THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND THEIR WRITING ABILITY OF SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA AL KAUTSAR BANDAR LAMPUNG

Teks penuh

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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE

STUDENTS’

MOTIVATION AND THEIR WRITING ABILITY OF SECOND

YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA AL KAUTSAR

BANDAR LAMPUNG

By

DARA HELMASENA A Script

Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for S-1 Degree

in

The Language and Arts Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

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i ABSTRACT

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND THEIR WRITING ABILITY OF SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA AL

KAUTSAR BANDAR LAMPUNG

By

Dara Helmasena

This research was aimed at finding out whether there is a correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing ability of second year students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung.

This research was conducted at SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung in academic year 2014/2015. The researcher took place in class XI Science 1 which consisted of 34 students. The instruments used to gather the data were motivation test and writing test.

The result showed that the highest score of students’ motivation was 94, the lowest score was 41, and the average was 65.8. While for the writing test the score was gained from the average of interaters sum scoring, the highest score was 95, the lowest score was 55, and the average was 75. Then the researcher correlated the students’ motivation and their writing. It was found that the coefficient correlation between the students motivation and their writing ability was 0.873. It meant that the correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing ability was high. It was proven by the result of Pearson Product Moment formula, which showed p was 0.00 and it meant that the result was significant because p<0.05 α (0.00<0.05).

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CURRICULUM VITAE

The writer’s name is Dara Helmasena. She was born on April 24th, 1993 in

Gisting, Tanggamus. She is the second child of Hamdani MS and Aprida Haryati.

She began her formal educational institution for the first time at TK Aisyah

Bustanul Athfal in 1998 and graduated in 1999. She continued her study at SDN 2

Talangpadang Tanggamus and graduated in 2005. Then she continued her study at

MTsN Model Talangpadang Tanggamus (now MTsN 2 Tanggamus) and

graduated in 2008. After that she continued her study at SMAN 1 Pringsewu and

graduated in 2011. In the same year, in 2011 she was registered as a student of

English Education Study Program, in Language and Art Education Department of

Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Lampung University.

From July 2nd to September 17th 2014, she carried out Teaching Practice Program

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DEDICATION

This paper is proudly dedicated to: My Beloved Parents

My Brothers and Sister

English Education Program

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vi MOTTO

Do not compare yourself to others. If you do so, you are insulting yourself. If you

are lucky enough to be different, do not ever change.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillahirabbil’alamin…

First of all, praise is merely to Allah SWT, the almighty and merciful God, for His

abundant mercy and blessing that enables the writer to finish her script. This script

entitled “The Correlation between the Students’ Motivation and Their Writing

Ability of Second Year Students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung” is

submitted as a compulsory fulfillment of the requirement for S-1 Degree at the

Language and Arts Education Department of Teacher Training and Education

Faculty of University of Lampung.

Gratitude and honor are addressed to all persons who have helped and supported

the writer until the completion of this research. Since it is necessary to be known

that this research will never have come into its existence without any supports,

encouragements and assistances by several outstanding people and institutions,

the writer would like to express his sincere gratitude and respect to:

1. Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A., as my first supervisor and also my

academic advisor who has contributed and given his invaluable

evaluations, comments, and suggestions during the completion of this

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2. Drs. Deddy Supriyadi, M.Pd., as the second advisor, for his assistance,

ideas, guidance and carefulness in correcting the writer’s script.

3. Drs. Sudirman, M.Pd., as the examiner and for his support encouragement,

ideas, and suggestion in supporting the writer.

4. Dr. Mulyanto Widodo, M.Pd., as the chairperson of Language and Arts

Education Department.

5. Dr. Ari Nurweni, M.A., as the Chief of English Education Study Program

and all lecturers of English Education Study Program who have

contributed their guidance during the completion process until

accomplishing this script.

6. Eko Anzair, S.Si., as the Headmaster of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar

Lampung for giving the writer permittion to conduct the research.

7. Liszia Devi Mutiara, S.Pd., as the English teacher of SMA Al Kautsar

Bandar Lampung who has allowed the writer did the research there. Also

all the students of XI IPA 1 and XI IPA 2 in the year of 2014/2015, for

their participation as the subject of this research.

