The effects of implementing scientific approach in KTSP to help Arjuna Vocational School Students In Mastering Speaking Skill.

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vi ABSTRACT

Henelawati, Inka Ayu. 2015. The Effects of Implementing Scientific Approach

in KTSP to Help Arjuna Vocational School Students in Mastering Speaking Skill. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma

University.

Communicative skill, especially speaking skill, can be improved by motivating the students to learn and widely open the opportunity for the students to practice during the teaching learning activity. However, in Arjuna vocational high school (disguised), the students lack in practicing their speaking skill because most of the tasks given by the teacher were covered by written assignments. Lack of having interaction with the teacher and the other students could also lead to cognitive problem because they were not able to experience meaningful learning in constructing their knowledge. Those problems, especially in communicating, become the factors which can influence the students to build up their perception that mastering speaking skill is difficult. The researcher proposes using Scientific Approach within KTSP in teaching learning process to open the opportunity for the students in practicing speaking skill. In the implementation of Scientific Approach, the students could experience fun and meaningful learning activity through six stages of learning: observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, networking, and creating.

In this research, the researcher addresses two research problems, namely (1) What is the students’ perception on their problem in mastering speaking skill? (2) What are the effects of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP on the students’ ability in mastering speaking skill? To answer the research problems, the researcher uses the theory of Scientific Approach, theory of perception, and attitude.

In order to collect the data, the writer first distributed the questionnaire to 29 students of 11th grade of Arjuna vocational school. The result of the questionnaire was strengthened by the result of FGD (Focus Group Discussion) by interviewing 6 students as the representative of the class. Those two methods were conducted in order to help the writer discover the answer for the first question.

Answering the second research question, the researcher presented the result of hypothesis testing of the speaking tests which show an observable improvement in mastering speaking skill. The description of the process of implementing Scientific Approach through the researcher’s field notes during the treatment can strengthen the result of the hypothesis testing. It solves the students’ problem in mastering speaking skill and changes their perception that speaking is difficult.

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vii

ABSTRAK

Henelawati, Inka Ayu. 2015. The Effects of Implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP to Help Arjuna Vocational School Students in Mastering Speaking Skill. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Keterampilan berkomunikasi, terutama keterampilan berbicara dapat ditingkatkan dengan memotivasi para siswa untuk belajar dan membuka luas kesempatan bagi siswa untuk berlatih selama aktifitas belajar. Tetapi, di SMK Arjuna (disamarkan), para siswa kurang diberi kesempatan untuk melatih keterampilan berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris karena sebagian besar tugas yang diberikan oleh guru merupakan tugas tertulis. Hal tersebut dikarenakan para siswa kurang mengalami interaksi dengan guru dan siswa yang lain juga dapat mengacu kepada masalah kognitif karena mereka tidak dapat mengalami pembelajaran yang bermakna dalam membangun pengetahuan mereka. Masalah- masalah tersebut, terutama dalam berkomunikasi, menjadi faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi siswa dalam membangun persepsi mereka bahwa menguasai kemampuan berbicara itu sulit. Peneliti mengajukan penggunaan Pendekatan Saintifik yang diterapkan dalam KTSP pada proses belajar mengajar untuk membuka kesempatan bagi para siswa untuk melatih keterampilan berbicara. Pada penerepan pendekatan saintifik, para siswa dapat merasakan kegiatan belajar yang menyenangkan dan bermakna melalui enam tahapan pembelajaran: mengamati, menanya, mencoba, mengasosiasikan, mengkomunikasikan, dan mencipta.

Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengajukan dua rumusan masalah, yakni (1) Apa persepsi para siswa terhadap masalah mereka dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara? (2) Apa efek dari penerapan pendekatan saintifik dalam KTSP terhadap kemampuan para siswa dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara? Untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut, penulis menggunakan teori mengenai pendekatan saintifik, teori tentang persepsi, dan sikap.

Untuk mengumpulkan data, pertama penulis mendistribusikan lembar kuesioner kepada 29 siswa kelas 11 SMK Arjuna. Hasil dari kuesioner diperkuat dengan hasil dari FGD (fokus diskusi grup) dengan mewawancarai 6 siswa sebagai wakil kelas. Kedua metode tersebut dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk membantu penulis dalam menemukan jawaban untuk pertanyaan pertama.

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan kedua, peneliti menyajikan hasil dari pengujian hipotesis dari tes berbicara yang menunjukan peningkatan yang terlihat dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara. Deskripsi dari proses penerapan pendekatan saintifik melalui catatan penulis selama mendapatkan perlakuan khusus dapat memperkuat hasil pengujian hipotesis. Hasil tersebut dapat memecahkan masalah para siswa dalam menguasai kemampuan berbicara dan merubah persepsi mereka bahwa berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris itu sulit.

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THE EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTING

SCIENTIFIC APPROACH IN KTSP TO HELP

ARJUNA VOCATIONAL SCHOOL STUDENTS

IN MASTERING SPEAKING SKILL

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Inka Ayu Henelawati Student Number: 111214079

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and that references, as a scientific paper should.

Yogyakarta, August 10, 2015

The Writer,

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LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Inka Ayu Henelawati

Nomor Mahasiswa : 111214079

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakan Universitas Santa Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul:

THE EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTING SCIENTIFIC APPROACH IN KTSP TO HELP ARJUNA VOCATIONAL SCHOOL STUDENTS

IN MASTERING SPEAKING SKILL

beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis,

Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal: 10 Agustus 2015 Yang menyatakan

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vi

ABSTRACT

Henelawati, Inka Ayu. 2015. The Effects of Implementing Scientific Approach

in KTSP to Help Arjuna Vocational School Students in Mastering Speaking Skill. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma

University.

