed down to a specific fruit, namely

that of the oak tree (Denham and Lobeck, 2013: 309). For example, there is a use

of the word to be widened and increased its range of meaning, 'salary' which

originally meant ‘wages for soldiers’ but has come to mean ‘wages’ in general. As

word may have more than one meaning, each word development able to be the

bridge to create the semantic link between a new sense and the original.

Since the research dealing with meaning change, there are classifications

which are suggested for semantic change. The suggestion that meaning change

may follow. Michel Bréal attempts some notions related to word changes or

meaning changes in the 19th century. Those notions become the first reference

and knowledge of this research. To sum up Bréal mentions the classification of

semantic change into some types; pejoration, amelioration, restriction,

generalization, metaphor, and contagion (Bréal, 2001: 52).

Those classifications are the contribution of this research in order to show

how things be divided into types of semantic change in any further explanatory

progress. Therefore, it is possible to approach the language expression in the

movie, also it is very important to have a method to approach this research from

those points. Those classifications used in order to understand what the speakers

say about others in the movie and how the speakers justify their personal attitudes

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There are a lot of violence, dark, and terrible scenes in American History

X, because the matter of different culture and race which caused bad effect of

communication. This is an example that is taken from one of the movie script:

‘Well... look at our country. It's a haven for criminals. Black... brown... yellow... whatever.

The words 'black, brown, and yellow' are offensive words because 'the

actor' stated those words to describe someone's figure. In this case the actor

intends to describe 'black' as the reference for identical race, economic status,

parenthood, and etc. Those words being downgraded into something less

favorable and refers to a specific group of people with particular experiences

which is labeled as bad black people in the movie. The word 'black' in the movie

considered to be offensive when the word is intended as the suggestive word of

the colored people.

On the other hand, pejoration takes a worsening place in English standard

language; it is the process in which the word meaning becomes negative or

showing lack of good sense. A lot of expressive dialogue which labeled as

pejorative that discovered through this American History X movie. Pejorative are

derogatory terms that are used to convey hatred and disdain. Words like ‘nigger,

faggot, spinster, kike (as applied to Jews) or chink (for Chinese people)’ are but a

few examples in a huge variety of expressions of hatred and contempt.

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The main reason why a pejorative word is used, because the basic problem

of stereotypes, unfamiliarity, selfishness, and family education are often

happening in the script writing. In order to show there are cases of pejorative

words which happened in the movie, these are the example:

(a) “Who runs the place? The monkeys or the wetbacks?”

(b) “F**k you, Cameron. You're a f**king chicken hawk...praying on kids.”

The actor stated ‘monkey and chicken’ as the original meaning of

‘animals’ in English language, in order to use it as reference to offend someone, to

treat them as animals. Those offensive words are pejoratives and have been

downgraded to make the dialogue sound interesting and more applicable to each

scene. However, this downgrading process called pejoration.

Every pejorative and pejoration contributes in each dialogue to be more

interesting. This phenomenon encourages the author to analyze how the pejorative

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B. Problem Formulation

This study has been designed to solve the problems which are formulated

as follows:

1. What pejorative expressions are found in the movie American History X?

2. What are the pejoratives which are used as part of pejoration?

C. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study of the pejoration analysis in the movie are

mainly to answer the problems which are:

1. To find out the pejorative expressions found in the movie

2. To identify the use of pejorative as part of pejoration in the movie

By doing so, the author will understand the finding of the regular pattern of

pejorative expressions in the movie that's taking a role as part of pejoration

expressions.

D. Definition of Terms

In the definition of terms, it is conceptually to define of a better

understanding for reader, and to avoid the misunderstanding of certain terms.

Thus, it is not necessary to define a term which is generally understood.

Semantics: Semantics (as the study of meaning) is central to the study of communication and as communication becomes more and more a crucial factor in

social organization, the need to understand it becomes more and more pressing.

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cognition, conceptualization - all these are intricately bound up with the way in

which we classify and convey our experience of the world through language.

Because it is, in these two ways, a focal point in a man's study of man, semantics

have been the meeting place of various cross-currents of thinking and various

disciplines of study. Philosophy, psychology, and linguistics all claim a deep

interest in the subject. (Leech, 1990: 9).

Semantic Change: Semantic change in the context of words describes the gradual shift in the conventional meaning of words, as people use them in new types of

context and this usage become normal. Often in the course of semantic change, a

word shifts its meaning to the point that the modern meaning is radically different

from the original usage. A semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of

a word. Every word has a variety of senses and connotations which can be added,

removed or altered over time, often to the extent that cognates across space and

time have very different messages (Blank,1999: 61). This change in meaning

involves the altering, removing, and adding on meanings behind a word by

following its classification. See the classification by Michel Bréal above (Page 3).

Pejoration: It is a simple the concept of semantic changes in which a word's meaning worsens or degenerates and coming to represent something less

favorable than it originally did. In pejoration, a word takes on a derogatory

meaning. (Riemer and Bréal, 2010: 374). For instance, it is the process of a

lexeme to develop a negative sense and when a word acquires more negative

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Pejorative: Pejoratives are the class of expressions that is meant to insult or disparage. They include swear words and slurs. These words allow speakers to

convey emotional states beyond the truth-conditional contents that they are

normally taken to encode (Hom, 2010: 164-185). In addition, pejorative are

consist of words and phrases that hurt, insult, or disparage someone or something.