8. The writer’s parents (Hamdani MS and Aprida Haryati), the great brothers

(Agung Prima Putra, M. Faridz Alfaridzi, and M. Dhuha Alfathin) and my

lovely sister (Rully Trisna Iswari, Amd.), for their loves, supports,

motivations and prayers.

9. My Best Women, Suri Widhya Kesuma, Nidia Putri, Realita Siwi JN, Fiya

Sholatunisa, Yuyun Diah Anggraini, and Hesti Apala. Thanks for

accompanying me in my bad, flat, and good times.

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11.My Two Girls at BH (Bangke House) Hanna Benedicta Simanjuntak and

Elisabeth Gracia Simanjuntak. It is such a crazy heights to know and live

together with you.

12.My Partner, Danel Mahendra. Thanks for acquainting me to the realm.

You have made it.

13.Alexander Sitinjak, S.Pd., as my informal advisor.

Finally, the writer believes that her writing is still far for perfection. There

may be weaknesses in this research. Thus, comments and suggestions are

always opened for better research. Somehow, the writer hopes this

research can give a positive contribution to the educational development,

the readers and those who want to accomplish further research.

Bandar Lampung, Agustus 2015

The writer,

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2.1 Previous Related Research ... 10

2.2 Concept of Motivation ... 12

2.3 Types of Motivation ... 14

2.4 Types of Motivation in Learning English as a Foreign Language ... 16

2.5 Roles of Motivation ... 17

2.6 Concepts of Writing ... 19

2.7 Aspects of Writing ... 24

2.8 Theoretical Assumption ... 26

2.9 Hypothesis ... 26

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3.5 Research Procedures ... 33

3.6 Instruments ... 36

3.6.1 English Learning Motivation Questionnaire ... 36

3.6.2 Writing Test ... 38

3.7 Reliability and Validity of the Instruments ... 39

3.7.1 Reliability of Questionnaire ... 39

3.7.2 Reliability of Writing Test ... 40

3.7.3 Validity of Questionnaire ... 41

3.7.4 Validity of Writing Test ... 41

3.7.5 Try Out of the Instrument ... 42

3.8 Reliability and Validity of Students’ Motivation Questionnaire Try Out ... 42

3.8.1 Reliability of Motivation Questionnaire ... 42

3.9 Data Analysis ... 43

3.10 Hypotheses Testing ... 44

IV.RESULT AND DISCUSSION ... 46

4.2 Discussion of Findings ... 60

V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ... 64

5.1 Conclusion ... 64

5.2 Suggestion ... 65

REFFERENCES ... 65

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LIST OF TABLES

Tables Pages

3.1 Computation of Writing Score ... 35

3.2 Table Specification of Motivation Questionnaire Test ... 38

4.1 The Score of Motivation ... 48

4.3 Result of Students Writing Ability ... 49

4.4 Distribution of Students’ Content Score in Writing Test ... 52

4.5 Distribution of Students’ Organization Score in Writing Test ... 53

4.6 Distribution of Students’ Vocabulary Score in Writing Test ... 54

4.7 Distribution of Students’ Language Use Score in Writing Test ... 55

4.8 Distribution of Students’ Mechanic Score in Writing Test ... 56

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendices Pages

Appendix 1 ... 69

Appendix 2 ... 71

Appendix 3 ... 73

Appendix 4 ... 75

Appendix 5 ... 77

Appendix 6 ... 78

Appendix 7 ... 79

Appendix 8 ... 80

Appendix 9 ... 82

Appendix 10 ... 83

Writing Test ... 84

Table of Scoring Criteria by Heaton ... 86 Kuesioner Motivasi Siswa

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LIST OF CHART

Chart Pages

4.1 Score of Students Motivation ... 48

4.2 Students’ Score of Writing Ability Test ... 50

4.3 Distribution of Students’ Content Score in Writing Test ... 52

4.4 Distribution of Students’ Organization Score in Writing Test ... 53

4.5 Distribution of Students’ Vocabulary Score in Writing Test ... 54

4.6 Distribution of Students’ Language Use Score in Writing Test ... 55

4.7 Distribution of Students’ Mechanic Score in Writing Test ... 56

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I. INTRODUCTION

This chapter will discuss about the introduction of the research which deals with

several points i.e., background of the research, research question, objective of the

research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms.

