The media viewpoint on the issue of the resignation of South Korea`s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times.

Teks penuh

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ABSTRACT

LUPITASARI, AGUSTINA RIZKY. The Media Viewpoint on the Issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2015.

Mass media have their own viewpoint toward a certain issue. The viewpoint of one newspaper can be different from the viewpoint of other newspapers depending on how they are linguistically presented. The linguistic aspect can be the lexical choice, grammar or textual organization. This study is conducted to analyze the

media viewpoints toward the issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister

in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times through their linguistic presentation. This study focuses on the textual organization and the cohesion of a text.

There are two problems formulated in this study. The first problem is focused to analyze how each newspaper builds their cohesion in conveying the context of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister. The second problem is focused to

analyze the media viewpoint on the issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime

Minister through the cohesion of the text and their textual organization.

This study uses critical discourse analysis (CDA) because this study concerns with how the lexical choice in the news article can show how the language is

ideological that it contains certain viewpoints in the context of South Korea’s Prime Minister’s resignation due to the government’s bad handling on the ferry disaster. This study studied an event in depth by comparing two articles that were different in certain ways but had same topic. The two articles are taken from the media inside Korea and outside Korea in order to understand how this issue is presented inside Korea and outside Korea.

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ABSTRAK

LUPITASARI, AGUSTINA RIZKY. The Media Viewpoint on the Issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The

New York Times, Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2015.

Media massa mempunyai sudut pandang masing masing terhadap suatu berita. Sudut pandang sebuah surat kabar terhadap sebuah berita dapat berbeda satu sama lain tergantung dari bagaimana mereka mempresentasikannya secara linguistik. Aspek aspek linguistik tersebut antara lain pilihan kata, tata bahasa, dan organisasi tekstual. Studi ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis sudut pandang media terhadap berita tentang mundurnya Perdana Menteri Korea Selatan dalam surat kabar The Korea Herald dan The New York Times melalui presentasi linguistik masing masing surat kabar. Studi ini fokus pada organisasi tekstual dan kohesi sebuah teks.

Dalam studi ini terdapat dua rumusan masalah. Rumusan masalah pertama fokus untuk menganalisis bagaimana masing masing surat kabar membentuk kohesi mereka dalam menyampaikan konteks tentang mundurnya Perdana Menteri Korea Selatan. Rumusan masalah kedua fokus untuk menganalisis sudut pandang media terhadap issue tersebut melalui kohesi teks dan organisasi tekstual mereka.

Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan Citical Discourse Analysis (CDA) karena studi ini fokus tentang bagaimana pemilihan kata dalam sebuat artikel dalam surat kabar dapat memperlihatkan bahwa bahasa itu ideologis dengan mengandung sudut pandang tertentu terhadap isu mundurnya perdana menteri Korea Selatan akibat buruknya penanganan tenggelamnya kapal feri. Studi ini mempelajari tentang sebuah peristiwa secara mendalam dengan cara membandingkan dua artikel yang berbeda dalam beberapa hal namun memiliki topic yang sama. Kedua artikel diambil dari media massa di dalam Korea Selatan dan di luar Korea Selatan dalam rangka untuk memahami bagaimana berita ini disajikan di dalam dan di luar Korea Selatan.

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THE MEDIA VIEWPOINT ON THE ISSUE OF THE

RESIGNATION OF SOUTH KOREA’S PRIME MINISTER IN

THE KOREA HERALD AND IN THE NEW YORK TIMES

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

AGUSTINA RIZKY LUPITASARI Student Number: 104214090

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

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THE MEDIA VIEWPOINT ON THE ISSUE OF THE

RESIGNATION OF SOUTH KOREA’S PRIME MINISTER IN

THE KOREA HERALD AND IN THE NEW YORK TIMES

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

AGUSTINA RIZKY LUPITASARI Student Number: 104214090

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

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Everything you can

imagine is real

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Picasso-Nothing can be so precious than the

Almighty God, the family, the loveable

partner, and good friends.

So I dedicate this thesis to all of them.

And you,

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ACKNOWLDGEMENTS

My greatest gratitude goes to the Lord for always guiding me to finish this thesis. Now I finally learn that everything will be beautiful at its time. God’s timing is always perfect.

I would like to thank my family, my mother, my two kind-hearted fathers, and my lovely sister. I especially thank my beloved mother, Hanavia Rini who is always there whenever I need shoulder to lean on. I also thank her for her prayers in every single night and also her endless care for me.

Then, I would thank my thesis advisor, Adventina Putranti, SS., M. Hum., my co-advisor Anna Fitriati, S.Pd. M.Hum., and my examiner Dr. F. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. for giving me so many useful suggestions in order to make this thesis better. I also thank them for their patience in guiding me to finish this thesis.

I would also thank my beloved friends, Fanny Herdioktavi, Ni Kadek Septi Ratnasari, Graviela Jessica, Vania Williany, Shela Gandhiningtyas, Nyke Emitusia, Dea Kaloka, Radiaska, Sisilia Dyah Ayu, Cory Adriani, Cynthia Rani, Pramestia, Gracia Atika, Rosadelima and many other friends who cannot be mentioned one by one. I thank them for supporting me through their care and wise advices.

Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude for the one who always pushes me to work harder, Mizan Tegar Aditya. I thank him for making me understand that success is surely not for the lazy ones.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ………. ii

APPROVAL PAGE……… iii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE……….. iv

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH... v

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY………. vi

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE………. 5

A. Review of Related Studies……….. 5

B. Review of Related Theories……… 7

1. Theory of Discourse Analysis……….. 7

a. Theory of Lexical Cohesion ………... 9

i. Reiteration……… 9

ii. Collocation ……….. 10

b. Theory of Grammatical Cohesion……….. 11

i. Reference ……… 11

ii. Substitution ………. 12

iii. Ellipsis ………. 13

iv. Conjunction ………. 14

2. Theory of Semantic Feature ………... 15

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2. Data Analysis……….... 22

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS………. 24

A. The Cohesion in The Korea Herald and The New York Times in Order to Convey the Context of the Resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister.. 24