Communicative skill, especially speaking skill, can be improved by motivating the students to learn and widely open the opportunity for the students to practice during the teaching learning activity. However, in Arjuna vocational high school (disguised), the students lack in practicing their speaking skill because most of the tasks given by the teacher were covered by written assignments. Lack of having interaction with the teacher and the other students could also lead to cognitive problem because they were not able to experience meaningful learning in constructing their knowledge. Those problems, especially in communicating, become the factors which can influence the students to build up their perception that mastering speaking skill is difficult. The researcher proposes using Scientific Approach within KTSP in teaching learning process to open the opportunity for the students in practicing speaking skill. In the implementation of Scientific Approach, the students could experience fun and meaningful learning activity through six stages of learning: observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, networking, and creating.

In this research, the researcher addresses two research problems, namely (1) What is the students’ perception on their problem in mastering speaking skill? (2) What are the effects of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP on the students’ ability in mastering speaking skill? To answer the research problems, the researcher uses the theory of Scientific Approach, theory of perception, and attitude.

In order to collect the data, the writer first distributed the questionnaire to 29 students of 11th grade of Arjuna vocational school. The result of the questionnaire was strengthened by the result of FGD (Focus Group Discussion) by interviewing 6 students as the representative of the class. Those two methods were conducted in order to help the writer discover the answer for the first question.

Answering the second research question, the researcher presented the result of hypothesis testing of the speaking tests which show an observable improvement in mastering speaking skill. The description of the process of implementing Scientific Approach through the researcher’s field notes during the treatment can strengthen the result of the hypothesis testing. It solves the students’ problem in mastering speaking skill and changes their perception that speaking is difficult.

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vii

ABSTRAK

Henelawati, Inka Ayu. 2015. The Effects of Implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP to Help Arjuna Vocational School Students in Mastering Speaking Skill. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Keterampilan berkomunikasi, terutama keterampilan berbicara dapat ditingkatkan dengan memotivasi para siswa untuk belajar dan membuka luas kesempatan bagi siswa untuk berlatih selama aktifitas belajar. Tetapi, di SMK Arjuna (disamarkan), para siswa kurang diberi kesempatan untuk melatih keterampilan berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris karena sebagian besar tugas yang diberikan oleh guru merupakan tugas tertulis. Hal tersebut dikarenakan para siswa kurang mengalami interaksi dengan guru dan siswa yang lain juga dapat mengacu kepada masalah kognitif karena mereka tidak dapat mengalami pembelajaran yang bermakna dalam membangun pengetahuan mereka. Masalah- masalah tersebut, terutama dalam berkomunikasi, menjadi faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi siswa dalam membangun persepsi mereka bahwa menguasai kemampuan berbicara itu sulit. Peneliti mengajukan penggunaan Pendekatan Saintifik yang diterapkan dalam KTSP pada proses belajar mengajar untuk membuka kesempatan bagi para siswa untuk melatih keterampilan berbicara. Pada penerepan pendekatan saintifik, para siswa dapat merasakan kegiatan belajar yang menyenangkan dan bermakna melalui enam tahapan pembelajaran: mengamati, menanya, mencoba, mengasosiasikan, mengkomunikasikan, dan mencipta.

Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengajukan dua rumusan masalah, yakni (1) Apa persepsi para siswa terhadap masalah mereka dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara? (2) Apa efek dari penerapan pendekatan saintifik dalam KTSP terhadap kemampuan para siswa dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara? Untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut, penulis menggunakan teori mengenai pendekatan saintifik, teori tentang persepsi, dan sikap.

Untuk mengumpulkan data, pertama penulis mendistribusikan lembar kuesioner kepada 29 siswa kelas 11 SMK Arjuna. Hasil dari kuesioner diperkuat dengan hasil dari FGD (fokus diskusi grup) dengan mewawancarai 6 siswa sebagai wakil kelas. Kedua metode tersebut dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk membantu penulis dalam menemukan jawaban untuk pertanyaan pertama.

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan kedua, peneliti menyajikan hasil dari pengujian hipotesis dari tes berbicara yang menunjukan peningkatan yang terlihat dalam menguasai keterampilan berbicara. Deskripsi dari proses penerapan pendekatan saintifik melalui catatan penulis selama mendapatkan perlakuan khusus dapat memperkuat hasil pengujian hipotesis. Hasil tersebut dapat memecahkan masalah para siswa dalam menguasai kemampuan berbicara dan merubah persepsi mereka bahwa berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris itu sulit.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all I would like to thank God for giving me strength and courage in the process of completing my thesis. I was able to finish this thesis by His blessings and guidance. He gives me power to believe and pursue my dream to finish this thesis.

I am also thankful to my major sponsor, P. Kuswandono, Ph.D., my thesis advisor, for his support, patience, advice, guidance, comments, suggestions, and encouragement. I am thankful for all lecturers for their valuable knowledge during my years of study in English Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University. May God always bless them.

My appreciation goes to the headmaster and all of teachers of Arjuna vocational high school (disguised) especially the English subject teacher for allowing me to conduct my observation in their school. To all my respondents, my students of grade 11 of Arjuna Vocational High School, I really thank them for their participation in my research.

I would like to thank my parents, Kastomo and Indarsih, who always support me mentally and financially. They always give me strength whenever I am down and encourage me to keep up. Their remarkable effort to educate me is one of the greatest loves that they give to me.

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support me every time I need them. I also want to express my thanks to all people that I cannot mention one by one here.

