(A Quasi Experimental Study at Second Grade Students of
SMP Islam Ruhama Ciputat)
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
(A Quasi Experimental Study at Second Grade Students of
SMP Islam Ruhama Ciputat)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree of S.Pd. in English Language Education
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
(A Quasi Experimental Study at Second Grade Students of SMP Islam Ruhama Ciputat)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training in a Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata I (Bachelor of Art) in
English Language Education
Approved by the Advisor
Advisor I Advisor II
Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum.
NIP. 19720501 199903 2 013 NIP. 19761007 200710 1 002
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Comprehension; a quasi experimental study at second grade students of SMP Islam Ruhama Ciputat-South Tangerang. Skripsi, The Department of English Education at Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training of State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.
STAD is a technique of cooperative learning that has heterogeneous group members to achieve the goals of study. The main idea of STAD is to motivate students to encourage and help each other master skills. On this skripsi, the writer described the effectiveness of STAD technique on teaching reading.
The objective of this study is to find out the empirical evidence of whether or not STAD technique is effective to be used in teaching reading on second grade students of SMP Islam Ruhama academic year 2013/2014. The method used in this study was quasi experimental study. The data were gathered from pre-test and post-test of experimental and controlled class by calculating the data used ttest
formula. The degree of freedom (df) is 60 whereas the value of tt on the degree of
significance 5% and 1% are 2.00 and 1.67.
The findings of the study showed that students who taught by using STAD technique have higher achievement than those who were taught without STAD. According to the result of statistical calculation it can be seen that t0 is 3.87. It
means that the value of t0 (tobservation) is higher than tt (ttable). In other word, the
value of t0 (tobservation) is higher than tt (ttable). It means that the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected. To sum up
the result, the writer concludes STAD technique is effective to teach reading comprehension on recount text. Based on the findings, it is suggested that readers and writer obtain the knowledge to select and to increase the quality of teaching reading technique that effective with students’ reading comprehension.
Comprehension; a quasi experimental study at second grade students of SMP Islam Ruhama Ciputat-South Tangerang. Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.
STAD merupakan salah satu teknik dari cooperative learning yang mempunyai anggota kelompok yang bervariasi untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran. Ide utama dari STAD adalah untuk memotivasi siswa untuk mendorong siswa dan menolong satu sama lain dalam menguasai berbagai kemampuan. Dalam skripsi ini, penulis menggambarkan keefektifan teknik STAD dalam pengajaran membaca.
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mencari bukti empirik apakah teknik STAD efektif untuk digunakan dalam pengajaran membaca di kelas dua di SMP Islam Ruhama tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian quasi eksperimen. Data diperoleh dari pre-test dan post-test yang dilakukan di kelas eksperimen dan kontrol dengan menghitug data tersebut menggunakan rumus ttest. Derajat kebebasan senilai 60 sedangkan nilai
dari tt dari derajat kebebasan 5% dan 1% adalah 2.00 dan 1.67.
Penemuan dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa siswa yang diajar dengan menggunakan STAD mempunyai pencapaian yang lebih tinggi dari pada mereka yang diajarkan tanpa menggunakan STAD. Berdasarkan hasil dari perhitungan statistik, dapat diperoleh bahwa t0 adalah 3.87. Hal ini berarti nilai
dari t0 (tobservasi) lebih tinggi dari tt (ttable). Dengan kata lain, alternatif hipotesis
(Ha) diterima dan null hipotesis (H0) ditolak. Untuk meringkas hasil penelitian,
peneliti menyimpulkan teknik STAD efektif untuk pengajaran pemahaman membaca dalam teks recount. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut, diharapkan pembaca maupun peneliti mendapatkan pengetahuan untuk memilih dan meningkatkan kualitas dari teknik pengajaran membaca yang efektif untuk pemahaman membaca siswa.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah who
has blessed the writer in completing this skripsi. Peace and blessing are given upon our prophet Muhammad SAW who has taken us the way of truth and
brought us the true light of life.
From the sincere of the writer’s deepest heart, she realized that if there were no support and motivation from people around her, she could not finish this
skripsi. Therefore, she would like to express her gratitude and give her best appreciation to:
1. The writer’s father, Saulih, and mother, (alm) Iing Masinah, this skripsi is dedicated to them who have given her the opportunity of an education
from the best institutions and support throughout her life, their moral
support and guidance to their daughter.
2. Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd. and Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., for their time,
guidance, valuable helps, correction and suggestion during completing this
3. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd. as the chairman of the Department of English Education, and the writer’s academic advisor, Nida Husna, M.Pd. MA TESOL. A very deep thank is presented to all of the lecturers and staffs of
the Department of English Education at State Islamic University „Syarif Hidayatullah’ Jakarta.
4. Drs. Juhdi Asidi as the headmaster of SMP Islam Ruhama, Meiswati,
S.Pd. as the English teacher at SMP Islam Ruhama for their help during
5. The writer’s family members, her beloved brothers, who always give their
Septianda Rifqian Fathunqorib for his support, attention and motivation
for her during finishing this skripsi.