The label pejorative (or derogatory) are sometimes used in dictionaries and

glossaries to identify expressions that offend or belittle a subject. Nonetheless, a

word that's regarded as pejorative in one context may have a non-pejorative

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

A. Review of Related Studies

1. Old Words, New Meanings: A Survey of Semantic Change amongst

Yoruba-English Bilingual Undergraduates by Anjola A. Robbin.

In the following study, she concentrates in the extended meaning in

semantic change. She views that the semantic changes are a common phenomenon

amongst Yoruba-English bilingual undergraduates. She also adds some point that

semantics change can help the broadening process of the vocabulary by giving

new meaning to old words in the English language.

Also, she realizes that the semantics change is motivated by socio cultural

background, psychological background, even more encyclopedia forces. Along

with the conclusion of her study, it is true that semantic changes can broad the

progress of vocabulary and giving it words new meaning. Pejoration as one of the

semantic changes terms, also tries to help some words change the new meaning

though they concern on worsening them into negative meaning.

This study and Pejoration analysis in American History X movie

associated on the same terms which work in the cases of how meaning word can

affect the attitude toward social relationship between two groups or more. Also,

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2. Language Analysis of the Movie American History X by Jessica Weber, Fabian Rätzer.

In the following study, they concentrate on the differences of Standard

American English and Black English, placing particular emphasis on phonological

and grammatical distinctions as well as the specific usage of terms. Besides, it is

also elaborate on the different social accents that plays a significant role in our

determination of the traits of special accents of American English.

Along with this introduction, there is an important point between the

pejoration analysis and their study. It is obviously clear that both of the studies

using the same object, American History X movie, which is offering the widest

range of language using.

This study is more about the discussion between the use of standard

American English language and Black English and what roles they have in the

movie and as there is particular language which can affect and help to create a

new meaning in English language. Also, this study is concerned with some

examples which reflect the difficulties in understanding Black English speakers.

Even native speakers have problems to follow their speech and to figure out some

individual words.

It is more obviously clear to see that the pejoration study is different with

their study, though both of them is dealing with the same approach of semantic

field, but they are concerned with their each tendency, each of the study is dealing

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3. The Analysis of Pejoration and Amelioration in Alice Walkers The Color

Purple by Yunawati

In the following study the author wanted to know what words that

experienced the pejoration and the amelioration process, and to describe what the

process that makes the meaning change. Yunawati also found that history, society

and people influence the shaping of the meaning changes, which is pejoration and

amelioration process.

Throughout this finding analysis, there are many words that experienced

pejoration and amelioration in the novel The Color Purple. The pejoration and the

amelioration processes happen because of several factors, there are society,

history and people. The origin of the words that experienced the pejoration and

the amelioration also gives contribution in shaping the new meaning of those

words.

The finding helps the reader of the Color Purple understand to the word

that experienced the pejoration and the amelioration process, so that the reader

will not take a wrong meaning while reading the novel. Along this brief

explanation and conclusion, there is a relation between Yunawati’s study and

pejoration analysis of this study. Both of them are dealing with the same approach

semantics change pejoration. Though Yunawati is aiming to know the changes of

words either it is degenerating or elevating meaning. People somehow confuse as

a reader, so the author hopes that her finding may help the reader understand the

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B. Review of Related Theories

This study belongs to a semantic study. Therefore, there will be semantics

reviews in general which followed by detailed data reviews on pejoration.

1. Semantics

There are several definitions about semantics, which are very relevant to

this study:

There are several definitions of semantics which offer the formulation to start on

the study of meaning. Kreidler stated that linguistics semantics is the study of how

languages organize and express meaning (Kreidler, 1998: 1) and Löbner pointed

out that semantics also the part of linguistics that is concerned with the meaning

(Löbner, 2002: 1). In very general terms, semantics is the knowledge that study all

the aspects of meaning. It is a particular theory to understand the essence of

meaning. The basic of this approach allows some speaker to communicate facts,

feelings, intentions, and products of imaginations to the other speakers and to

understand what they communicate to him or her.

2. Semantic Change

Semantic change in the context of words describes the gradual shift in the

conventional meaning of words, as people use them in new types of context and

this usage become normal. Often in the course of semantic change, a word shifts

its meaning to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the

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Semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. Every

word has a variety of senses and connotations which can be added, removed or

altered over time, often to the extent that cognates across space and time have

very different messages (Blank, 1999: 61).

In addition to the general mechanisms like analogy, Bréal stated several

‘laws’. As a result, these are the types of semantic change and some example by

Bréal, as follows:

a. Pejoration

The tendency to semanticize the more negative connotations of a word: for

example, Old English 'boy' becomes Modern English 'knave' someone dishonest.

Bréal also sees it as the result of euphemism, the tendency to veil disagreeable

ideas, and to disguise such ideas with new terms that they later take on the taboo

meanings they were meant to mask. It means that pejoration leads the process in

avoiding some taboo word that speakers may use an alternative which in time

acquires the meaning of the original and itself falls out of use (Bréal 2001: 55).