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x

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... i

APPROVAL PAGES ... ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... iv

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... v

ABSTRACT ... vi

ABSTRAK ... vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... x

LIST OF APPENDICES ...xiii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Research Background ... 1

B. Research Problems ... 6

C. Problem Limitation ... 6

D. Research Objectives ... 7

E. Research Benefits ... 7

F. Definition of Terms ... 8

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 11

A. Theoretical Description ... 11

1. Scientific Approach ... 11

2. Scientific Approach Theory ... 14

3. Perception ... 17

4. Attitude ... 20

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B. Theoretical Framework ... 23

1. Hypothesis ... 23

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY ... 25

A. Research Method ... 25

B. Research Participants ... 26

C. Research Setting ... 27

D. Research Instruments ... 27

1. Questionnaire ... 28

2. FGD ... 30

3. Speaking Test: Pre-test and Post-test ... 30

4. Field Notes ... 31

E. Data Gathering Technique ... 31

1. Preparation ... 31

2. Distributing Questionnaire and Conducting the FGD ... 32

3. Conducting the Pre-test ... 32

4. Treatment ... 32

5. Conducting the Post-test ... 33

F. Data Analysis Technique ... 33

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 36

A. Students’ Perception on Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill ... 36

1. The Nature of Perception ... 37

2. Factors Influencing Perception ... 43

3. Students’ Attitude to Solve Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill ... 47

B. The Effect of Implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP ... 50

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2. The Researcher Field Notes

During The Treatment in Class ... 52

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 59

A. Conclusions ... 59

B. Recommendations ... 62

REFERENCES ... 65

APPENDICES ... 68

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LIST OF APPENDICES Page

Appendix 1 School Permission Letter... 69

Appendix 2 Scientific Approach Lesson Plan ... 70

Appendix 3 Result of Questionnaire ... 82

Appendix 4 Speaking Test’s Instruction ... 89

Appendix 5 Rubric of the Pre-test ... 90

Appendix 6 Rubric of the Post-test ... 92

Appendix 7 Scoring Guide for Speaking Test ... 94

Appendix 8 Result of T-test ... 96

Appendix 9 Result of FGD ... 101

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LIST OF TABLES Page

3.1 The Nature of Perception ... 29

3.2 The Factors Influencing Perception ... 29

3.3 Student’s Attitude to Solve Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill ... 30

3.4 The Scoring Grade for Questionnaire ... 34

4.1 The Nature of Perception ... 37

4.2 The Factors Influencing Perception ... 44

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LIST OF FIGURE Page

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This research investigates the implementation of Scientific Approach in

KTSP to help vocational high school students in mastering speaking skill in

language learning, especially in where the research was conducted. This introductory chapter consists of six major sections, namely the research background, the research problems, the problem limitation, the research objectives, the research benefit, and the definition of terms.

A. Research Background

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criticize the teacher’s performance and school’s facilities. In Arjuna Vocational High School, the students tend to use Javanese and Indonesian languages during the English subject teaching learning activities. It happened because the teaching method which was used by the teacher did not facilitate the students to practice their speaking ability during the teaching learning activities. The learning activity that was dominated by written assignments without the teacher’s guidance also limits the students’ opportunity to practice in speaking. It also decreases the students’ motivation in learning. Moreover, the lack of teaching learning books that was not enough for the total number of the students also hindered the learning process. Those problems influence the students to build up negative perception that speaking skill is difficult. According to Ferianda (2013), perception can also be determined by the environment, interaction, and also behavior, that in this case, happen to the students. It can be concluded that the students give up trying to use the language in the learning process. They had already built up their perception that speaking English is difficult because the environment and the interaction with the teacher or the other students did not support them to improve their speaking ability.

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period in teaching English subject, the researcher was appointed to teach the 11th grade. That is why the researcher found the proof to strengthen the issues that led the researcher did this research.

According to UU 20/2003, about national education system and PP no.

32/2013 about standard national education, every subject of learning is focused on

covering three domains namely affective, knowledge, and skill (Kemendikbud,

2012). Those domains are also stated on the process standard of Kurikulum

Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (henceforth abbreviated as KTSP). However, on the

implementation of the learning process in the KTSP, the most dominant domain is on the knowledge domain. The real example was framed in Arjuna Vocational High School through the teacher’s method that only left written assignments without considering students’ need to have fun and to have meaningful learning activities. Through teacher’s method, it can be seen that the other two domains are not fully achieved. The other two domains are covering the students’ interaction

and participation in gaining the knowledge in order to have real experience in meaningful learning activities. Taher (2013) notes that affective domain deals with the student’s interaction with their teacher and the other students to build up

positive behavior in learning. To have sufficient interaction, the students need to become active participants. That is why the researcher proposes to implement the Scientific Approach to teach the students.

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Scientific Approach in teaching English focuses on the achievement of integrated skills, which means that the speaking skill is also counted as important part of learning. Further definition of integrated skills is also employed by Brown (2004) (as cited in Ferianda, 2013). It is a whole language approach if a course deals with speaking skill, then, it will also deal with listening, writing, and reading skills. For example, the purpose of learning is to improve students’ speaking skill. The learning activity consists of meaningful reading and writing tasks of the topic. For the application can be in a discussion and oral presentation which requires speaking and listening skills.

The six stages also stimulate the students to improve their speaking skill because the opportunity to speak English is widely opened. The aim of the implementation of Scientific Approach is the students can maintain their motivation in learning and change their perception that speaking in English is difficult. This perception is influenced by the old teaching method that was not facilitating the students to practice.

Therefore, through this study, the researcher is going to find out the result of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP to help the students in mastering speaking skill. The implementation itself is not only considering the knowledge construction, but also the students’ interaction and participation in order to

achieve the goal in mastering the language to communicate.

The researcher’s decision to implement Scientific Approach in KTSP is

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2007, p. 15). In the implementation of KTSP, there are a lot of approaches that were implemented in teaching learning activities. Badan Nasional Satuan

Pendidikan (henceforth abbreviated as BNSP) does not mention Specific

Approach that must be implemented in every subject. BNSP only states about the teaching method as it is stated in Permendiknas no.41/2007, that the teaching method should be appropriate for the students’ situation and condition. The characteristic of each indicator and the competence must be achieved in each subject (p. 10).

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B. Research Problems

This study is aimed to address these following research questions:

1. What is the students’ perception on their problems in mastering speaking skill? 2. What are the effects of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP on the students’ ability in mastering speaking skill?

C. Problem Limitation

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D. Research Objectives

Based on the problem limitation, this research has two objectives. The first one is to find out the students’ perception on their problems in mastering speaking skill. The second one is to know the effects of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP on the students’ ability in mastering speaking skill.