And may this skripsi can be useful to the readers, particularly to the writer. Also, the writer realized that this skripsi is far from being perfect. It is a pleasure for her to receive constructive criticism and suggestion from anyone who read her
Jakarta, March 2014
TITLE ... i
APPROVAL ... ii
ENDORSEMENT SHEET ... iii
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI ... iv
ABSTRACK ... v
ABSTRAK ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
LIST OF TABLES ... xi
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study ... 1
B. The Identification of the Problem ... 4
C. The Limitation of the Study ... 4
D. The Problem Formulation ... 4
E. The Objective of the Study ... 5
F. The Significance of the Study ... 5
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. The General Concept or Reading ... 6
1. The Definition of Reading ... 6
2. Reading Comprehension ... 8
3. The Strategies of Reading Comprehension ... 10
4. The Purpose of Reading ... 12
5. The Principles of Teaching Reading ... 14
B. Recount Text ... 15
1. The Definition of Recount Text ... 15
1. The Understanding of STAD ... 21
2. The Characteristic of STAD ... 23
3. The Purpose of STAD ... 25
4. The Strategies of STAD ... 27
5. The Advantage and Disadvantage of STAD ... 30
D. Previous Study ... 31
E. Thinking Framework ... 33
F. Hypothesis ... 34
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Place and Time of the Research ... 35
B. The Method of Research ... 35
C. Population and Sample ... 35
D. The Technique of Data Collecting ... 36
E. The Technique of Data Analyzing ... 39
F. The Testing of Hypothesis ... 40
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. The Description of Data ... 42
B. The Analysis of Data ... 42
C. The Interpretation of Data ... 47
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusions ... 49
B. Suggestions ... 49
BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 51
Table 2.2 Team Summary Sheet ... 29
Table 3.1 Criteria of Discriminating Power ... 37
Table 3.2 Criteria of Difficulty Level ... 38
Table 4.1 The Score of Mean, SD, and SE of Mean Variable I ... 44
Appendix 1: Validity Test ... 53
Appendix 2: The Result of Validity Test ... 60
Appendix 3: Silabus Pembelajaran ... 63
Appendix 4: RPP Kelas Eksperimen... 65
Appendix 5: RPP Kelas Kontrol ... 89
Appendix 6: The Materials... 110
Appendix 7: Kisi-Kisi Pre-Test ... 121
Appendix 8: Pre-test ... 122
Appendix 9 : Contoh Jabawan Pre-test ... 129
Appendix 10: Kisi-Kisi Post-Test ... 133
Appendix 11: Post-test ... 134
Appendix 12 : Contoh Jabawan Post-test ... 140
Appendix 13: The Answer Sheet ... 142
Appendix 14: The Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the experimental class... 143
Appendix 15: The Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the controlled class ... 155
Appendix 16: Tabel Uji Normalitas Pre-test (experiment class) ... 145
Appendix 17: Tabel Uji Normalitas Post-test (experiment class) ... 146
Appendix 18: Tabel Uji Normalitas Pre-test (controlled class) ... 147
Appendix 19: Tabel Uji Normalitas Post-test (controlled class) ... 148
Appendix 20: Tabel Distribusi Probabilitas t-Student ... 149
Appendix 21: Pengesahan Proposal Skripsi ... 150
Appendix 22: Surat Bimbingan Skripsi ... 151
Appendix 23: Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian ... 152
The Background of the Study
In Indonesia, English has become compulsory subject taught from Junior
High School and Senior High School. It is because in Indonesia, there are a lot of
information such as sciences, technologies, and cultures of other countries come
through English. Therefore, it is importance for Indonesian people to learn
English especially at school, it starts from Junior High School.
In the Junior High School level, the Indonesian government hopes that
students have to be able to master English both oral and written. “English is
purposed to develop the skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in order
that the students are able to communicate and to comprehend a discourse on the certain step literacy.”1
It means that if someone is able to communicate, he is also
able to understand and produce oral and written text which can be applied into
four skills; listening, reading, speaking, and writing.
Listening and reading comprise receptive skills while speaking and writing
comprise productive skills. As one of the receptive skills, reading also becomes
important for everyone in order to broaden his or her knowledge. They would find
the actual reading materials such as a newspaper, letters, booklets, leaflets,
advertisements, labels, magazines, the telephone directory, the social media
(facebook, twitter, youtube, etc.) and so on.
The students of Junior High School especially on second grade have to
achieve some indicators based on the curriculum. The indicators are identifying
the schematic structures, the contextual meaning, the rhetorical step, the
communicative purposes, the linguistic features of the text and responding the
meaning of the text. But in fact, mostly students argue that to achieve those
indicators is very difficult.
Based on the writer’s experience during the Praktek Profesi Keguruan Terpadu (PPKT) at SMP Islam Ruhama especially on 8th grade, she found that the second grade students still face some mistake in answering and understanding the
text especially recount text. They did not understand the meaning of one sentence
on the text. They always asked teacher the meaning of words because they did not
know the meaning in Bahasa. They had no motivation to find the meaning of unfamiliar words. In the students’ opinion, they do not understand the text unless they understand every word.
The students were difficult to find both the schematic and linguistic
structure in reading recount text. They could not identify the contextual meaning,
communicative purposes and did not respond the meaning of the text. This
condition showed that they did not achieve the indicators which have been
proposed in the curriculum.
Moreover, the teacher often used traditional approach to teach reading.
The teaching and learning process was teacher-centered. The students seem as a
passive object receiving new information from the teacher. For example, the
teacher just gave the meaning of some vocabularies that the students did not
know. She did not encourage them to consult their dictionary. On the contrary,
learning is an active process. To learn new information or skills, students have to
work actively with the materials. To overcome this problem, the teacher has to
find out the appropriate approach to make students to be active in the classroom.
The writer chooses the cooperative learning approach in this study.
Cooperative learning could help students to share strength and develop their skills
in the small group. In this approach, students may work together in a group
cooperatively. As Richard Arends proposed that, “The cooperative learning was
achievement, tolerance and acceptance of diversity and social skill development.”2
The writer hopes this approach can help students comprehend the reading text.
