APPROVAL FOR FINAL EXAMINATION
Research title : The Correlation between Students’ Motivation and Their English Speaking Ability at The Second Year of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in the Academic Year 2012-2013. Student’s name : Mesi Astriani
SRN : 0743042022
Department : Language and Arts Study program : English
Faculty : Teachers Training and Education
H. M. Ujang Suparman, M.A., Ph.D. Budi Kadaryanto, S.Pd., M.A. NIP 19570608 198603 1 001 NIP 19810326 200501 1 002
The Chairperson of
Language and Art Education Department
This script would humbly be dedicated to:
1. My beloved parents, The Late of Mr. Zainal Abidin and The Late Female of Mrs. Asnani.
2. My beloved brothers and sisters (Bang Di, Bang Wan, Bang Kus, Yuk Ria, Yuk Evi, and the last, Yuk Meri).
3. My beloved nephews and nieces ( Putri, Agung, Vivi, Ferdy, Icha, Fariz, Sultan, Eko, Dinta, Bilal, and Altra).
4. My unique bestfriends ( Desy Putriyani, Dwi Paramita S.,
Marhamah, Nur Sartika P., Yuyun Fadilah, Silvia Agustin) and to all my classmate of English ’07.
5. My big family.
In this chapter, the researcher presents eight topics which consist of background of the problem, identification of the problems, limitation of the problems, formulation of the problems, objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Problem
Speaking is oral communication skill that is learned by students from Elementary School to Senior High School. Speaking is a process of communication between at least two people and speaking is one of ways to express someone’s idea. Therefore, the English curriculum for SMP requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students’ communicative skill because only in that way can the students express their idea and learn how to follow the social and cultural roles appropriately in commuicative circumstances.
Speaking is an important aspect in language learning. By speaking, people can convey information and ideas, and maintain social relationship by communicating with others. In addition a large percentage of the world’s language learners study Engish in order to be able
speaking and communication effectively. Many learners regard speaking as the most important skill.
According to Apridawati’s research (2011), it was found that for most learners, speaking is the most difficult part when they learn a foreign language. Almost all of students were unwilling to express their feelings or opinions using their English language. They lack of motivation in their speaking class. So there were still limited interaction among the students and the speaking class was less alive. Therefore, they need a teacher who can motivate them to increase their eagerness in learning English.
There are many reasons to investigate the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability. First, at the first time the students were glad when they would like to study English as their school subject. However, when they were learning English in the classroom, almost all of them were getting bored. They did not feel interested any more to study this subject. Second, they lacked awareness the importance of learning English. Third, the technique used in teaching learning process was not interesting. Considering the
statements, the researcher realizes that motivation is a key problem for the students to be success in learning. Having low motivation influences their achievement in speaking skill. When they found difficulties they tend to be lazy in learning the language; consequently they were not able to participate successfully in oral interaction. On the other hand, it was also found that the students’ speaking skill is also low. This can be seen from the facts (1) when the teacher asked the students to speak in English, they did not give respond and (2) there was a limited number of interaction in speaking class.
language learning may influence the level of proficiency a learner can attain. The more motivated the students are, the more successful in learning language they will be.
Based on the description above, the writer was interested in investigating the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability of the second year students
of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in the academic year 2012-2013.
1.2 Identification of the Problems
Based on the background above, the following problems can be identified:
a. For most people, speaking is the most difficult part when they learn foreign language.
b. Students’ speaking ability is poor.
c. The learners’ motivation to learn speaking is low d. Students get bored after long time in learning English. e. The frequency in learning speaking is not enough.
f. In learning process students get some difficulties to interact.
g. The methods that are used by the teacher in teaching speaking are not appropriate. h. The awareness of second language uses is low.
i. The facilities of learning speaking are not supporting. j. Lack of awareness how important English is.
1.3 Limitation of the Problems
In line with the identification of the problems above, the writer limits her research as follows: 1. Investigating students’ motivation.
3. Investigating the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability.
1.4 Formulation of the Problems
Based on the limitation of the problems above, the writer formulated the research problems as follows:
- Is there any correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability?.