1. The Cohesion of the text from The Korea Herald entitled “Prime Minister Quits over Ferry Disaster” ……… 25

a. The Arrangement of the Subtopics……… 25

i. The offer of Prime Minister’s resignation……….. 26

ii. The Prime Minister’s statements on his resignation …………. 26

iii. The governmental issue related to the resignation ……… 27

iv. The Prime Minister’s comment on the issue of some irregularities related to the ferry disaster ……… 27

v. The opinion about the resignation of the Prime Minister ……. 27

vi. The description about the sinking of the ferry ……….. 28

vii. The critics toward the government about their bad response to the ferry sinking ……….. 28

2. The Cohesion of the text from The New York Times entitled “South Korean Prime Minister Offers to Resign over the Deadly Ferry Disaster” ……… 35

a. The Arrangement of the Subtopics……….. 35

i. The offer of Prime Minister’s resignation ……… 35

ii. The critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster ……….. 36

iii. The Prime Minister’s statements on his resignation …………. 36

iv. The irregularities on the operator of the ship which cause high death toll ………... 36

v. The governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister ………. 37

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vii. The grief of the nation due to the disaster ……… 37

b. Lexical Cohesion……….. 37

i. Reiteration ………. 37

ii. Collocation ……… 39

c. Grammatical Cohesion……….. 42

i. Reference ……….. 42

ii. Substitution ………... 43

iii. Ellipsis ……….. 43

iv. Conjunction ……….. 43

B. The Media Viewpoint on the Issue of the Resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister……… 44

1. The urgency of the resignation of the Prime Minister ………. 45

2. The cultural practice within the government of South Korea ……….. 46

3. The description of the condition of the people after the disaster happened……… 47

4. The irregularities on the operator of the ferry which is related to the disaster ……….. 49

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION………. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY……….. 53

APPENDICES……… 54

Appendix 1: The News Article of The Korea Herald Entitled “Prime Minister Quits over Ferry Disaster”……….. 54

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ABSTRACT

LUPITASARI, AGUSTINA RIZKY. The Media Viewpoint on the Issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2015.

Mass media have their own viewpoint toward a certain issue. The viewpoint of one newspaper can be different from the viewpoint of other newspapers depending on how they are linguistically presented. The linguistic aspect can be the lexical choice, grammar or textual organization. This study is conducted to analyze the media viewpoints toward the issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times through their linguistic presentation. This study focuses on the textual organization and the cohesion of a text.

There are two problems formulated in this study. The first problem is focused to analyze how each newspaper builds their cohesion in conveying the context of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister. The second problem is focused to analyze the media viewpoint on the issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister through the cohesion of the text and their textual organization.

This study uses critical discourse analysis (CDA) because this study concerns with how the lexical choice in the news article can show how the language is ideological that it contains certain viewpoints in the context of South Korea’s Prime Minister’s resignation due to the government’s bad handling on the ferry disaster. This study studied an event in depth by comparing two articles that were different in certain ways but had same topic. The two articles are taken from the media inside Korea and outside Korea in order to understand how this issue is presented inside Korea and outside Korea.

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ABSTRAK

LUPITASARI, AGUSTINA RIZKY. The Media Viewpoint on the Issue of the resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times, Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2015.

Media massa mempunyai sudut pandang masing masing terhadap suatu berita. Sudut pandang sebuah surat kabar terhadap sebuah berita dapat berbeda satu sama lain tergantung dari bagaimana mereka mempresentasikannya secara linguistik. Aspek aspek linguistik tersebut antara lain pilihan kata, tata bahasa, dan organisasi tekstual. Studi ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis sudut pandang media terhadap berita tentang mundurnya Perdana Menteri Korea Selatan dalam surat kabar The Korea Herald dan The New York Times melalui presentasi linguistik masing masing surat kabar. Studi ini fokus pada organisasi tekstual dan kohesi sebuah teks.

Dalam studi ini terdapat dua rumusan masalah. Rumusan masalah pertama fokus untuk menganalisis bagaimana masing masing surat kabar membentuk kohesi mereka dalam menyampaikan konteks tentang mundurnya Perdana Menteri Korea Selatan. Rumusan masalah kedua fokus untuk menganalisis sudut pandang media terhadap issue tersebut melalui kohesi teks dan organisasi tekstual mereka.

Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan Citical Discourse Analysis (CDA) karena studi ini fokus tentang bagaimana pemilihan kata dalam sebuat artikel dalam surat kabar dapat memperlihatkan bahwa bahasa itu ideologis dengan mengandung sudut pandang tertentu terhadap isu mundurnya perdana menteri Korea Selatan akibat buruknya penanganan tenggelamnya kapal feri. Studi ini mempelajari tentang sebuah peristiwa secara mendalam dengan cara membandingkan dua artikel yang berbeda dalam beberapa hal namun memiliki topic yang sama. Kedua artikel diambil dari media massa di dalam Korea Selatan dan di luar Korea Selatan dalam rangka untuk memahami bagaimana berita ini disajikan di dalam dan di luar Korea Selatan.

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.Background of Study

As social beings, people cannot live without communicating with others

which is through language. As George A. Miller says, “Social organization without

communication is impossible. The influence of a group can extend only as far as the

group has effective channels for communication.” (1951: 249) In order to

communicate with others, people need language as the media of it. This is where language takes its role over the relation among human being. As the media of communication, language becomes the main aspect that shall exist in order to communicate.

Language is used in daily life both verbally, like when we talk to be heard by others, and non-verbally, like when we write something to be read by others. Through the use of language, language functions as the media to deliver any kinds of message or information.

One kind of information that is delivered through language is news. According to Henry Compton B. A, the definition of news is,

“What is “news”? It is the new things that have happened recently--the things that have made the world different from what it was yesterday. Not the things that happened centuries ago, or even last year. They are now history. Not the things that happen every day. The sunrise is the most important and wonderful happening of all, but it is not news. (If the sun did not rise one morning, that

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The language of the news is different from the other kinds of written language, especially in the choice of words. According to Fowler, narrators, speech and thought presentation, the transitivity system of the language, the modality system, the lexical choices or pragmatics all contribute in one way or another to reveal

different aspects of the “angle of telling” in a text. (Sierra, 1994: 94) From that

quotation, we can conclude that “the angle of telling” in a text can be determined by its use of language especially in the aspect of lexical choices.