The technique that the writer chooses is STAD which was developed by
Robert Slavin. STAD has a heterogeneous group work where present a both sexes,
high, average and low achievers on each group. The students study the same materials after they listen to the teacher’s presentation. After they work together, they will have a test individually. The groups score will be converted based on the members’ improvement performance.
There are some reasons why the writer chooses STAD technique to improve students’ reading comprehension. Firstly, the groups consist of high, average, and low achievers. It means the high achievers would help the low
achievers and learn together to comprehend the reading recount text and share the
unfamiliar vocabulary. Secondly, in this technique, there is quizzes step that scores students’ improvement so that the students have “improvement score”. It will help them to know their improvement and would make them attractive to
improve their score. Not only that, the quizzes would be presented like a game
and done weekly or biweekly. That is why the researcher chooses STAD
technique in order to make the students attractive and cooperative in class so that
they could face some difficulty in comprehend the reading text.
The difficulty of reading then can be treated as a „problem’ to be solved. It
requires students to work together, the students share information of what they
know about the content in reading passage. Supposed in a class, students are
divided in some groups, they create a meaningful project. Regarding the
explanation above, this study is intended to discuss about the effectiveness of
Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) technique on students’ reading
comprehension especially on recount text.
The Identification of the Problem
Based on the background above, there are some problems which could be
raised such as follows:
1. The students still had some mistakes in answering the questions from the
2. The students did not understand the meaning of sentence.
3. The students had no motivation to find the meaning of unfamiliar words.
4. The students were difficult to find both the schematic and linguistic
structure in reading recount text.
5. The students could not identify the contextual meaning and
6. The students did not respond the meaning of the recount text.
7. The teaching and learning technique was teacher-centered, it made the
students seem as a passive object receiving new information from the
8. The teacher did not encourage the students to consult their dictionary to
find the meaning of some vocabularies.
The Limitation of the Study
From the identifications of the problems above, the limitation of the study
is focused on the teaching of recount text using STAD technique to affect students’ reading comprehension at second grade of Junior High School.
The Problem Formulation
Based on the background above, the writer formulates the research
questions as follow:
Is STAD technique effective in teaching reading of reading comprehension to
The Objective of the Study
The objective of the study is to find the empirical evidence whether or not
STAD technique is effective to be used in teaching reading on second grade
students of SMP Islam Ruhama.
The Significance of the Study
The findings (result) of the study are expected to provide useful
information about STAD technique in affecting students’ reading comprehension
at the second grade of SMP Islam Ruhama. It is expected that these findings can
a. The Teacher
The result of this research is expected to be useful information for the
English teachers to improve students’ achievement by using appropriate
b. The Students
The result of this research is expected to be useful information for the
students to encourage them to master the skills.
c. The Headmaster
The result of this research is expected to be useful information for the
headmaster to make a policy related to the English teaching and learning
The General Concept of Reading
The Understanding of Reading
Reading is an important element of language that cannot be separated
on language learning process. Since English become one of the international
languages, there are much information printed or written by using English. It
could be seen from the authentic text such as magazine, newspaper, article etc.
that usually found by people. People have to get the idea or information from
those texts by reading. As a result, reading is an element that is very important
for the language learner.
Reading is an activity to get the information from the written text.
According to Daiek and Anter, “Reading is an active process that depends on both an author’s ability to convey meaning using words and your ability to create meaning from them.”1
It means that the writer expresses the idea to the
written form then the reader gets the idea from the text. Information and ideas
are exchanges between the writer and the reader in the act of communicating.
Reading is the understanding of the text. If the reader does not
understand the meaning of the text, that is not reading. It cannot be called
reading unless the reader understands what he reads. As Christine Nuttall
highlights that, “But of course one reason for reading is that we want to understand other people’s idea; if we were all identical, there would be no point in most communication.”2
It means that the main reason of people
reading is to understand the other idea, there is no other point on
communication unless to understand the idea and to get the meaning.
Deborah Daeik and Nancy Anter, Critical Reading for College and Beyond, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), p. 5.
When people read, they try to find and comprehend the meaning in
order to get the information based on their own perception because they want
to give. Alderson states that, “’Read’ implies that we know what it means to read, to process text meaning through some process of interaction with print.”3
It means that on reading activity, people communicate through the text that
has printed and typed. In this communication there are many various symbols
and language that written to transfer the information. In order to comprehend
the text, people have to use a lot of skill in reading activity.
Richard Allington and Strange point out the definition of reading, “Reading is an active cognition process that does indeed require using graphic (letters) and phonic (sounds) information; but for fluent readers particularly,
the language-based cues-semantic (meaning) and syntactic (grammar) - seem far away more important than graphic and phonic cues.”4
It means on reading,
there are many skills that includes such as the letter and the sounds. Being the
fluent reader to get more comprehensible, people also should know the
semantic and syntactic of the language. In other words, reading includes many
processing skills that are coordinated each other.
Jeremy Harmer states these specialist skills on reading process, “The
specialist skills are predictive skills, extracting specific information, getting
the general picture, extracting detailed information, recognizing function and discourse patterns, and deducing meaning from context.”5
On the predictive
skills mean the readers have to predict first what they are going to read and
could analyze the content to their prediction. While in the extracting specific
information, the readers just have to find out the specific information that they
need. Not only that, they also have to be able to see a general idea, and
detailed information. On reading, the readers must follow the plot and identify
J. Charles Alderson, Assessing Reading, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 3.
Richard Allington and Michael Strange, Learning Through Reading in the Content Areas, (Lexington: D. C. Health and Company, 1980), p. 16.
the cohesion of the reading and then deduce the meaning of unfamiliar words
from the context.