1.1. Background of the Research

Being successful in learning English is the dominant factor that the English

teach-er should pay attention to, especially in teaching writing. Teaching English which

is applied at school is specialized in four skill, listening, speaking, reading, and

writing. Writing is the most difficult ability out of the others especially for

stu-dents in Senior High School. Writing ability receives no serious attention because

many students think that writing is difficult. Writing ability is focused on structure

of the text and also the content. Yet, the teacher does not really pay attention on

how the students can get the new words (vocabulary) or be good at grammatical

structure.

There are many factors that might influence the students’ quality of writing such

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been known that it is hard enough to develop an idea into a long paragraph. These

factors can cause the students unmotivated start writing. Motivation is the main

problem for the students to start learning the second language especially writing.

In other words, factor that might influence students to write is their motivation.

In the other words, writing ability is an important part of communication. Good

writing skills allow the students to communicate their message with clarity and

ease to a far larger audience than through face-to-face or telephone conversations.

Writing is the productive skill in the written mode. It is more complicated than it

seems at first, and often seems to be the hardest of the skills, even for native

speakers of a language. This is because it involves not only a graphic

representa-tion of speech, but also the development and presentarepresenta-tion of thoughts in a

struc-tured way.

Writing is a means to communicate, to convey message, ideas, and feeling in a

written form. Raimes (1983: 76) states that writing is a skill in which we express

ideas, feeling and thought which is to be arranged in words, sentences and

para-graph. Writing is also reinforces the use of sentence’s structure and tenses, idiom

and vocabulary correctly in order to make the reader get the idea clearly.

Writing, according to Barton (2000: 5) is a complicated and often mysterious

pro-cess. Although the writers may think of it as little more than arranging letters and

words on a page, a few moments’ reflection reveal that it is much more than that.

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the writers do naturally when they speak. Writing is speaking to other on paper or

on computer screen. Writing is also an action or a process of discovering and

or-ganizing their ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them.

Palmer (1994: 5) states that writing is recursive. It goes back and forth we plan a

little, put words on paper, stop plan when we want to say next, go back and

change a sentence, or change their minds altogether.

Writing, one of the productive skills, is considered difficult, especially writing in

foreign language. According to Chastain (1988: 5) writing is a complex process

and such contains element of mastery and surprise. When students want to write

something they should have a lot of information ideas, and thought in their mind

so that they will be able to express them into sentences, paragraphs, and an essay.

According to Tarigan (1985: 5) writing is productive skills for writing an indirect

communication and the nature of the character is very different from that

expressed by speaking directly, therefore writing is included an ability. Another

definition of writing is proposed by Nation (2009: 112) who states that writing is

an activity that can usefully be prepared for work in other skills of listening,

speaking, and reading. These preparations can make it possible for words that

have been used receptively to come into productive use.

The previous lines of argument indicated that writing ability dealing mainly with

expressing ideas, facts, feelings, experience, and thought in written form. In

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chanics. Those aspects are important to master in order to be able to produce good

writing. Not only the aspects above but also motivation is needed if the students

want to start writing. Motivation is the main factors when they want to do

some-thing, including writing.

Unfortunately, during the researcher’s observation in SMA Negeri 1

Ta-langpadang while conducting her PPL program, there was found that there were

many students showing up in classroom without having developed a motivation to

learn. They usually made clear themselves in their behaviour like leaving the

classroom before or and during the class was ongoing. In addition, it was found

that the problem faced by the students due to the lack of motivation.

However, many students did not pay attention to the teacher, playing handphone,

or leaving the classroom before the class began. But some of them still paid

atten-tion to the teacher. Many of students became passive when they were faced with a

writing task. This phenomenon influenced the students’ writing ability achiev

e-ment and as a consequence some of the senior high school students’ scores were

good in writing. Based on the information from their English teacher at SMA

Negeri 1 Talangpadang almost half of the students got score under 80 whereas the

minimum mastery criteria was 75. As the result, their average score of writing

was low. Their writing achievement was below the expectation.