E. Research Benefits

It is expected that the results of the study can be beneficial for the students, the teacher, and the future researchers. It is expected that the students are able to solve their problems in mastering speaking skill by implementing Scientific Approach. For the teacher and the future researchers, the study can help to find better solution on the implementation of Scientific Approach.

1. The Students

The result of this research is expected to give benefit to the students who have problem in mastering speaking skill, such as lack of vocabulary, lack of spoken interaction, and communication strategies. The result of this research is expected to find the solution of the students’ perception on their problem in

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2. The Teacher

This study helps the teacher to understand how to maximize the Scientific Approach in the learning process. The result of this research is also expected to have contribution to the development of the teaching learning process. Furthermore, this study will help the teacher to understand the students’ problems in speaking skill. This research can help the teacher to make a beneficial decision to improve the students’ awareness and motivation in mastering the speaking skill. 3. The Future Researchers

This study will help the future researchers to understand the students’ perception on the speaking problems. The future researchers can try to find out better solutions for the educational development, especially ELT in Indonesia. This study can also help the future researchers to develop the study on the implementation of the Scientific Approach as the original process standard of Curriculum 2013.

F. Definition of Terms

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1. Speaking

The important idea of speaking is a tool of communication which refers to the medium of the message (aural/oral or written). According to Bailey (2005), speaking is a productive aural/oral skill which consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning (p. 48).

2. Scientific Approach, KTSP and Curriculum 2013

Scientific Approach is an approach that is used for giving a material based on fact which can be explained by logic. The result of learning is expected to create productive, creative, innovative, and affective students by integrating their attitude, skill, and knowledge (Kemendikbud, 2013). Scientific Approach consists of six stages namely, observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, networking, and creating which are the compilations of many stages in affective, skill, and knowledge domain (Permendikbud, 2013).

KTSP or School-Based Curriculum is designed based on PP No. 19/2005.

Sutena, Padmadewi, and Artini (2013) states that the schools are allowed to make their own syllabus and lesson plan under the supervision of district or city department. However, in the curriculum development, the newest curriculum namely Curriculum 2013 was implemented on July, 2014. According to Lazim (2013), Curriculum 2013 is covering the competence of attitude, skill, and knowledge.

3. Student’s Perception

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expectations (Hochberg, 1978). By having such experience in learning, the student will interpret and shape their view based on their experience in learning. The students’ perception is being observed in order to find out their problems in mastering speaking skill.

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11 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the researcher is going to present some related theories to the research problem. It consists of two major sections, namely the theoretical description and the theoretical framework.

A. Theoretical Description

The researcher would like to discuss some theories which are related to the topic. The theories are Scientific Approach, the theory of Scientific Approach, the theory of perception, and attitude. The purposes of using those theories are to strengthen the result of the research and to find out the correlation between the result of the research and also theories proposed by the experts.

1. Scientific Approach

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the students increase and balance their ability in soft skills and hard skills to build up students’ productivity and creativity.

In the curriculum development, there is a change in the learning process of the implementation of Scientific Approach in Curriculum 2013. Based on (Kemendikbud, 2012), Scientific Approach has five stages of learning process, namely observing, questioning, associating, experimenting, and networking. Those are the original stages that are proposed by the government. According to

Permendikbud no. 65/2013 about the process of standard, the stages in the

learning process become 6 steps which are observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, networking, and creating. The last step is taken from the knowledge domain which is adapted to complete the learning process (p. 3). Another definition of Scientific Approach as it is stated by Sani (2014), Scientific Approach is developed from Dyer’s theory about components of innovative skill integrated in the learning process which are observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and networking (p. 53).

However, the researcher uses the component of Scientific Approach as it is proposed by Permendikbud no.65/2013 with six stages of learning process, namely observing, questioning, associating, experimenting, networking, and creating. All stages are described below:

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2. In the questioning stage, the role of the teacher can be optimally needed. An effective teacher becomes the inspiration for the students to increase and develop their attitude, skill, and knowledge (Lazim, 2013, p. 4). The teacher, who is trying to give a question to the students, can direct the students to be a good learner. While the teacher gives the answer of the students’ question, he/she pushes the students to be a good listener. Almost all of the questions in this stage are primarily seek for verbal feedback by changing the structure of the question word into statement.

3. In the experimenting stage, in order to get factual and authentic result, the students must hold an experiment. In language learning, the students must comprehend the concept of language as a tool of communication in their daily life. The students also must develop their knowledge and are able to use scientific methods to solve the problems that happen in their daily life.

4. In the process of associating, the teacher and the students are the active participants. However the students must be more active in the learning process. Associating itself is the process of logic and systematic thinking based on empiric and observable fact to get the node in the form of knowledge.

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6. Creating is the stage in which the student shows a result of their learning process.

Those stages are primarily used to make the students understand and be more active in the learning activities. The students are challenged to be more creative and innovative in order to achieve the goal of learning. The following paragraph explains about the Scientific Approach theory.

2. Scientific Approach Theory

In the implementation of Scientific Approach, Taher (2013) has said that the learning process is mainly focused on these three taxonomy; Bloom’s

taxonomy on the knowledge domain, Krathwohl’s affective domain, and Dyer’s

skill domain that support five stages in Scientific Approach.

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Scientific Approach’s stages and strengthening the domain of the student’s knowledge.

The researcher has mentioned that Scientific Approach is dealing with

three domains. The next domain is Krathwohl’s affective domain. There are some

interrelationship between cognitive domain and affective domain. This interaction helps to build the correlation between comprehension and responding in order to apply and value the information (Taher, 2013). On the next theory, the researcher is going to explain further about Krathwohl’s affective domain.