Here are examples of English words that have undergone in amelioration process:

Word Old Meaning Degraded Meaning silly happy foolish

criticize appraise find fault with

lust pleasure sexual desire

villain worker at a villa wicked person cunning skillful sly

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b. Amelioration

The tendency to semanticize the more positive connotations of a word. It

is a process of semantic change in which there is an upward shift in the meaning

of the word: for example, kawaii 'cute' and its 'lovable' similarly develop from

earlier meanings 'pitiful' and 'pathetic,' respectively (Bréal 2001: 55). In addition,

amelioration is the process by which a word's meaning improves or becomes

elevated, coming to represent something more favorable than it is originally

referred to. Here are examples of English words that have undergone in

amelioration process:

Word Old Meaning Upgrading Meaning angel messenger messenger of god knight servant rank below baronet

earl man count

governor pilot head of state

fond foolish affectionate

minister servant head of ministry

c. Restriction/Narrowing of meaning

The change from subordinate level of subordinate level. Sometimes the

narrowing may take place in only one part of speech: for example, 'erection',

which was used of buildings and parts of the body from the sixteenth century on,

is not now usually used for a building, although the verb erects still is, and

children get 'erector' sets as presents (Bréal 2001: 56). In addition, It is a process

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In other words, a word which used to have a more general sense becomes

restricted in its application and conveys a special meaning in present day. Here are

examples of English words that have undergone in restriction process:

Word Old Meaning Narrowing Meaning

liquor liquid alcoholic drink

meat food flesh of animals

disease discomfort illness

poison drink poisonous drink

wife woman a married woman

accident event unfortunate event girl young person of either sex female young person

d. Expansion/Generalization/Broadening of meaning

The change from subordinate level to superordinate level. Sometimes the

same root may undergo broadening in one language and narrowing in another: for

example, 'ejaculate' was originally (in the sixteenth century) used for ejecting

fluids from the body, and only later came to be used for 'locutionary acts' (Bréal

2001: 56). In addition, It is a process by which a word which originally had a

specialized meaning has now become generalized. In other words, the term has

extended to cover a broader and often less definite concept. Here are examples of

English words that have undergone in generalization process:

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e. Metaphor

The mapping of one concept onto another. For Bréal metaphor is

associated with images, and languages are full of metaphors: for example, Yakuza

'good-for-nothing (person)' becomes 'gangster' originally referred to the worst

possible hand in a traditional game of playing cards. In addition, a metaphor is a

trope, or figurative , in which a word or phrase is shifted from its normal uses to a

context where it is evokes a new meanings. It is based on similarity and it

originates from the Greek word which carrying from one place to another (Bréal

2001: 57).

f. Metonym

The association of one word with another: for example, A ’steering wheel’

would be a good metonym for ‘driving’, a ‘violin’ a good metonym for a

‘classical orchestra’, ‘bread’ a good metonym for a ‘baker's shop’, a ‘file folder’ a

good metonym for ‘organizing documents in a computer’ (Bréal 2001: 57).

Therefore, there are factors which facilitate the meaning change. These

factors motivate the semantic change in English language development which is

not static but growing every day. Bréal (1964 - 1900) and supported by Palmer’s

theory (Palmer, 2001: 160) mention some characteristics for such factors which

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i. Discontinuance of Language

Language is handed down in a discontinuous way from one generation to

another.

ii. Vagueness in Meaning

The generic nature of words, the multiplicity of their aspects, the lack of

familiarity and the absence of clear cut boundaries facilitate shifts in usage.

iii. Lost Motivation

Some links of words, such as root of language are severed, so that, the sense

may move far from its original meaning.

iv. Taboo

The meaning of a word is changing when it is used as a taboo word.

v. Polysemy

A word may acquire a new sense or scores of new senses without losing its

original meaning.

vi. External Factors such as cultural changes

Due to the respect to 'laws' of semantic change, Bréal suggests that

pejoration dominates over the other types of change mentioned above. With

respect to the factors of semantic change, Bréal considers that pejoration pays

attention to a certain role regarded by some semantic change. This opinion

became the major motivation for the author to move further and predict the

significant pejoration analysis in the movie. Below is the further explanation of

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3. Concepts of Pejoration

Bréal argued pejoration is the tendency to semanticize the more negative

connotations of a word. In addition a pejoration also simply involves shifting from

higher to lower value (Bréal 2001: 55)

Blank also mentioned in his book and further pointed out that pejoration is

the process whereby word meaning being worsens or degenerates and coming to

represent something less favorable that it originally did. The word 'knave' is one

of the numerous examples of this phenomenon in English. In modern English, the

word knave means a 'dishonest man'. In old English, this word did not have an

elevated meaning either, but it did not have at that time the pejorative

connotations that it has these days (Blank, 1999:75).

Pejoration develops through narrowing of meaning which happens when

the item in question begins to co-occur in steadily more restricted environments

— in terms of lexical grammar, when it becomes primed to occur with a more

specialized set of items or, put another way, when the variety of its semantic

preferences becomes smaller.

Thus, pejoration is a set of semantic preferences, which consolidates its

role as the conveyor of negative connotation departure of the word. It also

functions as a process whereby the positive connotations of a word fall into

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Another notion that support the theory claims that the process of

pejoration begins with the reflection of the derivation pejorative meanings which

are sometimes straightly-forward. For example, ‘son of a bitch’ appears in written

form in 1833 and refers to the offspring of a lewd woman (Farmer, 1965: 202).

This term is at the same time an example of a dead metaphor since we often hear

it in contemporary usage in situations which are not necessarily pejorative in

context. To summarize this, based on Bréal theory; the characteristics of

pejoration are summarized as follows: pejoration = change from appreciative to

pejorative from positive to negative from important to unimportant from neutral to

negative. And it is basically derived from pejorative meanings.

C. Theoretical Framework

All the contribution of the theories and reviews are explained to support

the progress and development of this study. It is to make exact predictions and

make the accurate conclusion, it is also helping the author to finding the new

meaning of words and to analyze the relationship between the source and the

meaning change by using these theories. Each point and standpoint become an

attempt to solve the problems which formulated in this study.