According to Larrivee (2006: 231), motivation is defined as “emotional tende

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guide students towards goals. This can pose problems when the students’ em

o-tional tendencies are against learning and reaching these goals. It is said by Cocks

and Watt (2004) that “students with mastery goals are intrinsically motivated to

strive to develop competence by learning as much as they can about a subject,

fo-cusing on their development of ability and competence relative to the task”. A

teacher can alter a child’s intrinsic motivation with appropriate and valued

aca-demic constructs that the child will perceive as worthwhile. It means that

motiva-tion can stimulate students to write in order to improve their quality in evolving a

text and it makes them become creative researchers.

Students’ motivation is an essential element that is necessary for quality of

educa-tion. It influences students’ success in learning a second language and also can be

used as stimulus to do efforts in order to reach the achievement. So there must be

a correlation between students’ motivation and their writing ability.

There are many reasons to investigate the correlation between students’

motiva-tion and their writing ability. First, at the first time the students are glad when they

would like to study English as their school subject. However, when they are

learn-ing English in the classroom, almost all of them are gettlearn-ing bored. They do not

feel interested any more to study this subject. Second, they lack awareness the

importance of learning English. Third, the technique that is used in teaching

learn-ing process is not interestlearn-ing. Considerlearn-ing these statements, the researcher realizes

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Motivation is very important in second language learning. The primary motivation

for learning a language is being able to communicate in the target. The students

also have to pay attention whether they motivated from outside or inside. As it has

been known that there are two types of motivation that can affect the students’

willingness in learning English especially in employing writing skill, namely

in-trinsic motivation and exin-trinsic motivation.

Intrinsically motivated students are bound to do much better in classroom

activities, because they are willing and eager to learn new material. Their learning

experience is more meaningful and they go deeper into the subject to fully

understand it. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is external factor to the

individual and unrelated to the task they are performing. The examples are money,

good grades, and other rewards. Extrinsically motivated students may have to be

bribed to perform the same tasks.

From those definitions above, the researcher was interested in investigating the

correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing ability of second

year students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung in the academic year

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1.2. Research Question

In line with the background stated previously, the problem is:

Is there any correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing ability

of second year students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung in the academic

year 2014/2015?

1.3. Objective of the Research

By relating to the research question, the objective of the research is:

To find out whether there is a correlation between the students’ motivation and

their writing ability of second year students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung

in the academic year 2014/2015.

1.4. Uses of the Research

In relation to the problems and objectives, the findings of the research may be

beneficial not only theoretically but also practically. Therefore, the uses can be

described as follows:

1. Theoretically, the result of this research is expected to be a useful

refer-ence for the English language teaching particularly for teaching writing.

For the other researchers, this may become a trigger for them to go to the

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2. Practically, the result of this research is expected to provide a positive

contribution to the teachers, especially in teaching writing. The teacher

should know the ability of their students and what the factor to motivate

the students in writing is.

Those are the uses of the research that are related to the problems and objectives.

1.5. Scope of the Research

This quantitative research is focused on the correlation between the students’ m

o-tivation and their writing ability. The research is focused on high, average, or low

motivation since its level of motivation played an important role in order to make

the students mastered their English and got the best ability in writing. The writing

test is focused on descriptive text since it is the common text which is used in

Senior High School by considering Curriculum 13 (K13). The materials are taken

from the unpublished script of English Department and students’ book. The data

of the students’ motivation is obtained from questionnaire, while for measuring

the students’ writing ability; the data are taken from the students’ work in writing

test. The writing test uses descriptive text. The questionnaire motivation consists

of 30 questions and writing test was a form of paragraph.

1.6. Definitions of Terms

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1) Writing

Writing is an ability in which we are not also expressing ideas, facts,

feel-ing, experience, and thought in written form, but also far more than merely

the act of transferring thought to paper; the act of writing helps to shape

and refine our thinking.