Affective domain deals with emotions, attitudes, and value (Krathwohl, 1961) (as cited in Taher, 2013). In teaching learning process, it deals with the interaction between the teacher and the students to build a relationship. This theory is about how the students build their value system based on the students’ learning experiences. Krathwohl’s affective domain is originally contains five levels which are receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing (Taher, 2013). From the lowest level that is receiving, the students pay attention to the stimulus to form positive behavior from their respond to the stimulus which is given in the learning process. For example, a student who loves reading gradually makes it as his/her positive behavior as the result of the stimulus and the direction from the teacher in the learning activity by using books. As the students who have already paid attention and built up their positive behavior, the students will actively participate as a part of their habit. The learning result of this stage is the

students’ respond; this stage seeks for the students’ interest in the learning

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the students will deal with act of determining value, belief, and attitude toward the learning process. The students will show their commitment in the learning process. Then, the students will organize his/her commitment in the learning process until the students gain their own characterization and build up a value

system to control their behavior. Those are the explanation of the students’

attitude in receiving and digesting the knowledge. On the next paragraph, the researcher will explain the Dyer’s theory about skill domain.

Originally, this theory is used for creative leadership by Dyer (2011). This domain contains five stages, which are associating, questioning, observing, experimenting, and networking. Dyer (2011) states that people have more creative capacity than they think. It is about innovative ideas coming from and the ability to connect seemingly unrelated ideas and put them together in new ways.

1. In the associating stage, a student is trying to associate his/her creative thinking, lateral thinking, associational thinking, and right brained thinking.

The students’ creativity is connecting things as a creative people connecting

experiences that they have and synthesize new things (Dyer, 2011, p. 6). 2. In the questioning stage, the students must actively question at the steady state

at a given time (Dyer, 2011, p. 26). The students gain understanding of what the problem is and make an identification to solve it.

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4. In the experimenting stage, the students learn new skill, taking apart ideas and processes. The students must piloting ideas to test hypothesis to answer the questions (Dyer, 2011).

5. In the networking stage, a student is finding and testing ideas with a network of individuals who are diverse in both background and perspective (Dyer, 2011, p. 53).

As the conclusion, in the skill domain, students are actively processing their discovery behavior namely associating, questioning, observing, experimenting, and networking by using their cognitive skill in associating to

make a product as the result of the students’ creative idea. Scientific Approach is

believed can help the students to improve their ability in speaking and change their perception. The change of students’ perception can influence their attitude in learning; not to use Javanese and Indonesian language but trying to use English during the teaching learning process.

3. Perception

Perception, as it is described by Altman and Valenzi (1985) is the way stimuli are selected and grouped by a person so that they can be meaningfully interpreted (p. 85). Each person will have the different point of view because they select information (stimuli) and interpret in the different way. The process of perception can help us to understand and adapt with the environment in where we live. If people do not sort out the stimuli in their environment, they will be

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In line with Altman and Valenzi’s definition, the journal of perception and human perception (as cited in Ferianda, 2013) states that perception is the way human try to understand the world around them (p. 27). People gather information through their five sense organs, and perception adds meaning to the sensory inputs. Each person can have different ways in interpreting the information about the environment.

In line to the theory of perception, perception in learning has correlation between belief and concept. It has connection with belief about knowledge that is

able to influence students’ behavior toward learning (Ferianda, 2013). It means

that perception plays an important role in the process of gaining the knowledge. According to Biggs (1992) (as cited in Ferianda, 2013), in gaining the knowledge, there is a system which relates the concept with the environment. The concept is formed by the stimuli coming from the environment namely interactive system. Interactive system has three elements which are presage, process, and product or learning outcome (Ferianda, 2013, p. 13). Presage is an indicator of future occurrence. It includes learning conception and learning context for example

teachers and school’s facility, and also students’ understanding about knowledge

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learning strategies used. According to Ferianda (2013), the students can have good learning outcome when the learning strategies that are used are suitable for them. The learning outcome can make the students have positive perception on the learning process. Students’ perception in learning is influenced by the teaching method and process of teaching learning activities. Campbell (2001) (as cited in Ferianda, 2013), states that those three elements are also mentioned in the five elements of the language teaching learning activities that build the students’ perception. The five elements cover 1) the way the teacher teaches the students, 2) the kind of materials that the teacher wants the students to learn, 3) the students behavior in class during the learning process, 4) the materials that the students learn, 5) the goal of learning the language (p. 14).

a. Factors Influencing Perception

There are four factors that influence a person’s perception; 1) selection of stimuli, 2) organization of stimuli, 3) the situation, and 4) the person’s self- concept (Altman & Valenzi, 1985, pp. 85-90).

1) Selection of Stimuli

People focus only on a small number from the entire stimuli around them. This process is known as a selection and one reason why people perceive things differently. Each person selects specific cues and filters, or screens, out of others. 2) Organization of Stimuli

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data by selecting certain items and putting them together in a meaningful way based on experience.

3) The Situation

The third factor which influences perception is the situation. A person’s perception familiarity with, or expectations about, a situation, as well as his/her past experience, affects what that person perceives. Perceiving a situation accurately is also related to how well a person adjusts his/her behavior to situations.

4) Self-concept

The fourth factor that influences perception is self-concept. The way people feel about and perceive themselves is known as self-concept. The way people see themselves affects their perception of the world around them.

4. Attitude

According to Altman and Valenzi (1985), attitude is a person relatively enduring disposition toward people, objects, events, or activities (p. 94). Those feeling can be positive or negative and typically learned over a period of time. Because attitude itself is multidimensional, they manifest the simultaneous operation of several factors, on of it is conative component (p. 95). Conative component is behavioral disposition a person exhibits toward an attitude object. 5. Related Studies

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(2013). This study mainly talks about the implementation of process standard and also refers to the vocational student’s problem in speaking. However, their finding focus on the implementation of process standard in teaching English in terms of planning, learning process, assessment used in lesson plan and the problem faced by the teacher in implementing the process standard of teaching English in SMK Negeri 1 Gianyar. The process standard that has been mentioned in this study is the process standard of KTSP. Therefore, through Sutena, Padmadewi, and

Artini’s study, the researcher tried to find the comparison by implementing

Scientific Approach especially in the learning process which changed the process from Exploration, Elaboration, and Confirmation into observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, networking, and creating. The researcher only focuses on the effect of implementing the steps in Scientific Approach in the learning process.