This undergraduate thesis examines the lexical choices used by two news articles in order to present their viewpoints from about the issue of the resignation of

South Korea‟s Prime Minister due to the sinking of a ferry which carries almost 400

students on a trip

The topic of how different lexical choices can show different viewpoint on the same issue is chosen because nowadays, lexical choices in the language of newspaper is such a strong power. Just like what Sierra quoted from Fowler,

“What is being said is that, because the institutions of news reporting, and

presentation are socially, economically, and politically situated, all news is

always reported from some particular angle.” (Sierra, 1994: 93)

As we know that the life of the people nowadays cannot be separated from the mass media, so how mass media show their viewpoint about a certain issue which later can

influence the reader‟s mind is interesting and worth studying.

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Public opinions about the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister differ from

one to another. That is why I bring this topic out.

The two newspapers being examined are chosen also because of a reason. The first news article is taken from Korean newspaper, The Korea Herald, and the other news article is chosen from the newspaper outside Korea, The New York Times. The two articles are considered the representation on the issue of the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister from the Korean mass media viewpoint and the mass media

viewpoint outside Korea. B.Problem Formulation

In order to guide and limit the points of discussion, there are two problems formulated, those are:

1. How do The Korea Herald and The New York Times build the cohesion of their

lexical items in order to convey the context of the resignation of South Korea‟s

Prime Minister?

2. What are the viewpoints of The Korea Herald and The New York Times about the

issue of the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister seen through the cohesion

of the lexical items? C.Objectives of the Study

Based on the two problems formulated before, there are two objectives of this study. First objective is to examine how The Korea Herald and The New York Times build the cohesion of the lexical items which convey the context of the resignation of

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articles, the writer wants to reveal how both news articles present their “angle of

telling” or their viewpoint about the issue of the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime

Minister.

D.Definition of Terms

Media viewpoint is media‟s attitude or opinions. In addition to more specific concept of the viewpoint of the media, Sierra quoted what Fowler said in her journal about point of view of the media discourse,

“What is being said is that, because the institutions of news reporting, and

presentation are socially, economically, and politically situated, all news is

always reported from some particular angle.” (Sierra, 1994: 92)

According to Fowler, narrators, speech and thought presentation, the transitivity system of the language, the modality system, the lexical choices or pragmatics all contribute in one way or another to reveal different aspects of the

“angle of telling” in a text.

So, media viewpoint is the angle of reporting news by the media which is presented in the aspect of linguistics. It can be from the lexical choices or pragmatics, speech and thought presentation, or anything else in the aspect of language. In this study, the aspect of linguistics which is used to reveal the media viewpoint is cohesion especially the cohesion of lexical items.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter consists of three parts which are reviews of related studies, reviews of related theories and theoretical framework. Review of related studies contains the reviews of other related studies previously done by other writers on the slightly similar topic. Then, review of related theories is review of the theories applied in this undergraduate thesis, and the last one is theoretical framework. In this part, the writer explains, one by one, the contribution of the theories and reviews in solving the problems of the study: why the theories are needed and how they are applied in the study.

A.Review of Related Studies

1. Rezkiyana’s thesis “The Study of Media Perspective through Reference and Repetition seen in RT News and Reuters in the issue of North Korean Nuclear Edition April 1, 2013

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same issue of North Korea differently. The second reason is that North Korea became the hot issue around the world because of their surprising statement of nuclear war against South Korea on March 31, 2013.

While Rezkiyana discusses the issue about North Korean nuclear issue in RT News and Reuters, this present thesis discusses about the issue of the resignation of

South Korea‟s Prime Minister after the accident of the ferry sinking. This present

thesis takes the data as same as Rezkiyana‟s thesis, that is from two articles on two

different newspapers but the difference is that Rezkiyana‟s articles are about North

Korean Nuclear, while this present thesis is about the resignation of South Korea‟s

Prime Minister due to the sinking of Ferry which kills almost 400 passengers. Both articles are published on April 27 at the day the Prime Minister resigns.

This present thesis develops Rezkiyana‟s thesis. The main topic about the

viewpoint of the media discussed by the present writer is slightly similar to the topic discussed by Rezkiyana in her thesis although the scope of analyzing media perspective is deeper than the analysis of the media viewpoint.

What makes this present thesis different with Rezkiyana‟s thesis is also on the

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2. Estiningsih’s thesis “News Ideology of Suharto’s Fall Event in “After Suharto” in Newsweek and “End of Era” Article in Time Magazine”

This undergraduate thesis discusses about the fall of Suharto event seen in two articles from TIME magazine and NEWSWEEK. The first article entitles “After

Suharto” while the second article entitles “End of an Era”. This research tries to seek

the news ideologies brought in those two articles in understanding the fall of Suharto event in Indonesia, through its representation on the vocabularies choices.

Both of this present thesis and Estiningsih‟s thesis analyze the lexical choice

in conveying certain issue. While this present thesis analyzes the cohesion of the

lexical items or vocabulary in conveying the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime

Minister, Estiningsih‟s thesis analyzes the lexical choices without analyzing its

cohesion in order to convey the fall of Suharto event. This is what makes this present thesis similar with Estiningsih‟s thesis; the analysis of the lexical choices.

Then, the thing that makes this present thesis different with Estiningsih‟s

thesis is the further analysis after analyzing the vocabulary choices. The further analysis of this present thesis is about the viewpoint of media, while further analysis

of Estiningsih‟s thesis is the news ideologies.

B.Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Discourse Analysis

Discourse analysis according to James Paul Gee in his book “How to do

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Margaret Wetherell explains that discourse is constitutive of social life. Discourse builds object, worlds, minds and social relations. It does not just reflect them. Words are about the world but they also form the world as they represent it. What is the case for humans, what reality is, what the world is, only emerges through human meaning-making (Wetherell, 2001: 16). By those elaborations, it can be concluded that discourse analysis concerns with the analysis of how language can do something and how discourse constitutes social life, and how social life in the world only emerges through human meaning-making. For example, language can be used to build reputations, manage social relations among people, or event it can be used to harm people. All of those things are possible just by language, whose meanings are made by people to do those kinds of things.