2) Motivation

Motivation is an inner power from psychological condition which derives

and reinforces someone to something especially to reach the goal in

learn-ing English.

3) Correlation

Correlation means statistical description for determining relationship

be-tween two variables.

4) Ability

Ability is a competence in applying certain activity. In writing, the

components are content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and

mechanic.

This chapter already discussed the introduction of the research including the

explanations about the background of the research, the research question,

objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and

definition of terms. Those were discussed in order to provide an insight to this

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter will discuss several points relating to the theories used in this study,

such as the concept of motivation, types of motivation, types of motivation in

learning English as a foreign language, the role of motivation, the concept of

writ-ing, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis.

2.1 Previous Related Researchers

There are some studies that have been carried out to investigate the students’

motivation in English learning process. First, in one of objectives of Apridawati’s

research (2011), she analyzes how far motivation contributed to the students

Eng-lish speaking ability after being taught by using CLL at the second grade of

SMPN 22 Bandar Lampung. She developes a questionnaire to elicit the data

required. The questionnaire is administered on approximately 60 students from

two classes which is selected randomly. The findings reveal that Community

Language Learning can be used to improve the students’ motivation in speaking

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Then, Hulda (2011) investigates whether there is significant influence between the

students motivation and their writing ability in SMAN 1 Kalianda, Lampung

Selatan. The research sample is the second year students because it is assumed

that they had an experience of learning English in their school for four years. In

collecting the data of motivation, she administeres a questionnaire of motivation

developed by Sadewo (1999). The results supported the theory of motivation that

stated by Huit (2001: 1) who said “motivation refers to an internal state that serves

to activate or energize behaviour and give it direction”. It also proved that what

Hamacheck (1994: 276) has said about the roles of motivation.

To sum up, based on the previous studies, it can be stated that all above

mentioned studies reconfirmed the importance of identifying learners’ motivation

in the English learning process. The studies have been carried out to investigate

foreig learners’ motivation and these studies help the researchers to understand

how to identify learners’ motivation. Not only that, these studies focus on

learners’ motivation. Besides adapting questions to investigate the students’

motivation, these studies can help the researchers to build their idea on how to

identify students’ motivation in English learning process.

However, there is still, at least, one issue which has not been investigated, that is a

correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing ability. Therefore,

this research is carried out to investigate the correlation between the students’

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influnce more the improvement of students’ writing ability of second year

students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung in the academic year 2014/2015.

2.2 Concept of Motivation

Based on Maslow in Setiawan (2013), the word motivation is taken from the Latin

word “movere”, which means “to move”. The students can succeed in task is

simply due to the fact that they are truly motivated. According to Oxford and

Shearin (1994: 12), motivation is an inner power reinforcing someone to do

some-thing, all inner power that determines successful is learning activity. If the

stu-dents are strongly motivated, the process of learning will be more active and

af-fect their achievement.

Motivation is also defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it

direction. According to Gardner and Lambert in Setiawan (2012), motivation is

the internal factors that energize and direct human behavior. This statement

con-tains three basic elements of motivation; motivation which stimulates the inner

drive, signals it with feeling, and stimulates because of the goal. The researcher

believes that motivation is a psychological condition which derives someone to do

something so that he/she can reach the goal.

Motivation is one of the factors that can influence the students’ ability in learning

language so that the teachers have to know how to motivate the students. The

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teachers also need new teaching methodology to make the learning process more

interesting.

Gardner and Lambert (1972: 25) identify motivation as primarily with the

stu-dents’ orientation toward learning a second language. According to this idea,

mo-tivation plays an important role toward the students’ succession in learning second

or foreign language. Since the learning process needs motivation, the students also

need the motivation in learning language especially in learning English. When the

students have good motivation in learning English, they will do anything that can

improve their knowledge about English. They will also try to read an English

book, list their difficult word and find its meaning, also try to create their own

writing. Their English will be better if they do a lot of practices.

Oxford and Shearin (1994: 198) state that motivation is extremely important for

second language learning and it is crucial to understand what the students’ mot

i-vation is. Understanding their motii-vation is important in order to know why they

learn a foreign language. Motivation is also used to facilitate the students to reach

their objectives in learning English; that is to have a good ability in writing.