The second study is about Scientific Approach in curriculum 2013 to improve student’s skill in critical thinking by Leksono (2014). This study focuses on how the Scientific Approach can increase students’ ability to think critically. Therefore, through this study, the researcher tried to relate how the implementation of Scientific Approach in teaching vocational high school students.

The difference between Leksono’s study and the researcher’s study is that

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hypothesis to see whether there are any observable effects or not. The other difference is that in the researcher study, she tried to implement Scientific Approach in KTSP not in Curriculum 2013. The reason is because the researcher tried to suggest the school which returns into KTSP can also implement Scientific Approach in their learning process. In Permendiknas no 41/2007 about the process standard, it is clearly stated that teacher can implement any approaches, media, and sources of learning without changing the spirit of KTSP (p. 15). It can be a solution to prepare both the teacher and the students when the Curriculum 2013 is implemented to all schools later on. This approach is also suggested to make the students become active and creative in the learning process through its steps.

The third related study was a thesis by Ferianda (2013) about perception in the implementation of integrated skills in critical listening and speaking class by English language education students of Sanata Dharma University. The thesis is

discussed about the students’ perception on integrated skills by considering the

nature of perception, the factors that influence students’ perception in order to see

whether the integrated skills are applicable and acceptable or not. The similarity

between Ferianda’s study and the researcher’s study is that both studies use the

same theory by Altman and Valenzi (1985) about perception which are the nature

of perception and the factors that influence students’ perception. However, in the

researcher study, the main idea does not only stop on perception but also on the

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B. Theoretical Framework

The theories above are the basis of the theoretical framework for the research. There are two research problems in this research. The first one concerns

with the students’ problems in mastering speaking skill. The second one is about

the effects of implementing Scientific Approach on the students’ ability in speaking skill. To answer the first research problem, the researcher chooses to use the theory of perception and the students’ attitude by Altman and Valenzi (1985). The theory of perception and attitude were used as the basis for constructing the

questionnaire. The nature of perception is used as the guidance to see the student’s

perception toward English subject. The second one is the factors that influence the

student’s perception. However, the researcher only used 3 factors and took out the

organization of perception. The last 3 statements in the questionnaire, the researcher relates the result with the theory of attitude.

To answer the second research problem, the researcher analyzes the data to proof that implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP can improve the students’ ability in speaking by calculating the data manually using a paired sample t-test. In order to strengthen the proof, the researcher explains the factors which influence the observable improvement through the researcher’s field notes during the treatment that can be explained by using Scientific Approach and the theory of Scientific Approach.

1. Hypothesis

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25 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

The methodology and procedures employed in this research are presented in this chapter. This chapter is organized into six major sections, namely the research method, the research participants, the research setting, the research instruments, the data gathering technique, and the data analysis technique.

A. Research Method

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improvement, the researcher used field notes to record and described the students’ activities and improvement during the learning process.

There are two types of pre-experimental design (Salkind, 2011). The first one is one group of pre-test and post-test design. This type is a simple experimental research design without the involvement of a control group. The reason for not involving a control group is because there was only one class for the 11th grade. This type is considered as a pre-experimental design because it includes only one group of participants. This design can be diagrammed as:

Students assigned to group Pre-test treatment implemented Post-test Figure 3.1 One Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design

To see the effect of implementing Scientific Approach, the researcher compared the result of the pre-test and the post-test. Pre-test was given before the group got the treatment. After the students got the treatment, the researcher conducted the post-test.

B. Research Participants

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(Focus Group Discussion), pre-test, post-test, and field notes. The researcher invited all of the students of 11th grade to be the participants to gain the data for the questionnaire. However, the participants of the questionnaire were 29 students who attended the class because there were 4 students who were absent at that time. Afterwards, the researcher selected 6 students as the representative of the class. The selection was based on their participation in the class and their grade of mark. For the field notes and speaking evaluation, the researcher invited the entire members of the class. Those steps will be explained further in the research instruments and the data gathering technique.

C. Research Setting

This research was conducted in the second grade of Arjuna Vocational High School (disguised). The researcher’s decision to disguisethe school’s name was to protect the school’s privacy. It is because the research’s results criticize the

teacher’s performance and school’s facility. The decision is made as the consideration that the result might harm the school’s name. The information

collection was done in Arjuna Vocational High School. The research was begun on April 7, 2015 up to May 4, 2015.

D. Research Instruments

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post-test, and field notes. The instruments were used to collect the data in order to answer the research questions in the research problems.

1. Questionnaire

The first instrument was questionnaire. According to Taylor (1996) (as cited in Ferianda, 2013), questionnaire is used as a tool to get information which can be managed in a form of table and discussion. The questionnaire was closed-ended form to get the data of the students’ perception on their problem in mastering speaking skill. It was divided into three categories which are the nature of perception, the factors which influence students' perception, and students’ attitude to solve their problems. The first category was about the nature of perception. It was about the students’ motivation, interaction, and environment. The second category was about factors that influence the students’ perception. The specific statements of the factors were divided into some parts. The first was about the situation which influenced the student’s perception about their problem in mastering speaking skill. The second part was the selection of stimuli, which are the common problems which hinder the students in learning English subject. The last part was the students’ self-concept. The third category was about the student’s attitude to solve their problem. The questionnaire used Indonesian

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Table 3.1 The Nature of Perception

No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree

Strongly

motivation in mastering English language actively

Table 3.2 The Factors Influencing Perception

No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree

Strongly Disagree 8 I have difficulty in learning

English, especially speaking skill

9 I have difficulty in memorizing vocabulary; therefore, my speaking ability is limited hesitant to speak in English 13 I have difficulty to speak in

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No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree

Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree 14 It is easier for me to write / read

rather than speak / listen during teaching learning activities

Table 3.3 The Student’s Attitude to Solve Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill

No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree

Strongly Disagree 15 I learn actively in class so that I

am able to master English language, especially speaking skill.