Relating to the human meaning-making through the discourse, it is important to examine the aspect of cohesion of the discourse itself. Halliday and Hasan stated that,

Cohesion refers to the range of possibilities that exist for linking something with what has gone before. Since this linking is achieved through the relation of meaning, what is in question is the set of meaning relations which function this way: the semantic resources which are drawn on for the purpose of creating text. We can interpret cohesion, in practice, as the set of semantic resources for linking a sentence with what has gone before (1976: 10)

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a. Lexical cohesion i. Reiteration

Reiteration is a form of lexical cohesion which involves the repetition of lexical item, at one end of the scale; the use of a general word to refer back to a lexical item, at the other end of the scale; and a number of things in between the use of synonym, near-synonym, or superordinate (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 278) Let us illustrate each of these in turn.

a. There was a large mushroom growing near her, about the same height as herself; and, when she had looked under it, it occurred to her that she might as well look and see what was on the top of it.

She stretched herself up on tiptoe, and peeped over the edge of the

mushroom,…

b. Accordingly… I took leave, and turned to the ascent of the peak. The climb

is perfectly easy…

c. Then quickly rose Sir Bedivere, and ran,

And leaping down the ridges lightly, plung‟d

Among the bulrush beds, and clutch‟d the sword

And lightly wheel‟d and threw it. The great brand Made light‟nings in the splendor of the moon

d. Henry‟s bought himself a new Jaguar. He practically lives in the car (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 278)

In (a), there is repetition: mushroom refers back to mushroom. In (b) climb refers back to ascent, of which it is a synonym. In (c) brand refers back to sword, of which it is a near-synonym. In (d), car refers back to Jaguar; and car is a superordinate of Jaguar – that is, a name for a more general class (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 278)

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repetition of the same lexical item but also the occurrence of a related item, which may be anything from a synonym or near synonym of the original to a general word dominating the entire class. For example: I turned to the ascent of the peak.

a. The ascent is perfectly easy (same lexical item) b. The climb is perfectly easy (a synonym)

c. The task is perfectly easy (a superordinate) d. The thing is perfectly easy (a general noun) (Halliday and Hasan, 1976:278)

ii. Collocation

Collocation is regarded as the most problematical part of lexical cohesion, cohesion that is achieved through the association of lexical items that regularly co-occur (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 284). According to Halliday and Hasan, the form of collocation can be so many, such as:

a. Pairs of synonym- near synonym. For example climb and ascent, beam and rafter, disease and illness.

b. Pairs of superordinates. For example elm and tree, boy and child, skip and play.

c. Pairs of opposites of various kinds, complementaries such as boys and girl, stand up and sit down, antonyms such as like and hate, wet and dry, crowded and deserted, and converses such as order and obey.

d. Pairs of words drawn from the same ordered series. For example dollar and cent, north and south, colonel and brigadier.

e. Pairs drawn from unordered lexical sets. For example basement and roof, road and rail, red and green.

f. Pairs which often stand in some recognizable semantic relation to one another, they may be related as part to whole, like car and brake, box and lid, or as part to part, like mouth and chin, verse and chorus; they may be co-hyponyms of the same superordinate term, ie both members of the same more general class, such as chair table (both hyponyms of furniture), walk and drive (both hyponyms of go).

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The cohesive effect is not limited to a pair of words. It is very common for long cohesive chain to be built up out of lexical relations of this kind, with words pattern like candle, flame, and flicker, hair, comb, curl, and wave, poetry, literature, reader, writer, and style, and also sky, sunshine, cloud, and rain. Such patterns occur freely both within the same sentence and across sentence boundaries; they are largely independent of grammatical structure (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 286). In brief, collocation is not limited only by pair of words but it can occur as long cohesive chains of words which share similar environment.

b. Grammatical cohesion

Grammatical cohesion deals with reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction. Let us take a look at those forms one by one:

i. Reference

According to Halliday and Hasan, what characterizes this particular type of cohesion, which we are calling reference, is the specific nature of the information that is signaled for retrieval. In the case of reference the information to be retrieved is the referential meaning, the identity of the particular thing or class of things that is being referred to; and the cohesion lies in the continuity of reference, whereby the same thing enters into the discourse a second time (1976: 31).

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not necessarily have been encoded in the text; they may be retrievable from the situation.

According to Halliday and Hasan, reference to the situation is the prior form of reference, and that reference to another within the text is a secondary or derived from this relation (1976: 32). The meaning of situational reference is a form of referring to a thing as identified in the context of situation while textual reference is a form of referring to a thing as identified in the surrounding text.

As a general rule, therefore, reference items may be exophoric or endophoric; and, if endophoric, they may be anaphoric (referring to preceeding text) or cataphoric (referring to following text). An exophoric item is one which does not name anything; it signals that reference must be made to the context of situation.

In its relation to lexical cohesion, all the types of lexical cohesion involve identity of reference; no matter whether the reiterated item has been a repetition, a synonym, a superordinate or a general word, it has been assumed to share a common referent with the original. So, if the lexical item had been reiterated it would have had the same referent.

ii. Substitution

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criterion is the grammatical function of the substitute item. According to Halliday and Hasan, there are three types of substitution. Those are nominal, verbal, and clausal. The following is a list of the items that occur as substitutes:

Nominal : one, ones, same Verbal : do

Clausal : so, not

(Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 91)

There is a borderline where substitution shades into lexical cohesion, involving the use of general words such as thing in a cohesive function (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 91). The general words, which correspond to major classes of lexical items, are very commonly used with cohesive force. The substitute one and do can be thought of as being as it were the highest point in the lexical taxonomy of nouns and verbs respectively; as such, they constitute a closed class, and so acquire a purely grammatical function. But they do function more or less as lexical items.

iii.Ellipsis

The next form of grammatical cohesion is ellipsis. Ellipsis is very similar to

substitution. It can be defined simply as „substitution by zero‟. The starting point of

the discussion of ellipsis can be the familiar notion that is „something left unsaid‟ and

another way of referring to ellipsis is in fact as „something understood‟, where

understood is used in special sense of „going without saying‟ (Halliday and Hasan,

1976: 142)

Where there is ellipsis, there is a presupposition, in the structure, that

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that something which is present in the selection of underlying options is omitted in the structure-whether or not the resulting structure is in itself „incomplete‟ (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 144).