1.5 Objective of the Research
Given the formulation of the problems above, the objective of the research was to investigate whether there is correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability
at the second year students of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in the academic year 2012 - 2013.
1.6 Uses of the Research
The uses of the research might be beneficial theoretically and practically: a. Theoretically
- To support the existing theory, especially on the theory of motivation as discussed in Chapter 2.
- To answer the writer’s curiosity on the correlation students’ motivation and their English speaking ability.
- As information for English teachers to make a classroom a positive learning environment, and must help students to build a positive motivation.
- As a contribution for the school to improve and increase English teaching learning process especially in speaking class.
- As information for the researchers who are interested in investigating the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability.
1.7 Scope of the Research
In this research, the writer focused on finding out the results of students’speaking ability which may be affected by their motivation. It analyzed the correlation between students’ motivation and their speaking in learning English. For gaining the data, the writer gave the tests. For measuring students’ motivation, the writer used questionnaire. For test of English speaking ability, the writer chose the topic about invitation. The writer measured the
motivation by administering Likert measurement technique (Likert Scale) range 1 to 4. This technique placed psychological aspect that used into all instruments such as motivation.
1.8 Definition of Terms
There are some terms that are used throughout this research and to make it clear, some definitions of terms are mentioned as follow:
English speaking ability
In this research refers to as an ability or skill which the learners have in communicating, conveying the meaning, and using a meaningful conversation in English that cover pronunciation, idea, grammar, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary.
In this study means a psychological condition which derives someone to do something to reach the goal of learning English. While Oxford and Shearin (1994:12) defines motivation is an inner power reinforcing someone to do something.
I. FRAME OF THEORIES
This chapter discusses review of previous research and review of related literature to support the research. This chapter deals with the concept of motivation, the roles of motivation, the concept of speaking, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis.
2.1 Review of Previous Research
There are some studies that have been carried out to investigate students’
motivation in English learning process. First, in one of objectives of her research, Apridawati (2011) analyzes how far motivation contributed to the students
English speaking ability after being taught by using CLL at the second grade of SMPN 22 Bandar lampung. She developes a questionnaire to elicit the data required. The questionnaire was administered on approximately 60 students from two classes which is selected randomly. The findings revealed that Community
Language Learning can be used to improve students’ motivation in speaking ability. Second, Hulda (2011) investigates whether there was significant influence
between students’ motivation and their reading comprehension achievement in
school at least one year. In collecting the data of motivation, she administered a questionnaire of motivation developed by Sadewo (1999). The results supported
the theory of motivation that stated by Huit (2001:1) who said “motivation refers
to an internal state that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it
direction”. And it also proved that what Hamacheck (1994:276) has said about the roles of motivation is true.
Third, by Ali (2010) attempts to find out whether teaching speaking using visual
media can improve students’ motivation significantly in their speaking class. The research sample was one class of three classes of the second grade that chosen by lottery. To collect the data, he administered a set of the motivation questionnaire which the scores were based on the Likert scale. The results indicated that
students’ score of motivation in their speaking class improved after they were taught through visual media.
To sum up, based on the previous studies, it can be stated that all the above mentioned studies reconfirmed the importance of identifying learners’ motivation in the English learning process. The studies had been carried out to investigate
foreign language learners’ motivation and these studies helped the researchers to
understand the how to identify learners’ motivation. Not only that, these studies
focused on learners’ motivation. Besides adapting questions to investigate the students’ motivation, these studies can help the researchers to build their idea on how to identify students’ motivation in English learning process.
ability. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the correlation
between the students’ motivation and their English speaking ability and to find out which type of motivation influenced more on the improvement of students’
English speaking ability at the second year of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in the academic year 2012 – 2013.
2.2 The Concept of Motivation
Motivation is an inner power reinforcing someone to do something, all inner power that determines successul learning activity (Oxford and Shearin, 1994:12). We can figure out that success in task is simply due to fact that someone is motivated. If the students are strongly motivated, the process of learning will be more active and effect their achievement.