From the theories above, it can be concluded that reading is an active
process of communication that involves the writer and the reader interaction
through the text. It is a communication that the reader wants to understand the writer’s idea by using some strategies. The reader has to use strategies,
people have different background knowledge. There are some people would
have a broader background knowledge while some others do not. It makes
people have to glide over the text.
Many experts state that reading comprehension is a complex activity
and a complicated process. As Larry Lewin states that, “Accomplished readers
(like most of us) have become so good at it through a lifetime of practice that it’s easy to forget tough it really is, how complicated the comprehension process is.”6
It means that to comprehend the text, people would have a
complicated process through a lifetime practice. They may use a lot of skill,
strategies, and aptitude towards constructing the meaning from the text.
Moreover, Naomi Flynn and Stainthorp explain that, “In much educational literature the term „reading comprehension’ is often used to depict the understanding of texts to differentiate this activity from comprehension of language when listening.”7
It means that reading comprehension is not same
activity with listening comprehension.
This is because Naomi Flynn and Stainthorp assume that on reading comprehension, the reader should encode the text, “The difference is that when the language is coming by eye there is the additional effort required to
decode the words, which takes up processing capacity leaving less available for working out the meaning.”8
It means that on reading comprehension, the
reader should have more effort to encode the text, and there is a process of
getting the meaning.
As Larry Lewin points out that the first skill of reading is decoding. “Many of our struggling readers find themselves unable to take the first step toward reading comprehension because they lack phonetic awareness of the
language, the ability to translate the letters of a word into sounds to produce the word in one’s mouth or mind.”9
It means that the first step of reading
comprehension is decoding the text, but mostly people are not aware of their
ability to encode and have lack phonetic. It makes them have difficulty to
produce the accurate sounds of words.
Many experts explain that decoding is very important on reading
comprehension. Marianne Celce Murcia argue why it is important, “The
thought is that once learners are able to sound out the letters, they will be able
to read the words, and then, once they are able to read the words, they will be able to make meaning of the text.”10
It means if the reader could read the
words well, he or she will understand the meaning of the text. It starts from
knowing the sound of letters in a word.
Decoding could be learned by students by learning the sound
symbols. As Larry Lewin who calls decoding as phonetic awareness, assumes that, “Phonetic awareness is developed by learning the sound-symbol relationships of the twenty-six letters, and their various pairings, in the
Marriane Celce Murcia, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, (Boston: Heinle & Heinle Oublishers, 1991), p. 170.
phonetic symbols and their various sounds of English alphabet. As be known
that letters in English makes many different variety of sound, so that it could
make the reader feel complicate to decode the text.
Those are some statements that assume reading comprehension. In
other words, reading comprehension is a complex activity that includes many
purposes such as reading to get the specific information and general idea of
the text. Moreover, the reader has to read a lot and train his ability to get the
idea of the text.
The Strategies of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is a complex activity, therefore, the reader
should concern on some strategies on reading comprehension. There are many
experts propose the strategies of reading comprehension, and there are various
strategies that could be used by the reader.
The first assumption comes from Jo McDonough. According to Jo
McDonough and Christopher Shaw, the students could use some strategies for reading, they are skimming and scanning. “Skimming and scanning are clearly useful strategies for learners to operate; however there is arguably a limit to
their usefulness in the context illustrated above, in the sense that the learner
scans for particular information and then does not actually have to do anything with it.”12
It points out that scanning is used to find out the specific
information in a text, while skimming is to get the general information.
Reading for detailed comprehension means that the reader should be
aware of the importance of the way they read. Jeremy Harmer assumes that, “One of the teacher’s main functions when training students to read is not only to persuade them of the advantage of skimming and scanning, but also to Guide, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993), p.107.
should know how to scan and skim but also they have to know that scanning
and skimming is a way that is very important that should be used.
Nevertheless, according to Deborah Daiek and Anter, there are six
key strategies of reading comprehension. They explain those strategies into six
chapters that have detailed explanation. The strategies are locating stated main
ideas, finding supporting details, using inference to identify implied main
ideas, textbook methods of organization, using preview study read and review
strategies, and textbook marking.14 It shows that there are some steps to get
the comprehension of the text, such as pay attention to the main ideas,
supporting details, inference, book organization, book review, and marking the
text. Those strategies are appropriate on reading the big scale of text as a
Moreover, Raymond Philippot and Graves propose eight strategies of
reading comprehension. They state that the strategies could not stand alone,
they need on another. The strategies are discussed as follows:15
a. Using prior knowledge. Should students have little or no prior
knowledge about given topic, it is important that you provide
them with at least a basic framework for understanding whatever
topic they are going to encounter.
b. Asking and answering questions. A reader asks questions both
prior and while reading a selection; then she attempts to address
the questions as she progresses through the text.
c. Determining what is important. This strategy entails having
readers understand what they have read and forming judgments
about what is and is not crucial information.
d. Summarizing. Summarizing is best described as focusing on the
primary idea or compelling reason why an author has chosen to
write on a particular topic.
Daeik and Anter, (2004), op. cit., p. 135.
e. Making inference. When students use this strategy, they infer
meanings by using information from the text and their existing
schemata to fill in information that is not explicitly stated in the
f. Dealing with graphic information. Readers give special attention
to the visual information supplied by the author.
g. Imaging. Readers create mental pictures of the text they are
reading, or they can graphically represent the relationship among
elements of a text.
h. Monitoring comprehension. Readers carefully consider what they
desire to gain from a text and their understanding-or lack
thereof-of the text as they read.
It shows that the reader not only should use his/her prior knowledge,
also have to make the question before reading and answer it after reading.