The suggestion of the types of semantic change from the ‘Regularity in

Semantic Change, Elizabeth Closs and Traugott, Richard B. Dasher, 2001’

enables the author to differentiate the classification of the semantic change and

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In order to answer the problem formulation which formulated as the

finding of pejorative expression, the author will use the theory of pejorative by

Richard Nordquist.

This theory will contribute to cognition on the finding of words that is

hurt, insult, or offensive to someone or something in the script writing. The

pejorative deals with the finding of pejoration expression which associates to the

first problem formulation. Moreover, pejorative theory will allow the use of

primal source to covers the validity of pejorative words.

In order to answer the problem formulation which formulated as the

finding of the use pejorative as part of pejoration, the author will use the theories

of pejoration of Michel Breal in the book ‘Regularity in Semantic Change’.

This theory will contribute a knowledgeable understanding on the issue

dealing with the process of downgrading of a word's meaning as when a word

with a positive connotation develops into the negative one. This theory later will

operate in the investigation on certain words, which are previously predicted as

pejorative words.

This theory also will work on the role of pejoration regarding to the

pejorative use in certain development. Pejoration later will contribute to

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

A. Object of the Study

The main object of this study is American History X movie. According to

IMDb, American History X is an American crime/drama film which was named

by Empire magazine in 2008 as one of the greatest movie of all the time and

involved in the top 250 movies all of all the time. This film was distributed by

New Line Cinema. It is the first debut in 1998. The 2 hours movie got a big

number in cross revenue, $23,875,127. American History X showing 10

nominations at Academy Awards, USA 1999 Nominated Oscar. This movie

contribute as the most watching list and truly one of the film back then in 1998.

Also, the movie was a corporation of many talented people such as: Tony Kaye

(the versatile director who won a Grammy Award), the movie script was written

by David McKenna; John Morrissey is the producer, music by Anne Dudley.

However, the movie received an “R” or great rated because of many

violent scenes with fighting, bad language (such as: f**k, what the hell, bullshit,

and etc during the film). The background of it is Venice Beach in Los Angeles,

California, USA with a strong actor force. Throughout the movie, the past and

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The movie told a story with two main characters: Derek and Danny

Vinyard. Derek was frustrated about black communication because of his past.

Therefore, he joined the D.O.C, a Neo-Nazi gang.

Derek was the leader of that group. He used to lead his group to destroy

and demolish a shop in the town. Derek also won a game with black group at the

local basketball court to own the play place. One night, two black teens try to steal

a Derek’s truck (which is given by his father). Derek used a gun to shoot them and

killed one of them. Danny looked at the terrible sense. Derek was sentenced to

imprisonment of 3 years. At this time, he met and made friend with a black inmate

in the laundry room. And, he realized what he had done were absolutely wrong.

He changed his mind and accepted black people. Danny tries to follow

Derek’s mistakes. Danny joined the Neo-Nazi group. After backing him, Derek

tried to pull his younger brother out of the dark marsh (the Neo-Nazi group). After

existing of the Neo-Nazi group, the two brothers backed home and threw away all

the D.O.C stuffs. At the end of the movie, Danny was killed by a black student

before giving his assignment (the assignment is about Derek’s incarceration) at

the restroom of Danny’s school.

B. Approach of the Study

The main approach in this study is semantic change; pejoration as the

source of the theory of its comprehensive values in term of definition of semantic

(35)

 

     

This is the best way to approach and also to find out the way of meaning

change which less elevated or degenerated from the original one in English

language.

C. Method of the Study 1. Data Collection

The process of data collection in this undergraduate thesis employs a

random selection method. The selection process covers the criteria that the

offensive or pejorative words found in the movie script by using the description of

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) (CAL) and

Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003) (MWC).

2. Data Analysis

This following process will take several steps. The first step is identifying

the pejorative expression, as follows:

a. Reading all the dialogues on the script writing and work in text.

b. Scanning the offensive words, and start describing the function, authentic

meaning dialogue per dialogue by using CAL and MWC in the movie

c. Collect all the pejorative words and making description by using CAL and

MWC in every pejorative word.

(36)

a. Scanning the pejorative words in the movie, and start describing the

function and authentic meaning using CAL and MWC.

b. Classifying the original meaning and meaning change of the pejorative

words.

c. Finding the pejoratives which are pejoration by looking up the etymology

and the development of the pejorative words using CAL and MWC.

On the last session of this following process, all the pejoration expression will

(37)

   

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS

This part of undergraduate thesis writing aims to attain the analysis on the

two problem formulations mentioned above of the finding pejorative expressions

in American History X movie and the identifying pejorative expression as part of

pejoration.

The movie scripts of American History X contains 19040 words and 203

pages and it is written by from David McKenna (February 6, 1997) and all the

data will take from this script writing. Two instruments for this analysis are

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) and

Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003), in order to collect all the valid data

focus on the pejorative words as characterized as a word or phrase that hurts and

insults to someone.

There are 29 pejorative words from the analysis evaluated by the present

researcher. The following part will present the answer for the first problem

(38)

A. Pejorative expression in the movie

Table 1: pejorative expression in the movie

(39)

  13. Fucking Adjective Offensive

used to 14. Motherfucker Noun Offensive an

(40)

No Word Function CAL MWC

19. Negroid Adjective Offensive

(41)
(42)

Based on the pejorative finding listed above, the used of CAL and MWC

is suggested in order to know the authentic meaning of pejorative words that is

defined as offensive words. Those standards are the instruments to identify the

expression that is offending and labeled as pejorative. In American History X, the

pejorative expressions appear in noun (25 numbers) and adjective (4 numbers)

functions, as well as in numerous combinations through its functional shift. The

descriptive element that is identified by using CAL and MWC contributes to the

meaning in every dialogue of the sentences in which pejorative appears in order to

negate the words that the speaker intends to convey and also contribute the

expressive value of negative attitudes that every dialogue in the movie intends to

convey.

