Aturan aturan perubahan dalam kalimat di (1)

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(1)

Aturan – aturan perubahan dalam kalimat direct ke indirect speech

To be & Auxiliary Verbs

Direct > Indirect

Am/is/are > was/were Shall/will > should/would May > might

Can > could

Have/has to > had to

Tenses

Direct Indirect

Simple present > simple past

Present continuous > past continuous

Present perfect continuous > past perfect continuous Simple future > past future

Time & Place

Direct > Indirect

Tonight > that night Now > then

Next week > the following week Tomorrow > the following day

Contoh Kalimat

Statement/Pernyataan Direct speech:

Aria said, “I will give you a book next week”.

Aria berkata, “Aku akan memberimu sebuah buku bulan depan”.

Indirect Speech:

Aria said that he would give me a book the following week.

Aria mengatakan bahwa dia akan memberi ku sebuah buku bulan depan.

Direct speech:

He said, “I work in a bank”

Dia berkata, “Saya bekerja di sebuah Bank”

(2)

He said that he worked in a bank.

Dia berkata bahwa dia bekerja di sebuah bank.

Direct speech:

They said, “We are going to beach tomorrow” Dia berkata, “Kami akan pergi ke pantai besok”

Indirect speech:

They said that they were going to beach the following day. Dia berkata bahwa mereka akan pergi ke pantai besok

Direct speech:

She said, “I am sad now” Dia berkata, “Aku sedih saat ini”

Indirect Speech:

She said that she was sad then. Dia berkata bahwa dia sedih saat itu.

Direct speech:

I said, “John has been waiting for you since two hours” Aku berkata, “John sudah menunggu kamu selam dua jam”

Indirect Speech:

I said that John had been waiting for you for two hours.

Aku berkata bahwa John sudah meunggunya selama dua jam.

Direct speech:

I told Jerry, “I can fix this computer soon”

Aku memberitahu Jerry, “Aku dapat memperbaiki computer ini segera”.

Indirect speech:

I told to him that I could fix this computer immediately.

Aku memberitahu dia bahwa aku bisa memperbaiki komputer ini segera.

Direct speech:

Marry told us, “I have to go now”

Marry memberitahu kami , “Aku harus pergi saat ini”

Indirect speech:

(3)

Jika Verb di reporting sentence present maka verb di reported sentence tidak berubah

Direct speech:

John tells Anne “I will pick you up at seven o’clock tonight”

John memberitahu Anne, “Aku akan menjemputmu pada jam 7 malam malam ini.

Indirect speech:

John told to Anne that he will pick her up at seven o’clock tonight.

John memberitahu Anne bahwa dia akan menjemput dia jam 7 malam itu.

Direct speech:

Andy says “I have had lunch with John recently”

Andy berkata, “Aku sudah makan siang dengan John tadi”

Indirect speech:

Andy said to marry that he has had lunch with John recently. Andy berkata kepada Marry bahwa dia telah sarapan tadi.

Direct Speech:

My mother says, “This flower needs to be watering frequently” Ibuku berkata, “Bunga ini butuh disiram sering-sering”

Indirect Speech:

My mother said that this flower needs to be watering frequently. Ibuku berkata bahwa bunga ini butuh disiram teratur.

Direct speech:

My brother tells to me, “I am reading a book now”

Saudaraku memberitahuku, “aku sedang membaca buku sekarang”

Indirect speech:

My brother told to me that he is reading a book then.

Saudaraku memberitahuku bahwa dia sedang membaca sebuah buku saat ini.

Advertisement Command/Perintah

Direct speech

He asked me “Open the door please!” Dia meminta ku, “Tolong buka pinu!”

(4)

He asked me to open the door please. Dia memintaku untuk membeuka pintu.

Direct speech

My father told me, “Don’t come home late!”

Ayahku memberitahuku, “Jangan pulang terlambat!”

Indirect speech

My father told to me not to come home late.

Ayahku memberitahuku untuk tidak pulang terlambat.

Direct speech

Teacher asked me, “Open the page 23 now!” Guru meinta ku, “Buka halaman 23 sekarang!”

Indirect speech

Teachers asked us to open the page 23 then.

Guru memintaku untuk membuka halaman 23 saat itu.

Direct speech

Andy asked “Don’t leave me alone!”

Andy memintaku, “Jangan tinggalkan aku sendiri!”

Indirect speech

Andy asked that to not leave him alone.

Andy memintaku untuk tidak meninggalkannya sendiri.

Direct speech

My uncle told me “Come and visit us next week!”

Pamanku memberitahuku, “Datang dan kunjungi kami bulan depan!”

Indirect speech

My uncle told to me to come and visit them the following week.

Pamanku memberitahuku untuk datang dan mengunjungi mereka bulan depan.

Jika Verb di reporting sentence present maka verb di reported sentence tidak berubah

Direct speech

She tells him, “Don’t touch me!”

(5)

She told to him not to touch me.

Dia memberitahunya untuk tidak menyentuhnya.

Direct speech

His father asks, “Study hard!”

Ayahnya mengatakan, “Belajar yang giat!”

Indirect speech

His father asked him to study hard.

ayahnya berkata kepadanya untuk belajar giat.

Direct speech

The gardener tells me “don’t step on the grass!”

Si tukang kebun memberitahuku, “Jangan menginjak rumput!”