Based on Maslow in Setiawan (2012), the word motivation is taken from the Latin
word “movere”, which means “to move”. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. According to Mc. Donald in Setiawan (2012), motivation is the internal factors that energize and direct human behavior. This statement contains three basic elements of motivation; motivation which stimulates the inner drive, signaled it with feeling, and stimulated because of the goal. The researcher beliaves that motivation is physicological condition which derives someone to do something so that he/she can reach the goal.
English. Besides that, teachers need new teaching methodology to make the learning process more interesting.
As Gardner and Lambert (1972) identified motivation as primarily with the
students’ orientation toward of learning a second language. Based on this idea, motivation plays an important role toward the students’ succession in learning
second or foreign language. When the students have good motivation in learning English they will do anything that can improve their knowledge about English. They will also try to speak in that langugae with their friends without being afraid in making mistke. More practice they have better their English will be.
According to Samsudin in Sadewo (2009:32) learning motivation consist of some aspects, they are: (1) learning duration, that is how long someone is able to use the time to do an activity (2) activity frequency, that is how often an activity is done in a period (3) persistency, that is the continuity at the purpose of the activity (4) perseverance, that is the ability in facing hindrance and difficulty (5) devotion, that is sacrifice to achieve the aim (6) aspiration level, that is the target that will be achieved with the activity that will be done (7) qualification level, that is achievement which is achieved from the activity, and (8) attitude, that is the target of learning activity.
Motivation is also used to facilitate students to reach their objectives in learning English; it is to reach good achievement in speaking.
From all statements above, the researcher assumed that motivation means positive impulse toward the language learning in order to attain the goal of foreign
language learning. Thus, it seems that motivation plays important part in order to make the students master their English and get the best achievement.
2.3 Types of Motivation
Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that motivation is a support which comes from inside consciously or unconsciously to do something based on their own specific goal. Next, the writer also believes that motivation is also the efforts which stimuli people to act so that they can reach their goal.
According to Sardiman (2005), motivation is divided into two types; they are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task. an intrinsically motivated person will work on a math equation, for example, because it is enjoyable. Or an intrinsically
motivated person will work on a solution to a problem because the challenge of finding a solution is provides a sense of pleasure. In neither case does the person work on the task because there is some reward involved, such as prize, a payment, or in the case of students, a grade.
This motivation derives from the outside effect of individual, whether it is from enviroment, society, pressure, persuasion so that the learners tends to be active in their learning process. For example: the teacher will give a gift to the students if they answer the question correctly. Extrinsic motivation stems from positive or negative reinforcement which is external to the behavior itself rather than inherent in it, for instance, studying to get good scores not because of studying is enjoyable.
2.4 Types of Motivation in learning English as a Foreign Language
Gardner and Lambert (1972), motivation in learning English is divided into two parts. The first is integrative motivation that identified with positive attitudes toward the target language group and the potential for integrating into that group or at least an interest in meeting and interacting with members of the target language group. The second is instrumental motivation, which refers to more functional reasons for learning a language, for example to pass a required examination or to get a better job.
2.5 Types of Motivation in Speaking English
Since motivation is as an internal drive that comes from intrinsic and extrinsic aspects, it is of course one of the parts whch will encourage the students to learn the language appropriately. The main goal in learning the language is the students are able to speak in its language, therefore, motivation is something important that students should have in order for them become attractively in acquiring it.
consciouly or unconsciouly, they were eagered to matser it even it is difficult for them.
Motivation in learning English is divided into two parts, based on Gardner and Lambert (1972). The first is integrative motivation that identified with positive attitudes toward the target language group and the potential for integrating into that group or at least an interest in meeting and interacting with members of the target language group. The second is instrumental motivation, which refers to more functional reasons for learning a language, for example to pass a required examination or to get a better job.
2.6 The Roles of Motivation
Motivation is an essential condition of learning. When the students have a target to be achieved, they will be motivated to find the way to achieve it. For example, the students locks himself in his bedroom, spend hours to study to face his examination. Motivation is correlated with aims or objectives. The aim of the students who study hard is for passing his exam. It can be said that motivation influences somebody to act. According to Sardiman (1994:85) there are three roles of motivation, they are:
1) Pushing human to do something. Motivation is as activator or motor which escape energy. In this case, motivation is activator motor from every activity that will be done.