In brief, the difference and similarity among the concept of reference, substitution, and ellipsis is that reference is presupposition at semantic level. A reference item signals that the meaning is recoverable, though not necessarily be replaced by what it presupposes; even if the presupposed item is present in the text. Then, substitution and ellipsis are presupposition at the level of words and structures. iv.Conjunction

According to Halliday and Hasan, conjunction is rather different in nature from the other cohesive relations, from both reference, on the one hand, and substitution and ellipsis on the other (1976: 226). It is not simply an anaphoric relation.

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For the whole day he climbed up the steep mountainside, almost without stopping.

a. And in all this time he met none. (additive)

b. Yet he was hardly aware of being tired. (adversative) c. So by nighttime the valley was far below him. (causal) d. Then, as dusk fell, he sat down to rest. (temporal) (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 226).

The additive is generalized semantic relation in text-forming component of the

semantic system, that is based on the logical notion of „and‟; and it is one of a small

set of four such relations that are grouped together under the heading of conjunction. Next, the basic meaning of the adversative relation is „contrary to expectation‟. The expectation may be derived from the content of what is being said, or from the communication process, or the speaker-hearer process. Under the subtopic of causal relations are included the specific ones of result, reason, and purpose. These are not

distinguished in the simplest form of expression; so, for example, means „as result of

this‟, „for this reason‟, and „for this purpose‟. The last one is temporal relation. It is

expressed in its simplest form by then. 2. Theory of Semantic Features

In order to elaborate the significant differences between the lexical items which appear as reiteration or collocation, the analysis of their semantic feature are needed. The analysis of the semantic feature of a word or lexical items is known as componential analysis. According to Ruth M. Kempson,

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What is meant by components of meaning can be clearly described by the following example:

The word spinster might be analysed as a semantic complex made up of the features (equivalently called components or markers) [FEMALE], [NEVER MARRIED], [ADULT], [HUMAN] (1997: 18).

3. Theory of Media Viewpoint

Everything that is written in a newspaper has to be transmitted through the medium of language. The transmission of a message through language almost of necessity encodes value into the message. Language gathers its own emotional and

cultural „loading‟. What this loading is will depend on the nature of the culture or

subculture in which the language exists. For example if a particular culture has little respect for certain groups, concepts or beliefs, then the language for expressing ideas about those groups, concepts or beliefs will reflect that attitude. Therefore, when these things are written about, people reading the text will have their attitudes reinforced by the way the language presents these things to them. A simple and obvious way in which language can be used to present specific ideas about a group is through the choice of words used to name and describe that group. (Reah, 2004: 55)

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Sierra in her journal quotes Fowler:

We choose language according to the circumstances, and those circumstances are ideologically and socially determined. This makes linguistics critical because it assumes that the links amongst people and society are not arbitrary and accidental, but are institutionally determined. (1994: 92)

In addition to more specific concept of the viewpoint of the media, Fowler said:

“What is being said is that, because the institutions of news reporting, and

presentation are socially, economically, and politically situated, all news is

always reported from some particular angle.” (1994: 92)

The discourse of the press is probably the clearest example of how objective facts can be understood in completely different ways depending on how they are linguistically presented.

According to Fowler, narrators, speech and thought presentation, the transitivity system of the language, the modality system, the lexical choices all contribute in one

way or another to reveal different aspects of the “angle of telling” in a text. (Sierra,

1994: 92)

C.Theoretical Framework

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the lexical items and identifying the cohesion of the lexical items which convey the

context of resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister. This theory also enables the

writer in describing the cohesion of the lexical items supported by the grammatical cohesion.

After figuring out the cohesion of the lexical items which covey the context of

the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister, this study goes further into the

analysis of the viewpoint of the media to the issue. In order to answer the second problem formulation, the theory of semantic feature and the theory of viewpoint of media are applied. These theories enable the writer to compare each text‟s employment of lexical items by its semantic feature. Then, these theories also enables

the writer to compare each media‟s viewpoint on the issue of the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister based on the principles that media always have certain

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the writer presents the description on the methodology used in conducting this study in order to have a guidance to do the research systematically. There are three main parts of this chapter: object of study, approach of the study, and method of study.

A. Object of the Study

This study deals with the lexical items related to the context of the resignation

of South Korea‟s Prime Minister used in two articles from The Korea Herald and The

New York Times. The one from The Korea Herald entitled “Prime Minister Quits

over Ferry Disaster” and the one from The New York Times entitled “South Korean

Prime Minister Offers to Resigns over Deadly Ferry Disaster”. Both articles are

taken from the on-line version of the newspapers. “Prime Minister Quits over Ferry

Disaster” in The Korea Herald is written by Yoon Min-sik while “South Korean

Prime Minister Offers to Resigns over Deadly Ferry Disaster” in The New York Times

is written by Choe Sang Hun.

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Minister Chung Hong-Won made a statement to resign from the government. This kind of situation became highlight to mass media since this moment has newsworthiness and news value. Both national and International mass media published this news all together including The Korea Herald as the daily media in South Korea and The New York Times as the media outside South Korea.

This study focuses on the analysis of the lexical items in the two news-articles that build the cohesion of each text. Then, after analyzing the cohesion, this study goes further on the media viewpoint of each news article seen from the cohesion. The example of the data of this study, in The Korea Herald,

“Witnessing the sorrows of those who lost their loved ones and sadness and anger of the people, I felt the right thing for me to do was to take all

responsibility as the prime minister.”

The bold and underlined words in the sentence above are the sample of lexical items which contribute to the cohesion of the text as a form of reiteration. That is the sample of the data in this study.

B. Approach of the Study

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the language is ideological that it contains certain viewpoints in the context of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister‟s resignation due to the government‟s bad handling on the

ferry disaster, therefore, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is considered relevant in this research.