The use of pejorative often appear in order to dispose some speaker in a

particular direction toward one's own viewpoint and against that of others. The

use of pejorative also not more accidental, but rather than emotional language to

express the negative attitude toward others in the fact that the speaker know the

mutual original meaning and against the opposing viewpoints. Below are the

example of the pejorative words which found in the movie;

Seth: Where are you, you free motherfucker? Davina: He's on the phone, asshole!

The word ‘asshole’ here is a noun and become as pejorative because the

speaker used it as a vulgarity, and it's generally to describe people who are viewed

(43)

 

     

Pejorative term can explain how the word 'asshole' which literally means '

vulgarism to describe the ‘anus' refer to the extra - linguistics object as a stupid

person. The speaker used the word 'asshole' as the explanatory progress of word to

connect it to an action in order to convey his negative meaning toward another

speaker. Here is another one the pejorative word that identified as ‘vulgar’ in

authentic meaning and also a noun.

Seth: Well...you can think of me drinkin' 'em then when you're studying with.

fuckin'... White Trash in there. Davina scoffs and Seth looks up her shirt.

Seth: Where is the fucker, by the way!? He's hiding from us.

‘Fucker’ is an offensive word and also often used as a term of abuse. The

word 'fucker' originally come from the modern language and represent as a stupid

person. This is currently used in a sense when the speaker wants to express the

negative value about somebody's attitude who act like a stupid person. In short,

pejorative 'fucker' is similar to 'asshole'.

Danny: What about OJ, bitch!?

Black Woman: They've done it to us again.

‘Bitch’ is also a noun and it means ‘female dog’ in authentic meaning, but

in a particular way this word is able to direct some speaker to use it as a pejorative

word. It is often the word ‘bitch’ become offensive, when the speaker used it

(44)

It is also vulgarism and suggested as high sexual desire if the word is

addressed it to a woman, compared to a dog in a heat.

Stacey: Fucking pervert, Dan!

Danny: There's a black guy outside Der...breaking into your car.

‘Fucking’ is an adjective and provides an offensive statement on pejorative

word. In dictionary meaning ‘fucking’ means 'to emphasize a statement,

especially an angry one'. In a particular way, the word 'fucking' is used and

functioned to express the expressive element in the dialogue to being spoken

powerfully, because pejorative often appear and directly to be perceived when the

words are being spoken with powerful voice and tone.

Further point out, the pejorative word can be described as a tendency of

language by the reference of offensive words and it is easy to find when the

speaker used it to describe someone's figure in a negative way. The pejorative,

often appear when the speaker understands the under the circumstances that they

are might be proved as in anger, guilt, innocent, or etc. Pejorative also often

appears in an expressive way, usually they are being spoken in raising or anger

tone in order to make it intense.

Seth: You're an idiot if you ask me. Derek: I'm not asking you.

Seth: I'll take this Negro down.

(45)

 

     

Above is another dialogue from the movie that is supporting the research

that pejorative is being spoken in anger tone, the word like ‘shut up!’.

Another pejorative characteristic as a noun can be found on the word

‘black’. The pejorative ‘black’ as a noun also acceptable to be perceived as

offensive word rather than it become an adjective. For example:

That man is a ‘black’ That man is ‘black’

Using black as a noun ‘that man is a black’ rather than an adjective ‘that

man is black’ is often acceptable, because the description of the ‘black’ as a noun

is more specific than using the description of the 'black' as an adjective. In another

way, the word 'black' as a noun can imply a primary characteristic which 'black' is

no longer described as a 'color' but it is referred as a figure of black people that

African-American has. 'black' also generally described as a colored person who

natively in American culture, it used to be racist word and considered as an

offensive word. Here is the example of the pejorative ‘black’ from the dialogue of

the movie:

Danny: I hate the fact that it's cool to be black these days. Seth: Good.

The word 'black' here become pejorative because the speaker used to refer

to race or skin color of black people. Black people considered to be offensive in

that movie because of the fact of white supremacy and white power who argued

(46)

Pejorative words has been appeared and advanced in the next explanatory

progress as follow as pejoration process. Here, for the reason of semantic change

and meaning change, the author is able to work with the interaction between

pejorative and pejoration. The author aims to understand whether pejorative as

part of pejoration or not regardless they are derived from the same pattern,

offensive words. In the next problem formulation, the author will be more focus

on the pejoration process and there will be also a table which offers a

classification about pejorative which experienced in pejoration process.

B. What are pejorative used as part of pejoration

The following page on this study also aims to analyze the pejorative in

pejoration process, in order to know what pejorative that used as part of pejoration

and what pejorative are not used as part of pejoration.

In the problem formulation (A) the words represent that pejorative appears

in the position of offensive words to the fact that the words are described as

derogatory meaning in authentic uses or dictionary meaning. Also pejorative are

rather a simple expression of derogatory terms that are used to convey the

offensive words in the fact that pejorative is only linguistics substitutes for

offensive words and they are not meant to be processed, whereby words are being

(47)

 

     

It means that not all of the pejorative are considered to be a pejoration

expression. In order to answer the development of pejorative on the pejoration

expression found the movie, it needs to look to the new use of the pejorative word

that may be intercourse in the dialogue. As for example, the pejorative word ‘ass’

here that is taken from one of the dialogue in American History X:

Danny: I knew it was you.

Sweeney: Shut up and get your ass in here!