2) Determining the destination of behavior that is toward the goal that will be achieved. Thus, motivation can give the destination and the activity that has to be done based on the objectives.
for that goal. A student who will face the exam and hope to pass the exam, must be studying and will not spend his time to play card or read comics because those are not suitable with his goals.
Another function of motivation is a stimulus to do efforts to reach the
achievement. Somebody does an effort because of motivation. For teachers, the roles of motivation are very important in the learning process because motivation
can give spirit, willingness and awareness to increase their students’ achievement.
The way teacher motivate their students can be giving praise, advice, reward, giving English story books and helping students in doing task. It can make students love learning. The willingness that comes from inside is like an energy which can push and drive the activity to study hard.
Motivation is considered by many to be one of determining factors in developing a second language or foreign language. Motivation determines the extent of active and personal involvement. On the contrary, Gardner explains that motivation differs from orientation but not be highly motivated to achieve that goal.
Motivation, in this case is a positive power, which stems from desire to attain the goal reflected in the orientation, for instance, learning English seriously in order to get a better job in the future. In relation with the previous statement, students need motivation in order to attain the goal of learning learning and the motivation come from themselves or from their environment.
for enjoyment (Setiyadi, 1999). If reasons of studying English are for his enjoyment himself and his knowledge himself, it is called intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person
motivated. An intrinsically motivated student, for example, may want to get a good grade on an assignment, but if the assignment does not interest that student,
the possibility of a good grade is not enough to maintain that students’ motivation
to put any effort into the project.
Bainbridge (2005) also states extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside,
rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide.
An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The rewards can be something as minor as smiley face to something major like fame or fortune. For example, an extrinsically motivated person who dislike math may work hard on a math equation because wants the reward for completing it. in the case of a student, the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class.
be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good grade will be enough to keep the student motivated in order for him or her to put forth the effort to do well on a task.
The researcher assumes that all kinds of learning process need the motivation especially in learning English as foreign language. The students can reach their goal if they have intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. In this research, the researcher
will focus on the students’ intrinsic motivation because it would be come from
their inner mind and feeling to speak enjoyable. Besides that, it focuses also on
students’ extrinsic motivation to support intrinsic motivation itself. Therefore, they can speak without any pressure from teacher or other students. In ideal classroom, students pay attention, ask questions and want to learn. They do their assignments without complaining and study without being coaxed or cajoled. But, teachers do not do teach is an ideal world. They often have students who are not motivated; more accurately, students do not seem motivated to work on the task their teachers have set out from them, including in speaking class. A teacher contributes a great deal to the students’ desire to learn and to make responsibility and control for their own learning. With a positive, proactive to motivation, a teacher can influence the way students view themselves and learning.
learning without considering the impact of motivation on it. So that is why, in this research, the researcher focused on the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability.
2.7 The Concept of Speaking
In facts, speaking is one of the most important things in life, thus any expression of thought that comes from mind can be conveyed by speaking. For instance in daily lives most of people speak more than write. On the other hands, speaking a foreign language usually seems much harder than learning to write and read it. Often the most important problem people have with foreign languages is that they cannot speak. Probably it happens because they shame to speak in the public.
Speaking is a productive skill which the speaker produces and uses the language by expressing a sequence of ideas and at the same time he/she tries to get the ideas or the message across. In this case, there is a process of giving message or
encoding process. At the same time, there is a process of understanding the message of the speaker.
Speaking skill is very important in daily activities. It is because we can give responds to the people and situation and can express our ideas, thoughts, and feeling through spoken language. Lado (1977:240) states that speaking is
People try to communicate with each other and use their language to make other people understand. Byrne (1984:8) says that speaking or oral communication is a two-way process between speaker and listener and involves productive and receptive skill or understanding. It means that we try to send our message to the second people. In this case, the communication needs at least two people, a speaker who produces a message and a listener who receives the message.
