Steven E. Kaplan, Professor of Accountancy and Information Management, received his Ph.D. in Accountancy from the University of Illinois. His research interests are in auditor judgement and ethical decision-making. He has published in a variety of academic journals, including the JournalofAccounting Research, The Accounting Review, Accounting, Organizations & Society, Auditing: A Journalof Practice & Theory andJournalofAccountingandPublicPolicy.
As he notes in his Guest Editorial in this issue (Mensah, 2000), Professor Yaw M. Mensah was Special Associate Editor for this special theme issue. In his guest editorial Mensah (2000) suggests that there is need for further re- search relating to healthcare andaccounting (see Mensah, 2000; also see Mensah, 1996). We agree with his comment. Accordingly, researchers are en- couraged to submit manuscripts in that general area for editorial consideration at the JournalofAccountingandPublicPolicy.
Daniel Beneish has been Special Associate Editor for the next four articles in this issue of the JournalofAccountingandPublicPolicy (Vol. 19, Nos. 4/5). Those four articles were submitted as a result of his request for manuscripts pertaining to the management of earnings (see Beneish, 1998). We appreciate his work.
Before discussing the results of my study, four limitations related to the use of an experimental approach should be noted. As part of an experimental approach participants responded to hypothetical scenarios about earnings management activities. This approach has previously been used in studies to measure ethically related judgments (Becker and Fritzsche, 1987; Flory et al., 1992; Singer, 1996; Singer and Singer, 1997; Singer et al., 1998). The strength of this approach is that it allows for greater control and manipulation of variables than provided by non-experimental approaches. A concern, however, with this approach is that it is not possible for the stimulus materials to contain all relevant information in order for the task to be completed in a timely manner. Second, the case unambiguously manipulated earnings management intent. In general, intent is unobservable and must be inferred from behavior and the surrounding context (Kelley, 1973, p. 107). An unambiguous manipulation of intent was needed, however, in order to appropriately test the hypotheses in- volving intent. Examining ethical judgments when intent is inferred with greater uncertainty represents a topic for further research.
Relative to unfavorable ®nancial information (UF), favorable ®nancial in- formation (FF) resulted in signi®cantlyhigher ALLOC (mean di. 23.33; p < 0 : 05, one-tail test) and MERIT (mean di. 0.42; p < 0 : 05, one-tail test). To further test H1 an analysis was conducted at the treatment level, comparing favorable ®nancial information (FF) to unfavorable ®nancial information (UF) when non®nancial performance information was not present (NP). Panel A shows that consistent with the factor level analysis, ALLOC and MERIT had signi®cantly(p < 0 : 01, one-tail test) higher values when ®nancial infor- mation was favorable (FF). However, contraryto the factor level ®nding, treatment level analysis showed SCORE was signi®cantly (p < 0 : 001, one-tail test) and positivelyin¯uenced byfavorable ®nancial treatment information. The mean dierence at the factor level versus the treatment level increased more than fourfold. The treatment level comparison is most similar to ana- lyzing the current state of reporting requirements (i.e., currently non®nancial performance information is often not required). The highlysigni®cant results suggest that when only®nancial information is available it is used not onlyin awarding resources but also in evaluating an agent's performance.
Our study considers if additional insight can be gained by analyzing ex- ternal audit-timing from a sample of cities for ®scal year-end 1996 and considers changes since 1982. The most likely factor increasing the time from ®scal year-end to the external auditor-report date (report time) is the im- portance of federal regulations that increase the complexity and risk of the ®nancial audits, especially the Single Audit Act of 1984 (USC, 1984). Federal regulation increased external audit requirements, including reports on inter- nal control and compliance with federal laws and regulations (USC, 1984). External audit reports and in some cases external auditor working papers are reviewed by federal and state agencies with oversight responsibilities (Deis and Giroux, 1992, pp. 468±470). These agencies document substandard ex- ternal audits and refer severely non-compliant external auditors to state boards of accountancy for remedial action (see, e.g., Deis and Giroux, 1992, p. 472).
including rerunning the analysis using 2SLS rather than 3SLS, replacing the dependent variable in Eq. (1), cost per patient in revenue departments, with cost per patient in all departments, and replacing the total weighted procedures per patient with the corresponding raw total procedures in Eqs. (1) and (2). Our results are generally robust to these changes except that in the case of the last change, LOS and OCCUP are no longer statistically signi®cant, consistent with our overall result that the reduction in LOS did not produce a reduction in cost. We also reran the Section 4 analysis using a reduced form estimation to avoid the loss of degrees of freedom associated with the simultaneous equation approach. Again, the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results are consistent with the pro®ling policy having no statistically signi®cant eect on the cost per patient day. Finally, to check the simultaneity speci®cation, we ran the Hausman test (1978, pp. 1264± 1269) of the null hypothesis that all of the variables are exogenous and that the coecients obtained by using OLS and 2SLS are equal. The Hausman test results for Eqs. (1)±(3) indicate rejection of the null hypothesis that the variables of concern are exogenous for Eqs. (2) and (3).