Indirect speech

The gardener told to me not to step on the grass.

Si tukang kebun memberitahuku untuk tidak menginjak rumput.

Direct speech

John tells Marry, “Hurry up!” John memberitahu Marry,” cepat!”

Indirect speech

John told to marry to hurry up.

John memberitahu Marry untuk cepat.

Question/Pertanyaan

Direct speech

John asked Marry, “Why do you come late today?”

John menanyai Marry, “Kenapa kamu datang terlambat hari ini?”

Indirect speech

John asked Marry why she came late that day.

John menanyai marry kenapa dia datang terlamba hari itu.

Direct speech

I asked my uncle, “When will you visit us here?”

Aku menanyai pamanku, “kapan kau akan mengunjungi kami di sini?”

(6)

I asked my uncle when he would visit us here.

Aku menanyai pamanku kapan dia akan mengunjungi kami di sini.

Direct speech

My mother asked me, “Where are you last night?”

Ibuku menanyaiku, “Dimana aku berada kemarin malam?”

Indirect speech

My mother asked me where was I that night. Ibuku menanyaiku dimana aku berada malam itu.

Direct speech

Andy asked me, “Have you finished the homework?” Andy menanyaiku, “Sudahkah aku menyelesaikan PR?”

Indirect speech

Andy asked me if I had finished the homework.

Andy menanyaiku apakah aku telah menyelesaikan PR.

Direct speech

My brother told to me, “Are you okay?”

Saudaraku memberitahuku, “Apakah aku baik-baik saja?”

Indirect speech

My brother told to me whether I was okay or not. Saudaraku menanyaiku apakah Aku baik baik saja?

Direct speech

Aria asked John, “Can you be quiet for a while?”

Aria menanyai John, “Dapatkah kamu dia untuk beberapa saat?”

Indirect speech

Aria asked John if he could be quiet for a while.

Aria menanyai John apakah dia bisa tenang untuk beberapa saat.

Direct speech

I asked John, “Does you want to come with us?” Aku menanyai John, “Apakah kamu mau ikut kami?”

Indirect speech

(7)

Be and Being

Kata Kerja ‘to be‘ disebut juga Stative Verb. Kata Kerja tersebut jarang digunakan dalam bentuk kata kerja continuous (progressive) seperti, Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous, dll.

 I am sad at the moment (BUKAN I am being sad…) (Saya sedang sedih saat ini)

 He was in the kitchen when the phone rang (BUKAN He was being in the kitchen…) (Dia sedang ada di dapur ketika teleponnya berbunyi)

 I will be in Semarang this time next week (BUKAN I will be being in Semarang…) (Saya akan sedang ada di Semarang pada jam segini minggu depan)

Namun, beberapa kata kerja statif dapat juga digunakan dalam bentuk kata kerja Continuous ketika mengandung makna tertentu. Be adalah salah satu dari kata kerja tersebut.

Kalimat berikut ini tidak salah karena be digunakan untuk menggambarkan sebuah aktivitas.

 The children are being very naughty (= They are doing naughty things) (Anak-anak sedang melakukan hal-hal yang nakal)

 He was being careless (= He was doing something carelessly) (Dia sedang melakukan sesuatu yang sangat ceroboh)

Bandingkan contoh berikut ini, dimana be digunakan tidak untuk menggambarkan sebuah aaktivitas:

 I hope you are well. (BUKAN I hope you are being well). (Saya harap kamu segera baikan)

 He was very happy when his friends arrived. (BUKAN He was being very happy …) (Dia sangat senang saat teman-temannya tiba)

Penggunaan lainnya dari kata being adalah dalam bentuk kata kerja Pasif. Kita biasanya memakainya dengan kata kerja bentuk ketiga. Bentuknya seperti di bawah ini:

Present progressive (am/are/is being + past participle)

 The shop is closed because it is being renovated. (Toko itu tutup karena sedang direnovasi)

Past progressive (was/were being + past participle)

 I knew that he was being dishonest. (Saya tahu bahwa ia sedang berbohong) Passive -ing forms (being + past participle)

 They look forward to being invited. (Mereka berharap diundang)

be + infinitive

Rencana Yang Matang: Fungsi bentuk seperti ini adalah untuk menjelaskan suatu rencana yang sudah disusun terlebih dahulu, terutama untuk menjelaskan suatu rencana yang bersifat resmi.

 The President is to visit Nigeria next month. (Presiden akan mengunjungi Nigeria bulan depan)

Nasib: Fungsi ini juga untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

 I thought we were saying goodbye for ever. But we were to meet again, many years later. (Saya pikir kita akan berpisah selamanya. Namun kita akan berjumpa lagi, beberapa tahun kemudian)

Pra-syarat: Di dalam Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional), ketika klausa utama mengekspresikan sesuatu yang harus terjadi dulu jika sesuatu yang lainnya itu terjadi.

 We must hurry if we are to get there by lunchtime. (Kita harus buru-buru jika kita mau tiba disana saat makan siang)

Perintah: bentuk ini juga untuk memberikan perintah

 You can go to the party, but you are not to be back late.

(Kamu bisa pergi ke pesta itu, namun kamu tidak boleh pulang terlambat)

(8)

 This cover is not to be removed. (Penutupnya tidak boleh dibuka)

Figur

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