In speaking process, one tries to communicate with and send out his/her message to the others. In this case, the communication needs at least two people, a speaker who produces a message and a listener who receives the message. Therefore, in speaking process, especially in dialogue, needs at least two people because we cannot do it individually. One becomes a speaker who produces information and the other become listener who receive information. Referring to this, transactional
dialogue is suitable to measur students’ achievements since transactional dialogue
refers to situation where the focus is on whatt is said or done. The message nd making oneself understood clearly and accurately is the central focus, rather than the participants and how they interact socially with each other.
Brown (2001:251) also classifies the types of spoken language. Those types are as follows:
Dialogue involves two or more speakers and can be subdivided into
interpersonal and transactional language is a dialogue involves two or more speakers to convey propositional or factual information. There are three aspects that would be measured for the speaking test. The researcher will exam the aspects of pronunciation, fluency, and comprehensibility. From the statement above we can see that pronunciation is a way in which someone utters the words or the language to another based on the available rules.
Hedge (2003) defines fluency as the ability to link units of speech together with facility and without strain or inappropriate slowness, or undue hesitation. Fluency is the smoothness or flow with which sounds, syllables, words, phrases, are joined together when speaking. Meanwhile, comprehensibility focuses on the student’s understanding of the conversation. Comprehensibility measures how much interpretation is required to understand students’ responses. These aspects of speaking are important for the learners to master English communication.
From the definition above, the writer concluded that speaking is two ways process between speaker and listener and the process includes encoding that is, the
process of giving idea or making the listener understand, and decoding that is a process of getting idea of the speaker. In addition, to make students get
2.8 Theoretical Assumption
Based on the theories above, the writer formulated the theoretical assumption as
follow: “If the learners have high motivation they can speak confidently. Because by having high motivation, the students have strength and effort to learn and
develop their competence in speaking and be active in English speaking class”.
Thus, the writer was interested in investigating the correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability of the second year students of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in the academic year 2012 - 2013.
Referring to related literature presented earlier, the writer stated the hypothesis as follows:
III. RESEARCH METHODS
The researcher elaborates this chapter into seven topics and sub topics. They are research design, population and sample, research instruments, administrating try out, research procedures, data analysis, and hypothesis testing. They are explained in specific way how the researcher collected the data, calculated the data, prepared the data, and how reliable and valid the data were so that the reader can
1.1 Research Design
This is a quantitative study. Hatch and Farhady (1982: 26) state that quantitative is a kind of research in which the data used to tend to use statistic as measurement in deciding the conclusion.
Related to this, the writer used ex post facto design because she investigated
whether there is a correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability. There was no treatment in this research.
of relationship between two variables rather than at a cause-and–effect relationship.
The aim of this research is to find out the correlation between two variables
(students’ motivation and their English speaking ability).
This design used because it is most suitable to investigate whether there is a significant correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability.
The writer administered test of motivation and test of English speaking ability. The test of motivation conducted to measure students’ motivation and the test of English speaking ability to measure student’s ability in speaking skill.
Ex post facto design is a s follows: T1 T2
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:27)
In which T1 = The test of motivation
T2 = The test of English speaking ability
The score for each student on one test can then be correlated with the score of the others, allowing readers to see whether those students who score high on one test also score high on the others.
The data of this study were students’ motivation and English speaking ability scores. Motivation is one of the language drives symbolized as „X’ variable that
measured by using Likert scale and the result is students’ motivation data. English
1.2 Population and Sample
The population of this research was the second year students of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in academic year 2012-2013. There are eight classes for the second year. They were VIIIA, VIIIB, VIIIC, VIIID, VIIIE, VIIIF, VIIIG and VIIIH. The writer chose one of them through random sampling technique, where every class in population has the same chance to be chosen as sample. First, the writer wrote those eight classes on a small paper, one class for one piece of small paper. Then, she took one paper randomly to choose the class to be the sample. Finally, the writer got one class VIIIF with total number 36 students as the sample. Then the writer chose one class more to be a try out class for trying out the questionnaire before it is conducted in research class. That class was VIIIG. The writer chose this school because there was no research yet conducted here previously and the
topic for testing students’ English speaking ability is appropriate for students Junior High School.
