The disclaimer given by the auditor (“no liability can be accepted by the auditor”) is highly unusual and is outside of the scope of ISA 700. To give such a disclaimer would require the written consent of the shareholders and agreement with the directors. As many other third parties usually have an interest in the financial statements, most jurisdictions specifically legislate against disclaimers being made by auditors.
2 Regulatory environment – statutory audit Questions have been set on the due process of developing auditing standards and the removal of auditors. So all of the topics in this session cannot be ignored even if you think they are not core areas. After studying this session you should be able to: ¾ explain the development and status of
3 You are the senior in charge of the audit of Phoenix, a private limited liability company, which manufactures super alloys from imported zinc and aluminium. The company operates three similar foundries at different sites. The draft accounts for the year ended 31 March 2008 show profit before taxation of $1·7m (2007 – $1·5m).
Although IAS 1 does not become effective until periods on or after 1 January 2009, earlier adoption is permitted. ACCA operates a six month rule in its examinations based on issue date, whereby accounting standards will not be examined until six months have passed from their date of issue. Therefore the revised IAS 1 falls to be examined from the June 2008 examinations.
(c) The audit revealed a major control weakness in the management of investments. The company recently recruited a financial analyst, as an employee, to manage the investment of surplus funds. Company policy is to invest in the shares of large quoted companies. The audit discovered a number of situations where the financial analyst had made substantial profits for the company by speculating in risky investments such as derivatives. Such investments could result in massive losses. The matter was reported in writing to the chief financial officer four months ago but no action has yet been taken. (5 marks) (d) One of the company’s oil tankers has just run aground on the coast of California. There is a risk of a serious oil spill which could have a significant effect on the future of the company. Further information will not be available until after the auditor’s report has been signed.
The internal auditors can recommend to the board those areas in which structural changes need to be made in order to comply with codes of corporate governance, such as those issued by the OECD and the World Bank. They can recommend processes for setting objectives and targets, and for measuring their achievement. (ii) Risk management
Internet customers view the company’s website and place their orders using the industry standard “shopping basket” approach. When a customer selects a toy on the website, the system transfers the product detail (eg description, product code, price) from the product database to the “checkout” programme for the customer to view. On completing their order, customers proceed to the “checkout” to make a final confirmation of their order, complete delivery details and enter their credit card details. All of this data is taken directly from the web screen by the program and stored in the orders file on TopNotch4U’s secure server. Once an order has been confirmed by the customer, the system prints out a two-part despatch note used by the despatch manager to locate the toys within the shop and warehouse, pack them with the customer’s copy of the despatch note, and despatch the toys. At the end of each day, the second copy of the note is sent to the accounts department. The despatch notes are not pre-numbered by the system. Only the customer’s copy is signed by the manager.
(a) Describe basic sources of information you would find useful when familiarising yourself with the nature of business in which Edco is involved. (5 marks) (b) Describe the possible assertions risk areas within Edco (eg consider inherent risk and control risk as defined within ISA 200). (9 marks) (c) List the internal control objectives of Edco in respect of:
The resignation of Past & Co may have been prompted by disagreement (eg over the truth and fairness of the view shown by Clover’s accounts) or the loss of professional understanding between the two parties. This may cast doubt on the directors’ integrity and Future & Co. must carefully consider their involvement with the client.
Your firm has recently been appointed as external auditor to EWheels. EWheels is a private “dot.com” company that operates an internet auction service for the sale of used motor vehicles. You are planning the audit of the financial statements. The company has been in existence for four years and has grown rapidly. It was founded by three individuals who are a former car auctioneer, an internet specialist with an interest in cars, and an accountant. The company now has three offices and some 100 employees. The on-line car auction market is very competitive. The company is the biggest provider of the service in the south of the country, but the directors have ambitious plans which include an aggressive marketing campaign, the take-over of a number of target competitors and additional office space and staff, all of which will require considerable additional finance.
The main problem in practice in relation to many of these requirements results from the fact that the auditor is not an expert in the evaluation of accounting estimates and he is required to rely on the work of experts who at a minimum, review the work of the expert employed by the client to perform the original calculations. This not only involves time and cost, but also requires the co-operation of both the client and the client’s expert. The auditor is then in the position of having to “adjudicate” between possibly conflicting findings of experts and to form an opinion as to whether the findings are so different or sensitive, as to have a material effect on the financial statements. It is not uncommon for auditors to have findings covering a very wide range of values, all of which are reasonable and consistent with the auditor’s knowledge of the business and management intentions.
It appears that invoice 6210 for $4,735 has not been included on Tollerton’s purchase ledger. As this invoice is dated some time before the year end, the first question to ask is whether the goods have been received. I will check whether the goods have been received by looking for the appropriate goods received note (I may have to ask Carlton for details of this item, if no invoice can be found at Tollerton). If the goods have been received, I will check if there is a purchase invoice. If there is a purchase invoice, I will ask the purchases department why the invoice has not been posted to the purchase ledger. This will probably be because of a dispute, normally either an incorrect price, the wrong quantity or some faults with the goods. If the goods relating to this invoice are in inventory (or have been sold) a purchase accrual should be made for this item. If an excessive price has been charged for the items, a lower price can be used, provided the same price is used to value the inventory. If there is a short delivery, the purchase accrual would be for the actual goods received, rather than for those on the invoice.
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(1) Candidates are advised that questions will be based on the principles and good practice set out in the International Standards on Auditing. Most questions will involve some form of application of knowledge to a specific situation or scenario. Candidates will be required to understand auditing techniques and know how these techniques apply to specific situations. Candidates must be able to explain the reasons why the procedures they suggest are carried out and what they achieve.
addendums to these. The first International Standard on Auditing (ISA) was issued in 1991. Many national jurisdictions and professional bodies are now adopting ISAs as their national auditing standards, mirroring the approach taken by many countries to IFRS. Note the aim of the IFAC in ensuring a uniform, high standard of auditing andassurance practice across international borders.
(1) Cost of sales includes depreciation of property, plant and equipment of $320 million and a loss on the sale of plant of $50 million. It also includes a credit for the amortisation of government grants. Operating expenses include a charge of $20 million for the impairment of goodwill.
Section A of each of the Options papers contains 50-70 compulsory marks from two questions, each attracting between 25 and 40 marks. Section B will offer a choice of two from three questions totalling 30-50 marks, with each question attracting between 15 and 25 marks.
¾ Under the ACCA Professional Code of Ethics, lowballing is not specifically barred. However, it is clear that the quality of any audit or assurance engagement cannot be compromised (or perceived as such) because of low fees. If there is the perception (real or otherwise) that quality has been compromised, then the integrity and independence of the professional is under threat. The only safeguard against this is for the
¾ To provide reasonable assurance, the auditor carries out specific detailed routines, conducts relevant testing and assesses the accumulated evidence collected in respect of the financial statements as a whole (as detailed within the report’s scope paragraph). This enables the auditor to express a positive conclusion on the assertions being made by the directors (that the financial statements show a true and fair view and have been prepared in accordance with specific laws and regulations). Basically, the auditor believes that the evidence obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for their opinion.