While reading, the reader has to create mental pictures on his/her imagination,
determining what is important for him/her, and monitoring comprehension by
making summary of the reading.
Those are some strategies that proposed by some experts. As can be
seen the experts have their own strategies to comprehend the text. So that the
writer could conclude that the reader could use those strategies based on their
The Purpose of Reading
A person may read by many purposes, and that purposes help him to
be more comprehend about what is read. It could be a pleasure and enjoyment
that felt by the reader. The reader would read very quickly or slowly based on
his feeling and emotion when he reads for pleasure. But if the reader is reading
for study or getting information, he would read very slowly and carefully.
There are many reasons why people reading. As Jeremy Harmer
English either for their careers, for study purposes or simply for pleasure.”16
It points out that the reason of reading is determined by reader’s purpose, such as for the careers, study, and pleasure.
According to Naomi Fynn and Stainthorp, “We read because we want access to the information that is encoded in the squiggles on the page.”17
It means people read because they want to get the information that is printed
in the page.
The main purpose of reading generally is to find the latest
information and for enjoyment. Reading for information means that we do not
stop to analyze the grammatical structures and we understand the meaning of
the passages. Reading for information includes the materials which are
classified as non-fiction: science, social studies, technical matters, news
magazine newspaper, and article.
Reading for pleasure is different from reading for information. The
readers do not have to remember the details of pleasure reading book, because
we will not be tested about what we have read. The reader may read either
quickly or slowly based on what he likes to read. It associates largely with
novel, short stories, biographies, plays, and poem.
Purpose for reading helps the reader focus on information, as a result
such purposes are most efficient when they are recognized by the readers.
Clearly, purpose for reading must be recognized before selecting the text.
Knowing this procedure the reader can properly direct his concentration
during the reading. Subsequently, the confirmed purpose can be used as a
foundation for discussion to determine whether the reader has achieved the
The reason of the reader reads a text will influence the way he reads
it. As J. Charles Alderson states that, “Thus it has become almost a platitude
to say that the reason you are reading a text will influence the way you read it,
the skills you require or use, and the ultimate understanding and recall you
Harmer, (1998), op. cit., p.68.
have of that text.”18
It points out that not only the feeling contributes on
reading, but also the skills are used when reading. If the reader wishes to get
the general idea, he will pay less attention to the detail of the text.
Based on the explanation from the expert the writer gets the point
that there are two purposes of reading;
a. Reading for information
We read text in order to find out something or in order to do
something with the information we get.
b. Reading for pleasure
We read text in order to get some pleasures, such as reading
novel, comic books, etc.
The Principles of Teaching Reading
In teaching reading there are several principles in order to achieve
the purpose of reading, according to Jeremy Harmer19, they are:
a. Encourage students to read as often and as much as possible
The more students read, the better they will be. Teachers should motivate
the students to read a lot intensively.
b. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading
Students who are not engaged with the reading text, not actively interested
in what they are doing. It means that students should be engaged to get a
pleasure and interest in reading activity to get the benefit from it.
c. Encourage students to respond to the content of a text (and explore their
feelings about it) not just concentrate on its construction.
Teacher must give students chance to respond to the message in some
ways. It is important that they should be allowed to express their feelings
about the topic.
d. Prediction is a major factor in reading
Alderson, (2000) op. cit., p. 50. 19
Teacher should give students „hints’ so that they can predict what is coming too. It will make them better and more effective readers.
e. Match the task to the topic when using intensive reading texts
The most interesting text can be determined by asking boring and
inappropriate questions, the most common place passage can be made
exciting with imaginative and challenging tasks.
f. Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full
Many reading text is full sentences, words, ideas, descriptions, etc. it does
not make sense just to get students to read it and then drop it to move on to
something else. Good teachers integrate the reading text into interesting
class sequence, using the topic for discussion and further tasks.
From the principles of teaching reading stated by the experts, the
writer takes the conclusion about the principles of teaching reading as follows:
a. Reading involves many abilities. Teacher should pay attention to the students’ activity on reading and manage them how to use the abilities when reading. It is to make the students become a
b. Teacher should present the material of reading clearly and
integrate the reading text into become something fun and
c. Students are motivated to read a lot. It is because they have to
respond the meaning of the text.
The Definition of Recount text
Recount is an event that happens in the past. Mark Anderson states
events, usually in the order in which they happened.”20
It means that when the writer tells his/her events or someone’s events that has already happened in the past, he or she telling recount.
Another experts explain the definition of recount text, as Utami
Widiati states that, “Recount is a text which has social function to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.”21
It points out that recount text
tells the past events and has purpose that is to inform and to entertain the
reader. The writer can do it by recalling or remembering the past event.
In recount, the writer takes the detail that should be told in the text
such as a time, place, description and event. That is, he or she organizes the
details of event or accident they wish to tell in the way that will be more
effectively convey the illustration.
Based on the explanation above recount text is a text that telling
about an event that happened in the past. It also tells what occurred, when it occurred, where or how the event occurred. Recount could be the writer’s experience or someone else experience, such as story of holiday or an
important event of someone.
The Objective of Recount Text
Based on the definition of recount text before, the purpose of recount
is to present the reader the story about something or to entertain the reader
about the experience. Mark and Kathy Anderson state that, “The purpose of a
recount is to give the audience a description of what occurred and when it occurred.”22
It means that recount is purposed to give a description about the
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English, (South Yarra: Macmillan Education Australia PTY ltd., 1997), p. 48.
Utami Widiati, et al., Contextual Teaching and Learning Bahasa Inggris Sekolah Menangah Pertama/Madrasah Tsanawiyah Kelas VIII Edisi 4, (Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. 30.