C. Method of the Study

In this part, the writer explains the method used in this research, including the data collection and data analysis. This thesis uses a qualitative method in the analysis because this study is meant to prove how the analysis of linguistics details, especially the cohesion of the lexical items can show the viewpoint of the media in the issue of

the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister.

1. Data Collection

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associated one another. Those lexical items were the data which were analyzed later on the aspect of cohesive force.

2. Data Analysis

There were four steps in conducting this study. The first step was collecting the data. The data were in form of lexical items. The lexical items were collected according to their number of repetition and their association with the other lexical items. These lexical items were taken from the article as chains of cohesive keywords representing every smaller subtopic of the texts. Each of news articles has 7 subtopics. The 4 subtopics were same between The Korea Herald and The New York Times and the 3 subtopics of each news articles were different. The 4 similar

subtopics between the two articles were: the offer of Prime Minister‟s resignation, the

statements of the Prime Minister on his resignation, the governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister, and the criticism toward the government about their bad response to the disaster.

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

This chapter is divided into two subchapters. The first subchapter answers the first problem formulation about how The Korea Herald and The New York Times build their cohesion in order to convey the context of the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister. Then, the second subchapter answers the second problem

formulation about how the media viewpoints on the issue of the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister are seen through the cohesion of the text.

The first subchapter is divided into two parts, which are the analysis of cohesion in The Korea Herald and the analysis of cohesion in The New York Times. Then, every part is divided into three parts which are the analysis on the arrangement of topics, the lexical cohesion and the grammatical cohesion. The analysis of lexical cohesion is divided into reiteration and collocation, and then the analysis of the grammatical cohesion is divided into reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction. Then, in the second subchapter, the writer reveals the media viewpoint on the issue of

the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister according to the cohesion of the

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A.The Cohesion in The Korea Herald and in The New York Times which Convey the Context of the Resignation of South Korea’s Prime Minister

1. The Cohesion of the text from The Korea Herald entitled “Prime Minister Quits over Ferry Disaster”

The article from The Korea Herald entitled “Prime Minister Quits over Ferry

Disaster” has 7 subtopics which the 4 subtopics are similar to the article from The

New York Times, while the rest 3 subtopics are different from The New York Times. This article maintains its cohesion by using the cohesion forms of reiteration, collocation, reference, and conjunction. This text does not use the cohesion forms of substitution and ellipsis.

a. The Arrangement of Subtopics

The order of the topics in news-writing is not merely a placement without carrying a purpose. According to the theory in news-writing, the topics should flow from the most important to the less important. Although the topic flows from the most important to the less important, all of the topics which convey the whole context give contribution to the cohesion of the text. We cannot say that what is stated in the last part is not important. It is also important but it is just being less stressed by the media in order to set the right angle from their perspective.

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The New York Times, vice versa because some detail information can carry some perspective about the issue that is discussed. This matter also can show what points that each newspaper wants to highlight. The Korea Herald elaborates the context of

the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime Minister into 7 subtopics. The subtopics and

its elaboration are in the following points. i. The offer of Prime Minister’s resignation

This subtopic is in the beginning part of the news article which describes the offer of the resignation of the Prime Minister. So, according to its placement in the text, the offer of the resignation of the Prime Minister is the most prominent information that the readers should catch at their first sight of reading. The prominence of this topic also reflected on the headline, “Prime Minister Quits over

Ferry Disaster”. The headline of the article does not mention “South-Korea” which is

different from The New York Times because this article is an article which is published inside South Korea, so the people who read this article already share the same background knowledge about which Prime Minister that resigns.

ii. The Prime Minister’s statements on his resignation.

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resign. He stated that his decision to resign was the right thing to do for he had witnessed the sorrows, sadness, and anger of the people which were caused by his bad handling at the disaster.

iii.The governmental issue related to the resignation.

After elaborating the statements of the Prime Minister in his moment of resignation, the text continues to elaborate about the governmental issue related to the resignation. The resignation of the Prime Minister causes some changes in the government. The Prime Minister‟s resignation caused a cabinet reshuffle but it seemed that the cabinet reshuffle would be delayed because the offer of the resignation would be accepted by the President after the accident was resolved.

iv.The Prime Minister’s comment on the issue of some irregularities related to the ferry disaster.

This subtopic only appears on The Korea Herald. The Korea Herald includes this subtopic in the news article while The New York Times only mentions about the irregularities without adding the comment of the Prime Minister on it. In this subtopic, The Korea Herald shows the response of the Prime Minister about the irregularities in the disaster not just merely describes the irregularities that contributed to the disaster like in The New York Times

v. The opinion about the resignation of the Prime Minister.

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from the public but also from the main opposition of the government. Mostly, the opinions about the resignation of the Prime Minister are negative. The main

opposition New Politics Alliance for Democracy blasted the Prime Minister‟s offer to

resign as utterly irresponsible and cowardly while the public called it as abrupt. vi.The description about the sinking of the ferry.

In this subtopic, The Korea Herald gives the details about the sinking of the ferry including the weight of the ferry, the route of the ferry, the total numbers of the passenger and the numbers of the passenger which were sunk.

vii. The critics toward the government about their bad response to the ferry sinking.

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b. Lexical Cohesion i. Reiteration

In the aspect of reiteration, there are 6 lexical items which are reiterated in The Korea Herald. The form of reiteration includes the reiteration of the same lexical items, reiteration of the synonym, and the reiteration of the near-synonym. There is no reiteration in the form of superordinate in The Korea Herald.

There are 3 lexical items in The Korea Herald which are reiterated by its same

lexical item. Those lexical items are “Prime Minister”, “Chung”, and “response”. The

lexical item of “Prime Minister” is repeated 3 times while the lexical item of

“Chung”, which is the short name of the Prime Minister, is repeated 6 times. That is

more frequent compared to the repetition of the lexical item of “Prime Minister”. The Korea Herald tends to mention the Prime Minister by his short name rather than by his position in the Government. The third lexical item which is repeated by its same lexical item is “response”. This lexical item is repeated twice.