From all statements above, the researcher assumes that motivation is a positive

impulse toward the language learning in order to achieve the goal of foreign

lan-guage learning. Thus, it seems that motivation plays important part in order to

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2.3 Types of Motivation

Motivation is a support which comes from inside consciously or unconsciously to

do something based on their own specific goal. Furthermore, the researcher also

believes that motivation is also the efforts which stimulate someone to act so that

he/she can reach their goal.

According to Sardiman (2005), motivation is divided into two types; they are

in-trinsic and exin-trinsic motivation.

1. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is a motivation as incentive, which originates within the

be-havior itself rather than externally as in playing musical instrument for enjoyment

(Setiyadi, 2006). It means that intrinsic motivation comes from individual itself

without any pressure or encouragement from the outside. In another word, if the

reasons of studying English are for enjoyment and knowledge, it belongs to

intrin-sic motivation. According to Bainbridge (1987: 36), intrinintrin-sic motivation refers to

motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or

outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation comes from the

pleas-ure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or

even working on a task. According to Deci and Ryan’s (1985: 18)

self-determination approach to motivation, intrinsic motivation refers to motivation to

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action. These feelings of pleasure derive from fulfilling innate needs for

competence and self-determination (Deci et al., 1991).

People who are intrinsically motivated feel that they are doing an activity because

they have chosen to do so voluntarily and because the activity represents a

challenge to their existing competencies and requires them to use their creative

capabilities. This kind of motivation is considered to be highly self-determined in

the sense that the reason for doing the activity is linked solely to the individual’s

positive feelings while performing the task. An example of this type of motivation

is the student who finds delight in learning a new way to express an idea in the

L2.

An intrinsically motivated person will work on physics, for example, because it is

enjoyable. Or an intrinsically motivated person will work on a solution to a

prob-lem because the challenge of finding a solution provides a sense of pleasure. In

neither case does the person work on the task because there is some reward

in-volved, such as prize, a payment, or in the case of students, a grade.

2. Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsically motivated behaviours are those behaviours that are performed not

because of inherent interest in the activity, but in order to arrive at some

instrumental end, such that the source of regulation is external to the activity

perse. The researcher believes originally that extrinsic motivation implied a lack

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and Ryan (1985: 45) proposed that they are different. This motivation is external

factors to the individual and unrelated to the task they are performing.

Extrinsic motivation derives from outside effect of individual, whether it is from

environment, society, pressure, persuasion so that the learners tend to be active in

their learning process. The examples are money, good grades, and other rewards.

Extrinsically motivated students may have to be bribed to perform the same tasks.

For example, the teacher will give a gift to the students if they answer the question

correctly. Extrinsic motivation stems from positive or negative reinforcement

which is external to the behavior itself rather than inherent in it, for instance,

studying to get good scores not because of studying is enjoyable.

2.4 Types of Motivation in Learning English as a Foreign Language

For these several decades, research about motivation in the field of second or

for-eign language acquisition research has been strongly influenced by the work of

Gardner and his associates. In this succession of research studies, a distinction has

been made between integrative and instrumental orientation. According to

Gard-ner and Lambert (1972: 78), motivation in learning English is divided into two

parts. The first is integrative motivation that is identified with positive attitudes

toward the target language group and the potential for integrating into that group

or at least an interest in meeting and interacting with members of the target

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tional reasons for learning a language, for example to pass a required examination

or to get a better job.

2.5 Roles of Motivation

Motivation is one of the most significant factors that influences language learning

(Dörnyei, 2005). Therefore, it is important to know what motivates different

groups of language learners in order to be able to create the most appropriate

learning environment for them. Motivation is correlated with aims or objectives.

The aim of the students who study hard is for passing their exam. It can be said

that motivation influences somebody to act. According to Sardiman (2005: 85),

there are three roles of motivation, they are:

1. Pushing human to do something. Motivation as activator or motor which

escape energy. In this case, motivation is activator motor from every

activ-ity that will be done.

2. Determining the destination of behavior toward the goal that will be

achieved. Thus, motivation can give the destination and the activity that

has to be done based on the objectives.