1.3 Research Instruments
In collecting the data, the researcher used questionnaire and transactional English speaking test to score their ability in speaking English as the instrument.
1.3.1 Test of Motivation
the students were supposed to give their answers as factual and real information about themselves or the information that was close to the fact as provided in the 4 alternative answers.
Each of the alternatives is scored as the following: A = 4; for the very high motivation answer. B = 3; for the high motivation answer. C = 2; for the middle motivation answer. D = 1; for the low motivation answer.
Except items number 2, 6, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25 are the inverse answers which are scored as following:
A = 1; for the low motivation answer. B = 2; for the middle motivation answer. C = 3; for the high motivation answer. D = 4; for the very high motivation answer.
In addition to the indicator of motivation, the writer took the indicators from Samsudin in Sadewo (2009:32) learning motivation consist of some aspects, they are: (1) learning duration, that is how long someone is able to use the time to do an activity (2) activity frequency, that is how often an activity is done in a period (3) persistency, that is the continuity at the purpose of the activity (4)
achievement which is achieved from the activity, and (8) attitude, that is the target of learning activity.
220.127.116.11 Table Specification of Motivation.
Item1. The duration of stuedents in learning English;
how long is the ability of students to use time in doing activity of learning
3, 7, 20 3
2. The frequency of students’ activity in learning English; how often does the activity take place
2, 4, 13 3
3. The persistence of students in learning English; how functional in doing activity; how strong his/her tenacity is.
1, 5, 19 3
4. The perseverance of students’ in learning English; how to solve the difficulties and face the problems in learning English
6, 9, 12 3
5. The devotion of students to get the objective of learning English. For instance: thought, time, money, effort.
10, 11, 14, 16 4
6. The aspiration of the students, for instance; purpose target etc
17, 18, 21 3
7. The qualification level of students’ achievement in learning English
8, 15, 24 3
8. The students’ attitude to the purposes of learning English.
22, 23, 25 3
Items number 2, 6, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25 are inverse answers which answer D is scored 4 while A is scored 1.
1.3.2 Test of Speaking
or play, while role play is a method of acting out particular ways of behaving or pretending to be other people who deal with new situation. In this case, Ladousse (1998) illustrates that when students assume, “Role” they play a part either their
own or somebody else in speific situation. “Play” means that is taken on in a safe
environment in which students are as an inventive and playful as possible. It involves two or more students like in real situation while the first person initiates conversation and the second person responds to the first person.
Stocker in Ripratiwi (2012: 15) states that role play is interestng, memorable, engaging, and makes students retain the material they have learned. In their assumed role, students drop their shyness and other personality and cultural inhabitions, making them one of the best tools available for teaching a second language. For students who are shy, they usually need friend beside her or him in order to reduce their shyness because they will feel safe if there is a friend beside her or him. Communication can be natural in playing the role.
Referring to the guideline of competence-based curriculum which states that the aim of learning English is to enable the students to express their thoughts, ideas, both in written and spoken. For oral skill the teacher can use role play technique by giving dialogues to be played so that the students get more an interest in learning English.
The topic of test students’ English speaking ability was about the
expressions of an invitation. They developed their own conversation based on the situation given. The result of this test was considered as the data of
students’ English speaking ability.
Invitation is a written or spoken request asking someone to spend time with you
socially or to come to a social event. The kinds of invitation are: wedding
invitation, farewell invitation, dinner invitation, birthday party invitation, meeting invitation, holiday invitation, training invitation, competition invitation, and so on.
In gaining students’ speaking data, first the writer asked the students to choose their partner then she gave the example of invitation’s expression and the example of its dialogue. Then the writer asked the students to make the dialogue based on the topic that had been prepared by the writer. The students chose one of the topics that they considered most interesting. After they finished, they are asked to role the dialogue that they have made. For example:
Jan : Mr. Brown, my husband and I were just wondering if you would like to come over for dinner this evening.
Jan : No, but thanks for asking. Brown : Ok. See you this evening then.
The students were asked to speak clearly since their voice was recorded during the test.