The other form of reiteration in The Korea Herald is reiteration of the synonym. There are two pairs of lexical items which are repeated by its synonym. The lexical item which is repeated by its synonym is “outrage”. It is repeated by the

lexical item of “anger”. Then, the second lexical item is “sorrow” which is repeated

by its synonym “sadness”. Another form of reiteration is the repetition of the near

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ii. Collocation

In The Korea Herald, there are 8 chains of lexical items which occur as collocation which support the text in building its lexical cohesion. Each chain has its own semantic relation which conveys the context about the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister.

The first chain of lexical items occurs in the first subtopic about the offer of

Prime Minister‟s resignation. Those lexical items are “offered to resign” and “public

outrage”. In this topic, the semantic relation between the two lexical items can be

described as cause and effect. It is perceived by the keyword „outrage‟ as the cause of

the „offer‟. On other words, the offer of Prime Minister‟s resignation is caused by the

outrage of the public.

Then, there are two chains of lexical items in the second subtopic about the

Prime Minister statement‟s on his resignation. There are two chains of lexical items

because there are two points that the Prime Minister mention in his resignation. The first point that the Prime Minister mentions in his resignation is his apology to the people for a series of problems that he had done in handling the disaster. This subtopic is represented by the chain of lexical items including the lexical items of

“apologized”, “a series”, “steps”, “response”, and “measures”. Then, the second chain

of lexical items which convey the context about the statements of the Prime Minister

in his resignation includes the lexical items of “witnessing”, “sorrow”, “sadness”, and

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that one factor out of many factors which make him resigns is that he had witnessed the sorrow, sadness, and anger of the people.

The next chain of lexical items occurs in the subtopic of the governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister. The lexical items which occur

as collocation in this subtopic are “accept” and “resolved”. These lexical items share

semantic relation of being complementary. The offer of Prime Minister‟s resignation will be accepted if the disaster is resolved.

Then, in the subtopic of Prime Minister‟s comments on the issue of some

irregularities related to the ferry sinking, the chains of lexical items which collocate

are “rampant “corruption and malpractices””, “rooted out”, irregularities”,

“revealed”. This subtopic only appears on The Korea Herald. The Korea Herald

includes this subtopic in the news article while The New York Times only mentions about the irregularities without adding the comment of the Prime Minister on it.

The next subtopic in The Korea Herald is the opinions about the resignation of the Prime Minister. This subtopic only appears in The Korea Herald. The New York Times does not mention about the opinion of the public about the resignation of

the Prime Minister. The resignation of the Prime Minister is considered „abrupt‟. By

the main opposition, the resignation is considered as „utterly irresponsible‟ and

„cowardly‟. So, the meaning relation of this set of lexical items is that they are all

describing the opinions about the resignation of the Prime Minister.

The Korea Herald describes the accident by the lexical items of „capsized‟

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description of the accident by those lexical items. Then, the last chain of lexical items which occur as collocation in The Korea Herald is in the subtopic of the critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster. The lexical items are

almost negative including “mistook”, “false report”, “failing to act promptly”, and

“inconsistent”.

c. Grammatical Cohesion i. Reference

Reference is a semantic relation. The relation between reference and lexical cohesion is that all types of reiteration involve identity of reference. All of the reiterated items must have same referent. In The Korea Herald, the lexical items

which are reiterated are the lexical items of “Prime Minister”, “Chung”, and

“response”. Those lexical items are repeated by its same lexical items. Then, there is

lexical item of “outrage” which is reiterated by its synonym “anger”. Next is the

lexical item of “sorrow” which is reiterated by its synonym “sadness”. Then the last

lexical item which is reiterated is the lexical item of “irresponsible” which is reiterated by its near-synonym “abrupt”.

Those reiterated items must have the same referent. For example, the lexical

item of “Prime Minister”. It is repeated for 3 times in 3 different sentences but in all 3

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Then, the next lexical item is the lexical item of “Chung”. It is repeated for 6

times in 6 different sentences in the text but in all 6 sentences the lexical item of

“Chung” has same referent. It refers to the sort name of the Prime Minister. Then, the

lexical item of “response” which is repeated for twice has same referent too. It refers

to the action of the government in order to cope with the disaster.

Those lexical items are the lexical items which are repeated by its same lexical item. Then, there are 2 lexical items which are repeated by its synonym. The first lexical item is the lexical item of “outrage” which is reiterated by its synonym

“anger”. Both lexical items share the same referent of the public‟s anger especially

the family of the victims. The next lexical item which is reiterated by its synonym is

“sorrow” which is reiterated by “sadness”. Both lexical items “sorrow” and “sadness”

have same referent of the sadness of the people due to the disaster.

The last reiterated item is the lexical item of “irresponsible” which is

reiterated by its near-synonym “abrupt”. Both lexical items refer to the opinion about the resignation of the Prime Minister.

ii. Substitution

The borderline between the lexical cohesion and substitution is in the use of

general words such as “thing” in cohesive function. The general words, which

correspond to major classes of lexical items, are very commonly used with cohesive force.

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in the meaning, The Korea Herald presents the text with no substitution with general words cannot be said that it carries no implication. The fact that The Korea Herald uses no general words in the text implies that The Korea Herald wants to presents the issue with its details by using no general words but by using specific nouns and verbs iii.Ellipsis

Ellipsis is very similar to substitution. It can be defined simply as

“substitution by zero”. The starting point of the discussion of ellipsis can be the

familiar notion that is „something left unsaid‟ and another way of referring to ellipsis

is in fact as „something understood, where understood is used in special sense of

„going without saying‟.

By that definition, the analysis goes in The Korea Herald finds no use of ellipsis in the text. It implies that The Korea Herald wants the reader to understand all information clearly. So, there are no words which are omitted. Everything is clear with its details.

iv.Conjunction

Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings. In The Korea Herald, there are only two conjunctions

used, the conjunction „and‟ and „or‟. The conjunction „and‟ is used for 11 times and

the conjunction „or‟ is used for twice.

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of conjunction cannot be said to have cohesive relation because they do not hold between sentences and make the flow of the idea clear.