over time. Hubbard and Jensen (1991, pp. 233±234) show that the Ijiri± Salamon estimates of the internal rate of return can be sensitive to an incorrect speci®cation of the expected life of a composite asset. Griner and Stark (1991, pp. 210±212) examine the error in the Ijiri±Salamon estimates resulting from incorrectly speci®ed cash in¯ow pro®les. This question was further considered in Stark et al. (1992, p. 412) where it is shown that Ijiri±Salamon estimates may be ¯awed as a means to assess systematic error in the accounting rate of return, and in Stark (1994, p. 224) where the resulting errors from incorrectly speci®ed cash ¯ow pro®les are connected to the important economic/®nance concept of duration. Also, Stark (1987, pp. 101±102) has shown that Salamon's cash- based rate of return calculation can lead to an incorrect calculation of the internal rate of return for ®rms with current assets. Peasnell (1996, pp. 293± 297) is a survey which considers many of these issues.
Our paper provides some description of accruals and the ability of extant models to forecast accruals. The following is a brief overview of our ®ndings. Accruals equal about ÿ5% of last period's total assets, on average. This mean eect is explained primarily by non-current accruals (depreciation, depletion and amortization), and current accruals (changes in non-cash working capi- tal) have a zero mean. Most of the variance in total accruals, however, is explained by variation in current accruals, with non-current accruals exhib- iting much lower variation. We consider the forecasting ability of three models that peek-ahead and use contemporaneous data to identify unex- pected accruals: the Jones, the KS, and Industry models. We also consider three models that do not peek-ahead and use only prior year data: the random walk model, the mean-reverting model, and a combination model that separates current accruals from non-current accruals and allows each component to follow a dierent weighted-average of the random walk and mean-reverting models. Our results indicate low forecasting ability, in gen- eral, for all models.
Current models of economic transition are fundamentally static (Stark, 1996) as they provide blueprints for transition from a known command- economy (where prices are set without regard to demand and supply) to a known market-economy (see, e.g. Sachs, 1989; Klaus, 1992; Peck and Richardson, 1992). However, the diversity of both the former command- economies and historically market-based economies is well documented (see, e.g. Garrod and McLeay, 1996a; Ze, 1972). It, therefore, seems inevitable that the eventual market economies of the transitional economies will display considerable diversity. Any model of transition will need to accommodate such potential diversity. Building on the theoretical models of Harrison and Mc- Kinnon (1986), Streeck and Schmitter (1985) and Bailey (1995) a framework for the analysis of the transitional dynamics of systems of corporate gover- nance is developed in Section 2. The historical links and current political and economic pressures on the transitional economies of central and eastern Eu- rope probably explain why the predominant governance in¯uences come from the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK) and Germany (Garrod and McLeay, 1996b, pp. 3±5). In Section 3, the environmental contingencies in these three systems of governance are identi®ed. In Section 4, these in¯uences on the current hybrid system in use in Slovenija are described. By applying the tran- sitional model developed in Section 2 to the Slovene situation, the gaps in ef- fectiveness of this hybrid system are identi®ed in Section 5. Concluding remarks on possible implications for the transitional economies are made in Section 6.
Economic consequences of regulatory accounting in the nuclear power in- dustry: market reaction to plant abandonments, The, 161±187. Eects of changes in cost allocations on the assessment of cost containment regulation in hospitals, The, 97±112. Eect of relative performance evalua- tion on earnings management: a game- theoretic approach, The, 377±397. Empirical analysis of auditor report timing by large municipalities, An, 263±281.
BD and DPZ parallel DSS and Bradshaw et al. (1999), which focus on ®rms subject to SEC enforcement actions, by identifying ®rms manipulating earnings and then examining hypotheses about management's incentives and methods of managing earnings. In contrast, the designs of many prior studies rest on the joint hypotheses that ®rms manage earnings in response to speci®ed factors and that the proxy for discretion over earnings is suciently sensitive to detect it. BD and DPZ provide a powerful tool to the earnings management arsenal in that they identify contexts in which large number of ®rms appear to manage earnings. The approach also provides an indication of the frequency of manipulation, though this rests on an assumption about the distribution of earnings absent manipulation. As BD indicate, the as- sumption that the expected frequency in a given region is the average of the observed frequencies in the adjacent regions of the earnings distribution is not valid for the distribution of earnings after manipulation. This occurs because manipulation may have aected the adjacent regions around the hypothesized benchmark, and because manipulation may be re¯ected in other regions of the distribution.