According to Wardiman, recount text is a text that has a purpose to
entertain or to inform the reader.23 Wardiman proposes that recount tend to
entertain the reader and also to inform the event to the reader. It purpose is in
line with the concept of Widiati. She also states that, “Recount is a text which
has social function to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.”24
It means that recount text describes the event specifically and
it is told to inform and entertain the reader.
From the objective above, the writer points out that recount text has
three main objectives. The first is to describe about the event, what happen,
when and where the event happen. The second is to entertain the reader. The
third is to informing the reader. In other words, recount text tends to describe
the past event, entertain and also to inform the event.
The Structure of Recount Text
Generally recount text usually has structures as Utami Widiati states that, “A recount text has the following structure; orientation, events, re -orientation.”25
The structures are described as follows:
a. Orientation paragraph. It provides the setting and introduces
b. Events. Tell what happened, in what sequenced.
c. Re-orientation paragraph. It is optional closure of events.
According to Artono Wardiman, there are three main structures of
recount text.26 It is described as follows:
a. Orientation. It tells who was involved, what happened, where the
events took place, and when it happened.
b. Events (event 1 and 2). Tell what happened and in what
Artono Wardiman, et al., English in Focus 2 for Grade VIII Junior High School (SMP/Mts), (Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. 116.
c. Re-orientation. It consists of optional-closure of events or
Moreover, Anderson also highlights the structure of recount text that
consists of three main parts,27 as follows:
a. An orientation. It is a first paragraph that gives background
information about who, where, and when.
b. A series of paragraphs. It retells the events in the order in which
c. A concluding paragraph. It may include a personal comment (not
Those are the structures that are described by Utami Widiati, Artono
Wardiman, and Mark Anderson. The writer could elaborate that there are three
main structures of recount text. The first is orientation paragraph, it usually
gives the background information of text and the participants that are included
in the text. The second is events, it tells what happened in what sequence. The
third is reorientation paragraph or a concluding paragraph, it usually include
the ending or a closure or recount.
The Grammatical Features of Recount Text
Recount text usually includes the following grammatical features, as
Mark and Kathy Anderson state. The language features usually found in a
recount text: proper noun, descriptive words, past tense, words events.28
a. Proper nouns to identify those involved in the text
b. Descriptive words to give details about who, what, when, where
c. The use of the past tense to retell the events
d. Words that show the order of events (for example, first, next, then).
Anderson, (1997), op. cit., p. 53.
Another expert explains the grammatical features of recount. Artono
Wardiman assumes that, “The features are including Who? Where? When? Why?, noun or pronoun, and past tense.”29
It states that the main features of
recount usually consist of three features, participants, noun or pronoun, and
Another experts, Utami Widiati proposes the features of recount text
that recount text concludes participants and past tense.30 Widiati states the
main features that are included in recount text are participants and past tense.
Those are the features of recount text of Mark Anderson, Artono
Wardiman, and Utami Widiati. From those features, the writer summarizes
that the features of recount text as follows:
a. Participants. It gives the detail information about who, when,
where, why and how the event happened.
b. Proper noun. It indentifies those involved in the text.
c. Past tense. The tense that tells about the past event.
d. Words that show the order of events. It is the connection between
events such as first, second, then, next, etc.
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
Before discussing about STAD, the writer would like to discuss about the
approach of STAD that is Cooperative Learning approach. Many experts state
about the definition of Cooperative Learning approach. The first comes from
Richards and Rodgers, “Cooperative Learning is an approach to teaching that
makes maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom.”31
It means that in Cooperative Learning, the students
are divided into some groups on learning activities. The small group could be
consisted at least two persons or pairing.
Another assumption comes from Kevin Barry and King, “The cooperative learning notion suggest students working together, interacting in a task-related
way with each other, and one or some of the students helping those who need or ask for help.”32
According to Kevin Barry and King, in the cooperative learning,
students may help the interaction to help each other in the group.
The small group on Cooperative Learning facilitates the students to work
together with teacher. As Diane Larsen and Freeman point out, “But it is not the
group configuration that makes cooperative learning distinctive; it is the way that students and teachers work together that is important.”33
It shows that on
cooperative learning, that is not only between students who works together but
also teacher should work with student and it is the important thing of cooperative
Besides working together on the group, cooperative learning has its own
characteristics. Richard I. Arends states the characteristic of cooperative, “Cooperative learning lessons can be characterized by following features; students work in teams to master learning goals, teams are made up high-, average-, and
low- achieveing students, whenever possible, teams include a racial, cultural, and gender mix and reward systems are oriented to the group as well as individual.”34
It means that the group is consisted of various different achievers and races, and
the group should be given a reward of their achievement.
According to Richard I. Arends, there are three important instructional goals, “The cooperative learning model was developed to achieve at least three important instructional goals: academic achievement, tolerance and acceptance of diversity, and social skill development.”35
It points out that the students will learn
how to tolerance and knowing the diversity between groups, they also would have
a social skill while interacting in the group.
Kevin Barry and Len King, Beginning Teaching and Beyond, (Southbank: Social Science Press, 2006), p. 234.
Diane Larsen and Freeman, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 164.
Richard I. Arends, Learning to Teach, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007), p. 345.
Jack C. Richards and Rodgers propose the key element of successful
group-based learning in cooperative learning; there are positive interdependence,
group formation, individual accountability, social skills and structuring and
structures.36 The explanation as follows:
a. Positive interdependence, the students should be aware of other
member. They should help one another and feel what the other feel on
b. Group formation, in the group formation, there are some steps to make
a group, such as deciding on the size of the group, assigning students
to groups, and students roles in groups.
c. Individual accountability, it involves both group and individual
d. Social skills, determine the way students interact with each other as
e. Structuring and structures, refer to ways of organizing student
interaction and different ways students are to interact.