2. The Cohesion of the Text from The New York Times entitled “South Korean Prime Minister Offers to Resign over Deadly Ferry Disaster”

The article from The New York Times entitled “South Korean Prime Minister

offers to resign over Deadly Ferry Disaster” has 7 subtopics which the 4 subtopics

are similar to the article from The Korea Herald, while the rest 3 subtopics are different from The Korea Herald. The number of subtopics between The New York Times and The Korea Herald are the same. The cohesion forms used by The New York Times are similar to The Korea Herald which maintains its cohesion by using the cohesion forms of reiteration, collocation, reference, and conjunction. This text does not use the cohesion forms of substitution and ellipsis.

a. The Arrangement of Subtopics

The New York Times elaborates the context of the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister into 7 subtopics. The subtopics and its elaboration are in the

following points.

i. The Offer of Prime Minister’s Resignation

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ii. The critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster. Then, The New York Times continues the topic with the elaboration about the critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster. In the subtopic of the critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster, The New York Times elaborates the critics by the public toward the government which are mostly negative.

iii.The Prime Minister’s statements on his resignation

The New York Times continues the flow of the subtopics to the subtopics about the statements of the Prime Minister in his resignation. The New York Times elaborates this subtopic very similar to The Korea Herald. In his resignation, the Prime Minister stated his apology to the people. Rather different from The Korea Herald, The New York Times does not state the details of what the Prime Minister apologizes for. Besides stating the apology to the people, the Prime Minister was also stating his offer to resign. He stated that his decision to resign is the right thing to do for he had seen the sadness and fury of the people which were caused by his bad handling at the disaster.

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related to the disaster, but different from The New York Times, it does not discuss the kinds of irregularities which cause high death toll like in The New York Times.

v. The governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister The next topic is about the governmental issue related to the resignation. The resignation of the Prime Minister must have impacts toward the government. While The Korea Herald discusses about the acceptance of the resignation by the President, The New York Times adds the stereotype of the position of the Prime Minister and President in Korean society.

vi.The recent report about the death toll and rescue struggle

After presenting the topic about the issue on the government after the resignation of the Prime Minister, The New York Times continues the flow of the topics with the recent report about the death toll and rescue struggle. Again, this subtopic only appears on The New York Times.

vii. The grief of the nation due to the disaster

Then, the next topic is the grief of the nation due to the disaster. Mostly, the condition is described as very sad and tragic. This subtopic is in the last part of the text.

b. Lexical Cohesion i. Reiteration

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“apology”. The lexical item of “Mr. Chung” is repeated 3 times while the lexical item

of “apology” is repeated twice. Different from The Korea Herald, The New York

Times mentions the Prime Minister by “Mr. Chung”. While The Korea Herald repeats

the lexical item of “response”, The New York Times repeats the lexical items of

“apology”.

The other form of reiteration in The New York Times is reiteration of the synonym. There are two pairs of lexical items which are repeated by its synonym.

The first lexical item which is repeated by its synonym is “The South Korean

Government”. It is repeated by the lexical item of “the Government”. Then, the

second lexical item is “sadness” which is repeated by its synonym “grief”. Another

form of reiteration is the repetition of the near-synonym. In this type, there is a

repetition of the lexical item “failing” with its near-synonym “fumbling”.

By repeating particular lexical items, the cohesion of the text in conveying

some significance related to the issue about the resignation of South Korea‟s Prime

Minister can be seen. By repeating the lexical items of “Mr. Chung” for 3 times The

New York Times shows that the media inside South Korea tends to mention the Prime Minister as more formal by calling him by Mr. Chung. It is different from The Korea Herald which mentions the Prime Minister by his nickname “Chung”.

By repeating the lexical item of “apology”, which refers to a regretful

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Then, similar to The Korea Herald, The New York Times also reiterates the lexical items which refer to the sadness of the people especially the family of the victims due to the ferry disaster, but by different lexical choices. That is the lexical

item of “sadness” by its synonym “grief”.

ii. Collocation

In The New York Times, there are 9 chains of lexical items which occur as collocation which support the text in building its lexical cohesion. Each chain has its own semantic relation which conveys the context about the resignation of South

Korea‟s Prime Minister.

The first chain of lexical items occurs in the first subtopic about the offer of

Prime Minister‟s resignation. Those lexical items are “apologized”, “offered to

resign”, “angry” and “saddened”. In this topic, the semantic relation between those

lexical items can be described as cause and effect. The lexical items of “angry” and

“saddened” are the cause of the appearance of the lexical items of „apologized‟ and

“offer to resign”. On other words, the offer of Prime Minister‟s resignation is caused

by the anger of the public and the condition of them which is saddened by the disaster.

Then, the second subtopic is about the critics toward the government about their bad response to the disaster. This subtopic is represented by the chain of lexical items including the lexical items of “failing to respond”, “fumbling”, “quickly”, and

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The next chain of lexical items occurs in the subtopic of the Prime Minister‟s

statements in his resignation. The lexical items which occur as collocation in this subtopic are “apology” and “saw”, “sadness”, and “fury”. Then, the next subtopic is about the irregularities on the operator of the ship which cause high death toll. This subtopic only appears in The New York Times. The lexical items which collocate are:

„instructed‟, „stay‟, „listing dangerously‟, „sinking off‟, „criminal charges‟, and

„accidental homicide‟. One of the irregularities done by the crew is instructing the

passenger to stay in their cabin while the ship was listing dangerously and finally sinking off. This act is accused as criminal charges, including accidental homicide. The New York Times, as I said earlier, it only shows the irregularities in the crew and operator which mention the detail of the accusation to crew.

Then, The New York Times continues the topic with the topic about the governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister. In The Korea Herald, the governmental issue related to the resignation of the Prime Minister is only perceive by the subtopic of the acceptance of the resignation by the President, while in The New York Times, the subtopic also covers about the governmental culture in South Korea.

In The New York Times also occurs the other collocation of lexical items which share the context about the governmental culture in South Korea. The lexical items which collocate in this subtopic are „ceremonial‟, „executive‟, „fired‟, „scandal‟,

and „failure‟. The meaning relation of these chains of cohesive items is that in South

Figur

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