16 I try to solve my problem and difficulty in learning by consulting to the teacher subject. 17

It is easier for me to master English language by practicing and discussing it with friends.

2. FGD (Focus Group Discussion)

Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a group interview. It offers the opportunity to interview several respondents systematically and simultaneously (Boateng, 2012). In this research, FGD was used as a tool to gather the data to strengthen the result of the questionnaire. The respondents of the FGD were 6 students. They were selected as the order: 2 students who always get high scores, 2 students who were in the middle and 2 students who were in the low rank. The questions of the interview were originally used in the questionnaire (see Appendix 9).

3. Speaking Test

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influence of implementing Scientific Approach. The evaluations were conducted twice by using the same instruction (see Appendix 4). The evaluation was conducted based on scoring guide for speaking in Brown’s book (2004) about oral proficiency scoring categories and speaking rubric (see Appendix 7). Originally, in Brown’s rubric, there are 6 aspects to assess. However, in this research, the researcher omitted one aspect, namely task. This action was taken because during the oral presentation, the students did not get through question and answer session.

4. Field Notes

During the treatment, the researcher wrote the improvement and the students’ engagement by using field notes (see Appendix 10). The researcher wrote down the process of the pre-test on April 9, 2015 until the post-test on May 4, 2015. Therefore, the reason of presenting the field notes was to strengthen the result of the speaking evaluation that the students improve their ability in speaking by participating during the learning process in the implementation of Scientific Approach.

E. Data Gathering Technique

In order to collect the data, the researcher took several steps. These steps of data gathering technique will be explained below.

1. Preparation

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conduct the research with the subject teacher. Last, the researcher came to school and conducted the researcher from April 7, 2015 until May 4, 2015.

2. Distributing Questionnaire and Conducting FGD

In order to get the data of the students’ perception on their problems in mastering speaking skill, the researcher distributed the questionnaire in April 7, 2015. The questionnaire was distributed to 29 students who attended the class (see Appendix 3). After distributing the questionnaire, the researcher asked 6 students to do FGD with her. Those respondents were selected based on the researcher’s observation while teaching them during PPL. The selection was done by involving 2 students who always get higher score, 2 students in the middle, and 2 students in the lower score to meet the objective result.

3. Conducting the Pre-test

To measure the students’ ability in speaking before getting any treatment, the researcher conducted the pre-test. It was done in April 9, 2015. In the pre-test, the students had to individually make a brief persuasive speech about persuading their friends on the theme “students should/should not smoke in school area”. Their speech was assessed using speaking rubric (see Appendix 5).

4. Treatment

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their speaking. The process of the treatment would be explained further in the Chapter IV using the result of the researcher’s field notes (see Appendix 10).

5. Conducting the Post-test

After conducting the pre-test, the researcher gave treatment to the students. The treatment was done by implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP. The final result of the treatment was measured by post-test. Similar to the pre-test, the students had to make a persuasive speech to persuade their friends on the theme “students should/should not smoke in school area”. The post-test was assessed by using the same rubric used to assess the pre-test (see Appendix 6).

F. Data Analysis Technique

In this study, the researcher used 5 steps on the data gathering technique, which were questionnaire, FGD, pre-test, and post-test, and field notes.

1. Questionnaire

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Table 3.4 Scoring Grade for Questionnaire

To find out the choices of the respondents, they had to circle the answer. The researcher had calculated the results and presents it in a form of percentage with the formula below:

x100%

X: the total number of students based on the degree of agreement

n: the number of all students

2. Statistical Hypotheses

The researcher collected the scores of the pre-test and the post-test as the data of the research. The data was calculated manually by using formula of the paired sample t-test (Supranto, 2009). First, the researcher would calculate the standard deviation with formula:

Ho: the mean score of post-test is equal or less than the mean score of pre-test Ha: the mean score of post-test higher than the mean score of the pre-test Ho is refused if t ≥ t table; α: 0.05.

S =

Option Score

Strongly agree (sangat setuju) Agree (setuju)

Disagree (tidak setuju)

Strongly disagree (sangat tidak setuju)

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S: standard deviation

n: the total number of all students

: the total of the mean of difference

After that, the researcher would calculate the “t” by using formula:

t=

the mean of difference Sd: standard deviation

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36

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the researcher presents and discusses the data. First, to answer the first research problem, the researcher focuses on finding the student’s perception on their problems in mastering speaking skill based on KTSP. Second, the researcher focuses on answering the second research problem about the effects of implementing Scientific Approach in KTSP on the students’ ability in mastering speaking skill.

A. Students’ Perception on Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill

The first problem in this research focuses on the students’ perception on

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1. The Nature of Perception

Table 4.1 presents the students’ perception on their problem in mastering speaking skill, especially on the nature of perception. It is stated by Ferianda (2013) that perception can also be determined by looking at these points, such as environment, interaction, and also behavior, that in this case, happen to the students as the nature of perception. Numbers 1 up to 7 investigate the students’ eagerness in learning, interaction, and the environment in which shows the nature of perception. The statements 1 up to 3 investigate the students’ eagerness in learning.

Table 4.1 The Nature of Perception

No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree

Strongly

teacher’s explanation (6.89%) 2

19 7 Future jobs will affect

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The first statement was about their interest in the English subject. From the respondents’ answers, the researcher found that 27 students (93.10%) agreed, 1 student (3.44%) strongly agreed, 1 student (3.44%) disagreed, and none of the students (0%) who chose strongly disagreed. The data showed that more than 90% of the students were interested in English subject. This result was proven by the data of FGD that was conducted by inviting 6 students as the classroom representatives to strengthen the data. Most of the students said that they were interested in learning English subject. All of the students have already learnt English since elementary school from the first grade until now, which means that the students have learnt for 11 years. However, when the researcher asked about what they have learnt for 11 years, the students just mentioned very limited materials that they remembered.