Those are some perceptions of cooperative learning. In other words,
cooperative learning is an approach that contributes students to work in a small
group to achieve the goals. In the groups, the students learn how to help each
other and how to interact with the diversity of students. This thing will teach the
students the social skills and the tolerance between individuals.
The Understanding of STAD
Students Teams-Achievement Divisions that is usually called as STAD is
one of the Cooperative Learning techniques which has been used in various
classroom over many years. STAD was developed by Robert Slavin and his
colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University at 1986. Robert Slavin used it to encourage students’ classroom participation.
Robert Slavin is an expert of Cooperative Learning and has been made many
innovations in learning strategies. STAD has been one of his most internationally
utilized cooperative learning techniques. Robert Slavin explains that “The main
idea behind Student teams-Achievement Divisions is to motivate students to encourage and help each other master skills presented by the teacher.”37
that on STAD students is motivated to improve their skills and also could help
their friend together to master the material. They have to work together, achieve
together and improve together.
Those principals of cooperative learning fits to the globalization era that make people connect with each other. “Indeed, the world keeps telling us that young people need much more experience working with groups of people.”38
points out that working in groups is needed with the young learner because in the
world people will work with other people in a group. This thing could be implied
early at school, especially in the classroom.
As can be seen in the STAD students are divided into some groups which is
heterogeneous. Richard I. Arends highlights, “Students within a class are divided
into four- or five- member learning teams, with representatives of both sexes,
various racial or ethnic groups, and high, average, and low achievers on each team.”39
It means that there are different persons are included in the group of
STAD, it could be various sex, race, and achievers.
Moreover, Kevin Barry and Len King point out the concept of STAD that “Teachers present new material, heterogeneous groups work together studying that material, and then group members take individual tests twice a week.”40 It
means that in the heterogeneous group of STAD, every student will take a test. It
is one of the characteristic of STAD.
The concept of STAD could be in line with the actual environment and have
to be implied in the classroom. The writer concludes that STAD is a technique of
cooperative learning that has a heterogeneous member and its characteristic on
learning activity. Students not only could learning together with their friend to
Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning, (Needham : Allyn & Bacon, 1995), p. 6. 38
Harvey Daniels and Marilyin bizar, Teaching Best Practice Way, (Portland: Stenhouse Publishers, 2005), p. 116.
Arends, (2007), op. cit., p. 352.
solve the problem and also could train them on facing the world. It is one of the
important aspect of Cooperative Learning that is to promote behavior and better
group relations among students.
The Characteristic of STAD
Robert Slavin proposes the characteristic of STAD. He states that STAD
consists of five major components; class presentation, teams, quizzes, individual
improvement scores, and team recognition.41 The description of those
characteristics is presented as follows:
a. Class presentation
Firstly, the teacher should introduce the material in class presentation.
Mostly, the teacher conducts a direct instruction or a lecturer-discussion,
but could include audiovisual presentation. Class presentation in STAD
must clearly focus on the STAD unit, it is not same with the usual
teaching. The teacher has to manage the students that they have to pay
attention to the presentation. It is because in the class presentation, the
teacher would give the material which would be asked in the quizzes.
Students have to do well on the quizzes, and their scores determine their
After students listen to the teacher presentation, they would have team
session. But firstly, the teams are composed of four or five members
who present a cross-section of the class in terms of academic
performance, sex, and race or ethnicity. Making sure that all the team
members are learning and prepare its member to do well on the quizzes
is the major function of the team. On the team session, the students
would to learn and do worksheets from the teacher. Moreover, the
session involves students discussing about problem in the team,
answering the answer of the worksheet then comparing, and correcting
any misconceptions if teammates make mistakes. In the team, students
could support for the other academic performance which is essential for
learning. It also presents the common concern and respect that are
essential for such product as intergroup relations, confidence, and
reception of ordinary students.
After the students are having a team, they are permitted to move back to
their own seat before having a team to do quizzes. Quizzes are taken
after roughly one or two periods of teacher presentation and also one or
two periods of team practice. During the quizzes, students are not
permitted to have a discussion or helping each other. Therefore, in this
quizzes every student is individually responsible for comprehending the
d. Individual Improvement Scores
Giving the individual performance score that achieve after quizzes then
compared with the past score is the main idea of individual improvement scores. The scores is depend on the students’ work during the class, whether it is better than the score in the past or not. The past scores are
the scores that are given to the students as a “base” score. Base scores derived from the students’ average performance on similar quizzes. Any student can give greatest points to his or her team in this scoring system,
but no student can do so with no doing his or her best effort.
e. Team Recognition
This is the last components of STAD, which is derived from the average
of individual improvement scores on teams. Teams may receive
certificates or other rewards if their average scores go over a definite
Another expert proposes the characteristic of STAD as Donald R.
STAD; preparation, delivery, and closure.42 The description of those
characteristics as follows:
a. Preparation. In this characteristic, teacher has to prepare the presentation
of the material that would be learned by the students. After that, the
teacher may divide the students into the heterogeneous group to learn
and master the material.
b. Delivery. According to Donald R. Cruickshank, delivery of STAD
involves two steps; the presentation and initiation and monitoring of the
teamwork. In the teamwork, the teacher should do some steps such as,
set the team goals, prepare students for teamwork, give the teams the
assignment, monitor the teams, quiz the students, score the quizzes, and
recognize team accomplishment.
c. Closure. In the closure, the students should be reminded of what they
have just learned and attached to what they already know or what they
will learn next, and they should have the opportunity to apply the
information in some way.