As speaking is highly subjective measurement, the great weakness of oral rating is their tendency to have rather low reliability, and to make sure consistency of rating of that subjective measurement, the inter rater reliability is used as it related to this study. In scoring the test, the writer will get the scores to be gained by the researcher and two raters. The inter rater is another person who gives score besides the researcher herself.
The following table is the oral ability scale that was adapted from Heaton (1991). It has been modified by the writer which is used as the scoring standard for the
students’ speaking ability.
Range Pronunciation Fluency Comprehensibility 90-100 The students’ 80-89 Most of students’
utterances are correct.
50-59 Pronunciation is influenced by the
The writer conducted a try out test for the test of motivation in try out class, VIIIG, to determine the reliability and the validity of the test. The reliability analysis from tryout class, Alpha was 0.753. It was categorized as high reliability. Since the sample of this research was Indonesian students, the writer translated the questionnaire into Indonesian version. The writer tried to define the definition of reliability and validity as well as what kinds of tests that can be said valid and reliable.
Eventhough reliability is only supporting data, but reliability aspect is really
Shohamy (1985:70) states that reliability shows whether the test is consistent in its
score and it gives us an indication of how accurate the test score are. Reliability
means the stability of test scores when the test is used. A test is called reliable if the
score gained by the examiners is constant whenever and by whomever the test is
conducted. To make sure whether the instruments were reliable or ot the writer used
the Cronbach’s Alpha. It was counted based on the motivation scale and the range of
1 to 4. The higher Alpha is the more reliable the questioner will be (Setiyadi:2006).
According to Arikunto (1998:260), the standard of reliability of the instrument can be
described as follows:
1. 0.80 – 1.0 : very high reliability
2. 0.60 – 0.79 : high reliability
3. 0.40 – 0.59 : medium reliability
4. 0.20 – 0.39 : low reliability
5. 0.0 – 0.19 : very low reliability
As stated before, to measure whether the test was reliable or not the writer used Cronbach’s Alpha. Every item in motivation questionnaire was analyzed to make
sure that the items consist of good unity. Motivation questionnaire was made up of 25 items on four point Likert Scale from one to four, ranging from very high motivation, high motivation, medium motivation and low motivation.
coloum (see appendix 5), the alpha is 0.917. By considering this, it can be said that if item number 1 was deleted, Alpha would be lower than 0.921 whereas the higher alpha is the better the questionnaire is.
For speaking test, to make the score more acceptable, to ensure the ability of scores and to avoid the subjectivity of the research, the writer used inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability is used when scores of the test are independently estimated by two or more judges or raters. It means that there is another person who gives score besides the researcher herself. She was Mrs. Siti Asiah Oktarina, S.Pd., as the English teacher at SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung.
The writer considered that one inter rater was qualified to measure the learners’
speaking ability since she had a alot of experiences in teaching English and had much experience in teaching speaking class more than three years and had graduated from university (minimally S1) in English major.
Content validity is concerned with whether or not the content of the test is
sufficiently representative and comprehensive for the test to be valid measure it is supposed to measure. While construct validity focuses on the kind of the test that is used to measure the ability. To get the content validity, the test was adapted from Likert Scale which was deveoped by Uniroh (1990). In this test, the writer gave 25 questions which each item had the purposed to measure students’
motivation in learning English. It has been modified by the writer, that’s why it
was tried out before conducted in research class. And the result of it realiability analysis, it showed it has a high reliability. Construct validity is the extent to which an instrument becomes representative sample of the subject matter
contents. It is used to measure the instrument that has some indicators to measure one aspect or construct.
Construct validity is often correlated with instrument of measurement that is related with psycholinguistic such as perception, linguistic attitude, and motivation in learning foreign language (Setiyadi, 2006: 25-26). Construct validity concerns with whether the instruments is actually in line with the theory of what it means to the language (Shohamy, 1985:74) that is being measured. It means that the instrument would measured certain aspect based on the indicator.