3. Selecting the action, which is determining the suitable actions that have to

do to achieve the goal by eliminating the action which useless for that

goal. A student, who will face the exam and hope to face the exam, must

be studying and will not spend his time to play card or read comics

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Motivation also has the function as the stimulus to do efforts to reach the

achievement. Somebody does an effort because of motivation. For teachers, the

roles of motivation are very important in the learning process because motivation

can give spirit, willingness, and awareness to increase their students’ achiev

e-ment. The way teachers motivate their students can be giving praise, advice,

re-ward, giving English story books, and helping students in doing task. It can make

the students love learning. The willingness that comes from inside is like an

ener-gy which can push and drive the activity to study hard.

The various motivational constructs described above have been related to several

psychological variables that are important in the general educational setting, and

hence they may have predictive utility for the language classroom. Increased

intrinsic motivation has been related to greater interest in course material and

higher academic performance (Ryan, 1983: 64). The subtypes of extrinsic

motivation have been shown to be related differentially to educational variables

such as effort and positive emotions & and perseverance (Vallerand & Bissonette,

1992).

Since of those variables are important in L2 learning as well as in education

generally, it would seem that this motivational paradigm is also useful for

understanding motivation to learn an L2. Indeed, some empirical evidence

suggests that the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals can be of service

in predicting L2 learning outcomes. For example, the results of Ramage’s (1990)

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language for language’s sake, that is, to be intrinsically motivated, than students

who decide to discontinue language studies.

Students who decide to discontinue language studies can be characterized by a

stronger interest in language learning as a means to other goals (e.g., academic

credit), that is, to be more extrinsically motivated than students who continue

language study. Kamada (1986) also reports that intrinsic interest, defined as the

extent to which one “likes” the L2, is related to the acquisition of L2 skills (e.g.,

listening and speaking) beyond external requirements (e.g., writing and writing

for examination requirements).

Finally, research examining Gardner’s socioeducational model of language

learning motivation has repeatedly demonstrated an important link between

positive attitudes toward the learning situation and L2 achievement and related

outcomes (Gardner, 1985: 124).

2.6 Concept of Writing

Writing is one of the skills of language that is studied in the classroom. Writing is

the activity requiring the ability to make the word become sentence. It also

activi-ties of constructing sentence into a text. Writing is not easy. It is the most difficult

subject in the school since the students have to produce a text by using English. It

takes series practices to develop this ability, it cannot learn only one time. The

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ing correct procedure. Learning to write either in the last year of Junior High

School or even in Senior High School is one of the most difficult tasks a learner

encounter and one that few people can be said master.

Writing as one of the four language skills and most often as the last one, plays an

important role in the processes of language learning. Chastain (1988: 85), states

that writing skill is viewed as a basic communication skill and a unique asset in

the process of learning a second language. Writing is considered as a wing of

lit-eracy and plays a very important role in today’s world. As a case in point, much

of the information exchange around the world takes place through written texts.

Besides, the rapid development in every field is due to the ability of the

research-ers to write their findings and actually record them. Nowadays writing is thought

of as a skill in whose teaching all language skills (i.e., listening, speaking, reading

and writing) are involved. In other words, it is a whole-language teaching skill

since its teaching involves practicing all language skills (i.e., listening, speaking,

reading, and writing).

Writing ability seems to be necessary in both academic environments (e.g.,

writ-ing papers, theses, etc.) and non-academic situations (e.g., writwrit-ing letters,

invita-tion, etc.). Finally, it increases language retention as well as ensuring availability

for later use and reference. It seems, thus, that teaching and learning skills can be

the most demanding task for both teachers and students. This means that writing

requires a good command of language knowledge as well as the orchestration of

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cerning this ability as well as the methods writing has been taught in different

pe-riods of time.

Globally, language learners attempt to attain certain goals, one of the most

signifi-cant of which is writing achievement. Academic writing ability has been

particu-larly recognized as one of the most crucial aspects of language ability for

success-ful academic achievement. Writing is a mode of learning, a facility which gives

students the power to create meaning and to affect those with whom they share

their writing.