Those are the characteristic of STAD from Robert Slavin and Donald R.
Cruickshank that arose in this paper. The writer elaborates that the characteristic
of STAD includes the preparation of information, the team work, individual
student quizzes, team scoring and recognition. Those characteristic of STAD is
implemented to make the students work together and master the material.
The Purpose of STAD
The Students Teams-Achievement Divisions was developed for some
purposes. The main purpose is of course to make students comprehend with the
material and show the improvement. Robert Slavin highlights that, “The main
idea behind Student Teams-Achievement Divisions is to motivate students to
encourage and help each other master skills presented by the teacher.”43
do not learn individually they have to share the material to their friends and solve
the problem together. Students have different background knowledge, it would
help them to know more the information of sharing the ideas.
Students must help their teammates to learn the material if they want to get
the team awards at the end of the lesson. They must support their teammates to do
their best, expressing model that knowledge is essential, precious, and
pleasurable. Students work together after the teacher’s presentation, it could be
doing the assignment or worksheet. On this work, they could discuss any
misconception between team members or compare the answer or help each other
if there is any difficulty found.
In this team work, the students could discuss the way how to solve the
problem together, and they could ask their teammates about the material to make
sure that the members have already mastered the material. In other words, the
students work with their teammates, sharing their strength and weakness to help
them succeed in quizzes.
On quizzes time, the students are not able to help each other, this thing is usually called “individual accountability”. Donald R. Cruickshank assumes that, “Although students have worked together to get ready for the quiz, they must take it independently.”44
It means that students have to do the quiz by their own self
without helping from their friends.
The team would get a super team if the team shows many improvements
that is the average score of improvement score of each member. The improvement
score would be compared with their own past records. If they want their team
being a team “star” they should help each other to get the maximum points.
Slavin, (1995), op. cit., p. 6.
The Strategies of STAD
Many experts explain that STAD is one of the simplest of all cooperative
learning techniques, and is a good model to begin with for teachers who are new
to the cooperative approach. It can be used in a variety of context. According to
Robert Slavin, there are some strategies which are used in the STAD,45 such as
a. Preparation. On the preparation, teacher should prepare the material,
assigning students to team, determining initial base scores and team
b. Schedule of Activities. On the schedule of activities, teacher should
follow the regular cycle of instructional activities, such as; teach, team
study, test, and team recognition.
c. Figuring Individual and Team Scores. In this strategy, teacher should
score the students individually before he or she computes into the team
score. The important thing is to make the improvement points.
Students earn points for their teams based on the degree to which their
quiz scores (percentage correct) exceed their base scores.
Quiz Score Improvement Points
More than 10 points below base score 5
10 points below to 1 point below base score 10
Base score 10 points above base score 20
More than 10 points above base score 30
Perfect paper (regardless of base score) 30
The first thing that teacher should do in this strategy is to put the base
score of students into the quiz score sheet. The base score is obtained from the average of students’ previous score. The purpose of team scores and improvement points is to make it possible for all students to
bring maximum points to their teams, whatever their level of past
Quiz Score Sheet
Date: May 23 Date:
Quiz: Recount Text Quiz:
Student Base Score
Athaya 90 100 30
Rafiq 90 100 30
Febri 90 82 10
Kemal 85 74 10
Khofif 80 91 30
d. Recognizing Team Accomplishments. In this strategy, teacher has to
give the team award that has its criterion as follows:
Criterion (Team Average) Award
Teacher should provide some sort of recognition or reward for
Team Summary Sheet
The teacher should record the team’s improvement to make students more attractive to class and motivate them to improve their achievement more.
All teams can achieve the awards, they are not competing with one
e. Returning the First Set of Quizzes. In this strategy, teacher has to
explain to the students the improvement point system.
f. Recomputing Base Scores. Teacher recomputes students’ average quiz
scores on all quizzes and assign students new base score on every
g. Changing Teams. At the last period, teacher should resigning students
to new team. It gives the students a new chance, allows students to
work with other classmates, and keeps the program fresh. Team Name: Fantastic Four
Team Members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sara A. 30
Eddia E. 30
Edgar I. 20
Carol N. 20
TOTAL TEAM SCORE 100 TOTAL AVERAGE
TEAM AWARD SUPER
h. Grading. Teacher should give the report card that be based on students’
actual quiz scores.
Another expert proposes the strategies of STAD. It comes from Donald R.
Cruickshank that states the strategies of STAD based on the activities (when
preparing, when delivering and when closing).46 The description as follows:
a. When preparing: teacher should prepare the presentation, team assignment, and students’ future engagement.
b. When delivering: teacher has to make the presentation utilizing elements
of a good presentation, set team goals, prepare students for work with
their team, give the teams the assignment, quiz the students, and
recognize team accomplishment.
c. When closing: teacher has to remind the students of what they learned,
relate new learning to past of future learning, and provide opportunity
for practical use of information.
Those are the strategies of Robert Slavin and Donald R. Cruickshank that
have their own variation. The writer takes the conclusion that there are some
strategies on the activities of STAD. The strategies could be used from the
preparation up to the closing of activities. Robert Slavin explains the strategies
specifically while Donald R. Cruickshank explains it generally. Both strategies
could be used in the STAD activities.
The Advantage and Disadvantage of STAD
Besides being an entertaining activity, STAD develops positive
interdependence as the students are able to learn each other. Jack C. Richards
highlights, “Positive interdependence occurs when group members feel that what
helps one member helps all and what hurts one member hurts all.”47 It also
Cruickshank, (2006), op. cit., p. 244.