1.5 Research Procedures
In conducting the research, the writer used the following steps: 1. Setting the research problem
2. Determining the objectives
The objective of the research was to investigate whether there is a correlation
between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability at the second
year students of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung in academic year 2012 – 2013. 3. Determining the sample population
The writer took the second year students of SMPN 19 Bandar Lampung as the sample of this research. There were eight classes and the total of
population was 289 students. The writer took two class. The writer took one class as a research class through random sampling technique. The chosen class was VIIIF, and then the writer chose one class to be a try out class, that was VIIIG. The total students of VIIIF was 36 students, but there were 2 students who didnot take part in the study.
4. Constructing research instrument a. Test of motivation
The writer gained the data of motivation by using questionnaire consisted of 25 items ranging from one to four. It was developed by Uniroh.
b. Test of English speaking ability
The students were asked to play a role as two friends. The topic of this test was about an invitation. They developed their own conversation based on the situation given.
Try out conducted only to determine the reliability and the validity of questionnaire that used to measure the students’ motivation. To find out it wass reliable or not, the researcher used Cronbach’s Alpha. The reliability analysis from try out class, Alpha was 0.753. It was categorized as high reliability.
6. Administrating motivation test
The writer gave a questionnaire of motivation to the students 7. Administrating English speaking test
The writer conducted English speaking test by recording the result. The recorded result was rated by the writer and one inter-rater. The both of
writer’s score and teacher’s score was accumulated then it was divided 2. The result of dividing was the students’ final speaking score.
8. Analyzing the data
The data was analyzed by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation which is computed by using SPSS to investigate whether there is a correlation or not.
1.6 Data Analysis
After collecting the data of English speaking ability and their motivation, the writer correlated them to investigate whether there is significant correlation or not by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation as follow:
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:198)
r : The coefficient correlation x : Motivation score
y : Speaking ability score
: The sum of scores in X-distribution : The sum of scores in Y-distribution
: The sum of products of paired X and Y distribution
: The sum of the squared scores in x distribution : The sum of the squared scores in Y distribution N : The number of paired X and Y score
1.7 Hypothesis Testing
After the writer found the coefficient correlation between students„ motivation and their English speaking ability, the writer also found out the criterion for the hypothesis acceptance. To determine whether the hypothesis was accepted or rejected, the following criterion acceptance used:
: There is no significant correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability. The can be accepted if is lower than : There is a significant correlation between students’ motivation and their
V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
In this chapter, the writer comes to the conclusion and suggestions of this research. In the conclusion, the writer divides four points of view, while for suggestion the writer gives five points of views.
Based on the result of data analysis and discussion, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. The average score of students’ motivation is 65.8 where it is in normal category. It means that mostly students have good motivation in learning English. It just depends on the teacher to maintain their motivation so that the students have good willingness in practice their English.
3. There is a close correlation between students’ motivation and their English speaking ability. The statistical analysis of motivation and English speaking ability showed that the value of coefficient correlation (r) = 0.873
Given the conclusion above, the writer proposes some suggestions as follow: 1. For the teachers
a. Besides teaching the material about speaking, the teachers also should be aware of the students’ psychological factors, such as motivation. This is because a good teacher is one who pays optimal attention to linguistics goals and to the personhood of their students.
b. The teacher should be able to use every single chance for doing speaking practice in the class. For example, the teachers may use English when they teach or even just give the instructions.
c. Moreover giving an interesting material, the teacher should also use methods in teaching English that can encourage the students to practice a lot in speaking English. Therefore, the aim of teaching English can be achieved as what the teachers expect and also match with the curriculum deals with.
2. For the students
b. Basically, they also need to join conversation class where it can give them more space to practice their English.
c. In maintaining the students’ motivation, the writer also suggests some tips
that can preserve students’ motivation; that students must join in a group
where people in this group has a good motivation in learning English. So, that they can learn each other on how to master in English, learn
everything that can improve your ability in English, associate with optimists and positive people and find a people that can motivate you when you need some suggestions or trouble in your life.
3. For other researchers who are going to conduct any similar researches, it can be used as a source of reference. Despite all of effort attempted to perfect this research, there still must be many mistakes occurred in it. Therefore, it is suggested for other writers intending to do any similar researches to
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