Jacques Ranciere merupakan profesor filsafat di Eropa Graduate School (EGS), Saas-Fee- Switzerland, dan professor emeritus di Universitas de Paris (St. Denies) atau dikenal dengan University of Paris VIII (Lihat Bertens, 2006: 6), kampus universiter yang dikenal sebagai kampus paling progresif, radikal, dan diberi status eksperimental pasca kericuhan sekitar revolusi dari gerakan mahasiswa Mei 1968. Ranciere mengajar di University of Paris VIII dari tahun 1969 hingga tahun 2000. Selain menjadi bagian dari Departemen Filsafat Universitas Paris VIII, ia juga mengepalai Chairs of Aesthetic and Politics dari tahun 1990 hingga pensiun dari University of Paris VIII. Hingga masa pensiunnya saat ini, Ranciere telah rajin mengisi kuliah umum sebagai professor undangan di beberapa perguruan tinggi di luar Prancis, seperti Rutgers, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, dan Berkeley.Lahir di Aljazair pada tahun 1940.Ranciere besar sebagai seorang yatim, ayahnya meninggal pada Juni 1940, saat mengikuti peperangan sebelum genjatan senjata Prancis-Jerman, setelah ayahnya meninggal ibunya tidak pernah menikah lagi. Tidak lama di Algeria, pada usia dua tahun ia meninggalkan tanah kelahiranya tersebut pindah ke Marseille. Ia tinggal di Marseille antara tahun 1942 sampai 1945. Selebihnya ia habiskan semua masa kecilnya di Paris setelah berpindah dari Marseille pada tahun 1945 satu tahun setelah Paris dibebaskan dari tangan Jerman, Agustus 1944.
Indonesia is deemed as a new democratic state which has promoted human rights and free- dom in various ways. Several indicators can be mentioned in this context, such as the adoption of human rights into new Constitutional amendment (1999-2002), the formulation ‘human rights- friendly’ legislations, decentralizing governance, freer election system, and the stronger guarantee of freedom of expression. A key political configuration which had significantly influenced to local governance system is decentralization policy. Decentralization has been legally designed as democ- ratization processes after more than thirty years of authoritarian regime. This has been perceived as wider participation, strengthening local values and self or autonomous governance. Through Law on Regional Governance in 1999 and then its revision in 2004, the political agenda of decen- tralization has been secured through laws and its operational regulations. This decentralization process is finally considered to be a promotion for protecting citizen and also possibility control- ling any political elite in power. In brief, decentralized Indonesia post Soeharto has incredibly changed to local democratization process.
The question then is what makes for professionalism and its attendant inputs in the practice of advertising. Okigbo citing Hohenburg (1987, p. 16) from his book The Professional, the qualifying qualities of professionalism have four essential ingredients. For those who want to make a beginning in journalism, of the media involved, the minimum requirements may be summed up as follows: a thorough education, sound training, and a willingness to accept discipline; familiarity with the basic skills of a journalist; and the will to work at tasks that are sometimes frustrating and seem unrewarding at the outset and a deep respect for one’s personal and professional integrity. This much can be said for advertising because as the American Institute for Advertising Ethics surmise in its First Principle, advertising, public relations, marketing communications, news, and editorial all share a common objective of truth and high ethical standards in serving the public, which is seen in The Journalist’s Creed. Invariably, in describing the qualities of professionalism in journalism, the same is attributable to advertising practice. For the advertising professional, it will be expected that he or she will be characterized by the following: a proper education and discipline; appropriate skills; non-material ego drive and personal and group integrity (Okigbo, 1998). Ugwuezuonu (1998) in defining a profession cites Flexner who says that there are six distinctive criteria of a profession: It is based on intellectual activity; requires from its members the possession of a considerable amount of knowledge and learning; has definite and practical purposes; has certain techniques which can be communicated; has an effective self-organization and is motivated by a desire to work for the welfare of the society. Citing Cart-Saunders and Wilson, he continues that the application of an intellectual technique to the ordinary business of life acquired as the result of prolonged
This paper employs descriptive analysis to provide a description of the authors, articles, and journals influenced BRIA during the period of 2003-2012. The last publication was not included because it had not published when the data was collected. The result also compare to Meyer and Rigs a d Ta s stud to acquire a completed picture of BRIA from its first publication.