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The third statement was about the students’ motivation to learn English subject. From the respondents’ answers, the researcher found that 26 students (89.65%) agreed, 2 students (6.89%) disagreed, 1 student (3.44%) strongly agreed, and none of the student (0%) who chose strongly disagreed. The data showed that the students were highly motivated in learning English subject. However, there were two students who were not highly motivated. Motivation is actually something which energizes someone’s behavior (Rhodes & Steers, 1981). In this case, the students were motivated to learn because they were accustomed to listen to western song or watching movies and also interested on the new teaching method which was used by the researcher. However, Altman and Valenzi (1985) states that motive which a person has for a particular action cannot be seen; it can only be inferred (p. 146). It means that even when the student looks active in class; it cannot definitively shows that he/she is highly motivated to learn. The statements numbers 4-6 are about the students’ interaction that support their learning experienced that will be explained further in the paragraphs below.

The fourth statement was about the roles of the teacher in teaching and giving explanation about the English subject in class. From the respondents’

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English subject in class. However, the result from FGD was against this result. The students said that the teacher’s explanation was not clear. The method that

she used in the class was only giving assignments and then left the class. She rarely explained it until the students understood about the material. It will be explained further on the fifth statement about the teacher’s explanation in the class.

The fifth statement was about the students’ ability to understand the teacher’s explanation. From the respondents’ answers, the researcher found that 19 students (65.31%) agreed and 2 students (6.89%) strongly agreed. Meanwhile, 7 students (24.13%) disagreed and none of the student (0%) strongly disagreed. The data showed that even though the teacher tried to explain the material, some of the students could not really understand it well. However, the data from FGD was against this result, it has been mentioned that the teacher rarely explains the material until the students understood. In FGD, the students said that they just made their facial expression look like they understood, but the fact was they were still confused. This action could be defined as their rationalization. Altman and Valenzi (1985) see rationalization was defense mechanism of someone to make excuse for failure (p. 148). The students said that they were not satisfied by the teacher’s method in teaching and it was affecting their motivation in learning

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The sixth statement was about the roles of the classmates in influencing the students’ motivation and interest in mastering English subject actively. From the respondents’ answers, the researcher found that 12 students (41.37%) agreed and 3 students (10.34%) strongly agreed. Meanwhile, 11 students (37.93%) disagreed and 3 students (10.34%) strongly disagreed. From the data, the results showed that it was almost equal between the agreement and the disagreement on the importance of the classmates’ role in influencing their motivation and interest in mastering English subject actively. The result of FGD showed that the students’ interaction with their friends to learn English was very limited. The students was having very limited opportunity to speak in English to have interaction with their friends. They would ask the way to solve the problem in doing the assignments or just cheating. They chose to give up with active interaction which is not motivating them (Alman & Valenzi, 1985, p. 149).

The seventh statement was about the environment that might affect the students’ motivation and interest in mastering English subject. The statement was about the roles of the students’ future chances on their job field, whether it will

influence their motivation and interest in mastering English subject or not. From the respondents’ answers, the researcher found that 17 students (58.62%) agreed, 3 students (10.34%) strongly agreed, 7 students (31.03%) disagreed and none of the student (0%) strongly disagreed with the statement. It showed that the students’ future goal on their job field was not necessarily influence their

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The researcher related those 7 statements to the theory that would strengthen the data. Ahen (2009) states that the ability to communicate in a second language enables people to interact with each other and changes the way they perceived things and matters happening to them. Proficiency in the English language is determined by the students’ motivation and attitude in learning the language. In the statements numbers 1 up to 3 indicated the students’ eagerness in learning based on the students’ motivation. More than 80% of the students were motivated in learning English subject. According to Gardner and Lambert (as cited in Brown, 1994, p. 168), motivation is a construct made up from certain attitudes. In this case, the students’ motivation in improving their speaking skill could be affected by their attitude in learning. Hence, the students’ performance in the learning process will be determined by their motivation in learning process which results from their perception and attitudes (Ahen, 2009, p. 2). According to Gardner and Lambert (as cited in Ahen, 2009), the positive or negative attitude is derived from individual’s perception toward certain objects or matters. Campbell (2001) as cited in Ahen (2009) states that perception is a process where one will form an impression about someone or something. The input that is gained through one’s observation will produce certain judgment or belief which influenced the

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that perception could also be determined by looking at the interaction and the environment. On the following paragraph, the researcher would give further explanation about factors that influence the students’ perception especially on their problems in speaking skill.

2. Factors Influencing Perception

In Table 4.2, the researcher presents the factors that influence the students’ perception. The statement number 8 was about the situation in which the students’ problem came up, especially in speaking. The statements number 9-12 were about the selection of stimuli. The statements number 13 and 14 were about self-concept.

The eighth statement was about the situation in which the students’ problems emerge, especially in speaking skill. From the respondents’ answers, 17 students (58.62%) agreed and 7 students (24.13%) strongly agreed. However, the researcher found out that 5 students (17.24%) disagreed. From the data, the results showed that 80% students had problem in mastering English subject, especially speaking skill. Altman and Valenzi (1985) define that situation is also the factor that influence someone’s perception. The situation like they did not understand with the teacher explanation and the teaching method which was not satisfied their expectation could affect the students’ perception.

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Table 4.2 Factors Influencing Perception

No Statements

Explanation Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree

Strongly

Figur

Table 3.2 The Factors Influencing Perception
Table 3 2 The Factors Influencing Perception . View in document p.46
Table 3.3 The Student’s Attitude to Solve Their Problem in  Mastering Speaking Skill
Table 3 3 The Student s Attitude to Solve Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill . View in document p.47
Table 3.4 Scoring Grade for Questionnaire
Table 3 4 Scoring Grade for Questionnaire . View in document p.51
Table 4.1 The Nature of Perception
Table 4 1 The Nature of Perception . View in document p.54
Table 4.2 Factors Influencing Perception
Table 4 2 Factors Influencing Perception . View in document p.61
Table 4.3 Students’ Attitude to Solve Their Problem in  Mastering Speaking Skill
Table 4 3 Students Attitude to Solve Their Problem in Mastering Speaking Skill . View in document p.65

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