It is considered that English 'ass' was derived from Latin word that is

analyzed by using CAL and described as 'old use of donkey' in authentic meaning,

where the word did not carry any negative meaning. Later the word 'ass' become

pejorative, as it in turn 'ass' developed into negative meaning or downgraded to be

considered as ‘a stupid person’ and considered to be a pejorative word as ‘a stupid

person’.

In this case, pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘ass’ lose its positive sense

and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to

someone. The role of ‘ass’ here to make Sweeney to enable express her negative

feelings toward Danny. The role of pejoration as the conveyer of negative

connotation will attribute or enable the speaker toward the word what they meant

(48)

Pejoration also takes a role as a tool to cover up the previous meaning or

original meaning which described as positive meaning and may become devalued

to the negative meaning with new terms or new meaning through the pejorative

application and the speaker also taking part as the main reference to help the

pejoration occurs and become the conveyer of its word.

There are 16 words of pejorative application in pejoration expression

which taking a different role in every dialogue in the movie, as pejoration occurs

in a different function and context. On the next page there will be pejorative

(49)

 

     

Table 2: pejorative expression which are pejoration

No. Words Function Original

meaning/etymology

and difficult to deal with

10. Monkey Noun Animal Someone

who appear as stupid 11. Dumb Adjective Silent Stupid

14. Bastard Noun Child Unpleasant person

(50)

The data listed above reflect that some of the pejorative words in the

dialogues can alter the pejoration process, 16 pejorative are used as a part of

pejoration process and 13 pejorative are not used as a part of pejoration process.

Below is the explanatory progress of pejorative which are involved in the

pejoration process.

Davina: You're a pig.

Doris: I don't like him in this house.

‘Pig’ as a noun and it is derived from the Middle English ‘pigge’ and

described as ‘black farm animal’. ‘Pig’ is originally attributed as positive meaning

and do not carry any negative meaning, but the latter ‘ pig’ is downgraded by

people and described as ‘a person who is unpleasant and difficult to deal with’.

The new meaning which added as negative charge from the original meaning will

add a new position and also emotive charge. Pejoration occurs when a lexeme

‘pigs’ lose its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the

vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘pigs’ here to conveys Davina’s

disparaging feeling to Derek that he is a bad person. Another example from the

dialogue:

Lawrence: Name your price, Cracker.

Derek: No money...for the court. We win, you grab your shit and find a different place to run.

‘Cracker’ is a noun and it is originally derived from Middle English and

described as ‘biscuit’ and also do not carry negative meaning, but later in

(51)

 

     

As ‘a poor usually Southern white’ which means the pejorative ‘cracker’ is

downgraded from the positive meaning into negative meaning. Nowadays, the

word ‘cracker’ often applies to described someone as a poor person.

Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘cracker’ loses its positive sense and/or

acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone.

The role of ‘cracker’ is here to make Lawrence to express his racial feelings that

‘cracker’ is a bad person for him. Another example from the dialogue:

Cammeron: How was it in there with all those fucking monkeys, man? You're lucky they didn't kill you.

Derek: I agree.

‘Monkey’ is a noun and originally from German language whose original

meaning as ' a nonhuman primate mammal' and is obviously in a positive meaning

rather than negative meaning. Nowadays, the word 'monkey' can be used in a

more negative sense as 'someone who appear as stupid'. The word 'monkey' is

frequently described as animals, however, this can be used to refer to people

negatively as when someone is called 'monkey' who act silly and funny.

Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘monkeys’ loses its positive sense and/or

acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone.

The role of ‘balls’ is here to make Cammeron to convey his disparaging feeling to

someone who appears as a stupid person. Another similar words to pejoration

monkey is ‘chicken’. Below is the example of the dialogue:

Derek: Fuck you, Cameron. You're a fucking chicken hawk...praying on kids.

(52)

‘Chicken’ is an adjective and it refers to the same meaning as ‘monkey’.

Both of them are animal while ‘chicken’ is originally mean ‘type of bird’.

Nowadays, people can refer to other speaker as ‘coward’ by using this word.

Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘chicken’ loses its positive sense and/or

acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone.

The role of ‘chicken’ is here to make Derek to enable express his anger feelings

toward Cammeron. The word ‘chicken’ here conveys a downgrading meaning

becomes ‘coward’.

Finally, there is a notion to explain pejorative as a part of pejoration

expression. Pejorative as a part of pejoration process begins with a metaphorical

departure from the original and authentic meaning sense by which the pejoration it

is occur to improve the negative connotation reference and it is influenced by the

character those who find it is low quality in order to enable to express contempt or

less respectable meaning.

Danny: What about OJ, bitch!?

Black Woman: They've done it to us again

The origin of word 'bitch' in English language is related to female of the

species, particularly dog. The metaphor produces a new concept of the main

meaning which means the word 'bitch' is experienced the extending meaning

(53)

 

     

Through this metaphor, the new meaning appears when the speaker ignore

the feature which distinguish human and nonhuman beings in order to express this

similarity in sexual behavior, and latter with the progression, the word 'bitch' now

associated with the meaning of 'unpleasant woman'.

On the other hand, pejorative are not used as pejoration process because

the words do not process or develop into something. Some pejorative already

stand with its own vocabulary and do not add something new meaning whether

they are changed into positive meaning or negative meaning. Those 16 words of

dialogue one simply offensives words in which already exist in authentic meaning

and stands in their own, as vocabulary items.

Danny: What're you doin'?!

Derek: Your brother's a piece of shit!

Based on the description of CAL, ‘shit’ carries an offensive or vulgar

expression of meaning. It is used to express the nonsense word toward another

character in the movie. The word 'shit' is not the process of pejoration, because it

is not change into negative meaning or add new meaning, and ‘shit’ is appearing

as it is.

Apart from that, pejoration appears to enable the speaker in every dialogue

willing to express and address the offensive word to the other reader or listener.

The negative direction which is valued through pejoration expression

(54)

Every dialogue in the movie conveys the intensity of each dialogue in

negative connotation meaning. The use of this negative connotation makes every

dialogue more interesting than using English standard language.

For the overall cases, not all of the pejorative word are used as a part of

pejoration expression in the fact that pejorative is the fundamental element of

pejoration expression, and they contribute better understanding to readers

meaning. Some pejorative words already exist with their own vocabulary, they do

not have to develop into something new but they already have a meaning which

can be used in certain dialogue.

On the other hand, sometimes pejorative can alter the pejoration process.

The notion of pejorative as part of pejoration expression often happens when the

word begins with the substitution of new meaning from the older one. In addition,

pejorative are used as a part of pejoration when some characters need to convey

their offensive feeling toward another character and also when they have a

contrast change and involving new meaning from an old meaning in order to carry

the development of a less favorable meaning. Pejorative are not used as a part of

pejoration when the particular word does not associate with the old feature of the

(55)

   

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

Based on the researches on this thesis writing, the conclusions of

pejoration analysis in the movie American History X have been discovered. There

are many words that experienced pejorative and pejoration in the movie. Those

happen because of several factors: the background of the movie, history, and

purpose of the movie. On the other hand, pejorative and pejoration also

contributes to the development of the English language.

The first problem presents pejorative expression found in the movie. Two

instuments, CAL and MWC, have been utilized in order to collect data and make

an excellent finding in the sense that it provides the accurate data for the reader.

Based on the analysis, 29 pejoratives were identified.

The second problem was the use of pejorative as part of pejoration

process, whether they were always experienced in pejoration process or not. It

was found that not all of the pejorative are experienced in pejoration process since

pejorative has its own vocabulary and not associated with their old utterance

meaning in semantic change terms. Further point out, the use of pejoration in the

movie is to help the movie reach its climax in every dialogue in the fact that

sometimes the characters need to raise their tone and use some non-English

(56)

As the last line of this analysis, it is very necessary to observe and capture

the concepts of pejorative in pejoration process to know the interesting part of

those combination form in English language. There is an obvious approach to

pejorative as the pejoration is being used to allow some speaker to convey their

act with offensive words toward the speaker. The pejorative and pejorativon

tendencies are also leading the audience and the reader understand meaning

change in the English language as they are appearing to facilitate communication,

and reach the intended meaning of many vocabularies and expressions in English

(57)

   

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Breal, Michel. Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning. London: William Heinemann, 1900. American Libraries. (https://archive.org/details/semanti csstudie02postgoog). March 11, 2014.

Closs, Elizabeth Traugott and Richard B. Dasher. Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University Cambridge, 2004.

C.S. Lewis. Studies in Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Study in Words Online. (http://books.google.co.id/books/about/Studies in_Words.html?id=SiemFffHcC&redir_esc=y). March 11, 2014.

Denham, Kristin and Anne Lobeck. Linguistics for Everyone: An Introduction.

Boston: Michael Rosenberg, 2009.

Hom, Christopher. "Pejoratives". Philosophy Compass.n.p. 2014. (http://philpapers.org/rec/HOMP). November 1, 2014.

Kemmer, Suzanne. "Words in English". Meaning of a Word.np. 2003. (www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words04/meaning). May 13, 2014.

McIntosh, Colin. “Cambridge Advanced learner's Dictionaries - 3rd Edition. Electronic Version”. Cambridge: University Press.

Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary “3rd Edition Electronic Version”.

Merriam Webster Inc: July 30, 2003.

Nordquist, Richard. "Pejoration". Our Grammar and Composition Expert.n.p. 2014. (www.grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/pejorterm.htm). February 11, 2014.

Palmer, F. R. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Quick Randolf, 1985.

Riemer, Nick. Introducing Semantics (Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics. New York: Cambridge, 2010.

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Weber, Jessica and Fabian Rätzer."Language Analysis of the Movie American History X". Undergraduate Thesis. Tampere: University of Tampere, 2007.

Yunawati. "The Analysis of Pejoration and Amelioration in Alice Walkers The Color Purple". Undergraduate Thesis. Depok: Gunadarma University, 2011.

Online Resources:

www.urbandictionary.com www.thesaurus.com

(59)

   

APPENDIX

Pejorative Expression Exchanges

In these pages of undergraduate thesis, the lists of dialogues are managed

in the list designs for the precise analysis. The words which are italicized are the

pejorative. These are the dialogues of pejorative in the movie.

(1) Stacey: Fucking pervert, Dan!

Danny: There's a black guy outside Der...breaking into your car.

(2) Danny: I knew it was you.

Sweeney: Shut up and get your ass in here!

(3) Danny: There's dick for waves.

Chris: I don't care. I just wanna get wet.

(4) Chris: Why do you think we fuckin' quit?

Danny: I hear you.

Jason: Daryl Dawson's a pussy faggot.

(5) Derek: What is it, Danny?

Danny: You got pigs outside.

(6) Seth: Drop the t.v., nigger.

Black Man: Fuck you!

(7) Derek: Look at the shit. Immigration...welfare...AIDS...they're all the

problems of

the non-white. Look at the statistics.

(60)

(8) Derek: Millions of white Europeans came to this country and flourished within

a generation! A generation! So what the fuck is wrong with these people?!

Reporter: What does any of this have to do with your father?

(9) Murray (O.S.): I do not have a problem with him as an individual, alright!?

Sweeney (O.S.): Oh shit Murray sure you do. You hate this kid.

(10) Sweeney: Great writing. I can't correct it though. It wreaks too much of shit.

Danny: Come on, man! I followed directions and wrote an "A" paper.

(11) Danny: What about OJ, bitch!?

Black Woman: They've done it to us again.

(12) Danny: I hate the fact that it's cool to be black these days.

Seth: Good.

(13) Davina: You're a pig.

Doris: I don't like him in this house.

(14) Derek: What the fuck, Curtis? You fuckin' nigger? Want some crack?

Curtis: No!

(15) Derek: Pull your fucking stupid head out of your ass then.

Curtis: Okay. Jesus.

(16) Seth: Lucky piece of shit! I'm through "Monkeying" around with your ass!

Lawrence spins around and challenges Seth.

Lawrence: Fat, pasty, pale, pastrami eating, cracker, motherfucker. A hundred

bucks says I make you my bitch.

(17) Seth:When I want your fucking opinion I'll ask for it, fuckhead.

Help me cover here, guys.

Cammeron: You got a big fucking mouth, fat kid.

(18) Seth: I'll take this Negro down.

(61)

     

(19) Lawrence: Name your price, Cracker.

Derek: No money...for the court. We win, you grab your shit and find a

different

place to run

(20) Lawrence: You got a lot of fucking balls, man. Bring it. Right now.

Derek: Oke!

(21) Jason: Cammeron dropped us off a copy. Dope fucking shit, man. It's all

about reclaiming the country. I'll let you read it when I'm done.

Danny: Fuck that. I just read Mein Kampf.

(22) Derek: There's a redhead out there looking for you. Go talk to her.

Cammeron: Fuck! You go with.

(23) Cammeron: How was it in there with all those fucking monkeys, man?

You're lucky they didn't kill you.

Derek: I agree.

(24) Chris: Little Henry the negroid?

Danny: Everyday there's something over there, man.

(25) Davina: What do you want!?

Seth: Open up, bitch!

(26) Seth: Where are you, you free motherfucker?

Davina: He's on the phone, asshole!

(27) Seth: Come in here and I'll show you, maggot.

Danny: Fuck off. When'd you start carryin'?

(28) Seth: Nigger lovin' Jew media calling the shots. Watch cartoons. It's the only

t.v. that's safe nowadays.

(62)

(29) Seth: Listen to you. You callin' me a blimp, you fucking Democrat?!

Davina: Yes! I am!

(30) Seth: Well...you can think of me drinkin' 'em then when you're studying with

fuckin'... White Trash in there. Davina scoffs and Seth looks up her shirt.

Seth: Where is the fucker, by the way!? He's hiding from us.

(31) Derek: Get a clue, you dumbshit. Hey! Look at me! Don't be a dickhead.

Sweeney cares about you.

Seth: Sweeney does? Since when?

(32) Cammeron: Who runs the place? The monkeys or the wetbacks?

Derek: The Mexicans.

(33) Derek: Fuck you, Cameron. You're a fucking chicken hawk...praying on kids.

Cammeron: I don't pray on fucking anyone.

(34) Lamont: Oh man! You sick fucking bastard! You sick pig!

Derek: And you don't!? Shut up!

(35) Derek: Stupid?! You have anything else to say, you little pussy! Hunh?!

Stevie: Fuckyou!

(36) Seth: Sweeney's a fuckin' nigger on a power trip, Vinyard. That's what he

was like when we were there and that's how he is now. It'll never change

either. A nigger is a nigger.

Derek: Fuck!

(37) Stacey: I hope you kill that fucker. Derek looks back at her and straight to

Cameron.

Cammeron: He might have a gun.

(38) Stacey: I hate that fucking Korean. I hope you smash his face in.

(63)

     

(39) Cammeron: Ebony and Ivory back there! Almost all of those orange kid

Relationships are black man and white women and I'm fucking sick of seein'

it! I wouldn't mind so much if it were more even.

Seth: Huge dicks, Cam. That's all it is.

(40) Seth: You're an idiot if you ask me.

Derek: I'm not asking you.

(41) Derek: We're here tonight cause we got immigration problems spiraling out

of control. We got Asians up the ass...taking over our land with their fucking

Yen. Mexicans...flocking into this place like some giant fuckin Pinata was

shattered.

All: Yeah!

(42) Seth:Wheto's your fucking green card, asshole?

Derek: Can't hide from me, motherfucker!

(43) Derek: If he did though! If that shithead killed Dan...you would have

believed the beating to be justified and so would everybody else. But since he

didn't hit anyone...it's "Hands Across America" for the son of a bitch.

Stacey: I'm with you, honey. All the way.

(44) Stacey: You callin' me a liar, Rosen Kike?

Murray: Hey goddammit! You talk to me with respect or!

(45) Murray: I never said she was a liar.

Derek: Weasel like that again Murray...you fuckin' ponytail, pussy, bagel

eating, teacher, faggot...and I'll cut your shylock nose off. Make no mistake.

(46) Murray: He's not a kid, Doris. We were kids. We didn't call people kike.

Doris: It's just gonna take some time with him. What can I do?

Figur

Table 1: pejorative expression in the movie
Table 1 pejorative expression in the movie . View in document p.38
Table 2: pejorative expression which are pejoration
Table 2 pejorative expression which are pejoration . View in document p.49

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