Writing, then, is far more than merely the act of transferring thought to paper; the

act of writing helps to shape and refine our thinking. It seems, however, that

teaching and learning this ability can be the most demanding task for both

teach-ers and students. Throughout the history of education, language researchteach-ers have

been at pains to find effective ways to help students achieve writing as a major

ability. It goes without saying that motivation has a leading role in gaining writing

ability.

An important aspect that has a significant role in writing is social and affective

factors (such as students’ attitudes and motivation). According to Silva and

Matusda (2001) social and affective factors seem too strongly influence the

writ-ing development of second language writers who have to learn a new language

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composi-22

tions have demonstrated that the writing process is extremely complex and

in-volves social as well as cognitive factors (Bizzell, 1992).

Writing is a means to communicated, to convey message, ideas, and feeling in a

written form. Raimes (1983: 76) states that writing is a skill in which we express

ideas, feeling, and thought which are to be arranged in words, sentences and

para-graph. Writing is also reinforces the use of sentence’s structure and tenses, idiom

and vocabulary correctly in order to make the reader get the idea clearly.

Writing, according to Barton (2000: 5) is a complicated and often mysterious

pro-cess. Although the writers may think of it as little more than arranging letters and

words on a page, a few moments’ reflection reveal that it is much more than that.

Furthermore, Harmer (2004: 86) states that writing is a process and that we write

is often heavily influenced by constrains of genre, then these elements have to be

present in learning activities. Writing is a powerful tool to organize the out of

or-der and events make them manageable. Writing is really a form of thinking using

the written word.

Meanwhile, Meyers (2005:2) states that writing is a way to produce language that

the writers do naturally when they speak. Writing is speaking to other on paper or

on computer screen. Writing is also an action or a process of discovering and

or-ganizing their ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them.

Palmer (1994: 5) states that writing is recursive. It goes back and forth we plan a

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change a sentence, or change their minds altogether. Flower and Hayes (2002: 11)

states that writing is a continuous process of thinking and organizing, rethinking,

and reorganizing.

Furthermore, Nation (2009: 84) describes that the process of writing is a way of

bringing about improvement in learners’ writing by providing help at the various

stages of the process instead of focusing only on the finished product. This

state-ment implies that writing, as a process, needs a kind of technique to enable the

students to improve their writing achievement. Hence, the existence of certain

technique is needed to make the writing process valuable.

Writing enables the students to describe their ideas in sequence and

communica-tive way. Raimes (1983: 3) states that writing also involves thinking. In addition,

the close relationship between thinking and writing makes writing as a valuable

part of any other ability. People generally write to either communicate something

to another people (the writing is meant to be read by others) or to be used for their

own personal use (the writing is not usually meant to be read by others).

From the opinion above, it can be said that writing is a significant ability since it

involves a process of communication to express feeling, ideas, thought in written

form. Finally, writing process needs a certain technique that can make it

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2.7 Aspects of Writing

In writing, there are several aspects which should be considered by students in

order to write well. Brown (2001: 15) proposes six major aspects of writing that

have to be required by a writer in producing a written text namely content,

organi-zation, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, and mechanics. Content deals with thesis

statement, related ideas, development ideas, and the use of description.

Organiza-tion covers the effectiveness of introducOrganiza-tion, logical sequences of ideas,

conclu-sion, and appropriate length. Discourses include topic sentence, paragraph unity,

transition, discourse maker, cohesion, rhetorical convention, reference, fluency,

economy, and variation. Mechanics include the use of spelling, punctuation,

cita-tion of reference, and appearance.

Another explanation, Harris (1979: 68) proposes five aspects of writing namely

content (the substance of writing), form (the organization of content), grammar

(the employment of grammatical form and syntactic pattern), and style (the

choic-es of structure and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to the writing).

Similarly, Heaton (1988: 79) mentions that in order to be effective, a piece of

composition should meet the following qualities:

1. Content

Content refers to the substance of writing, the experience of main idea.

i.e., group of related statements that a writer presents as unit in developing

a subject. Content the paragraph do the work of conveying ideas rather

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2. Organization

Organization refers to the logical organization of content. It is scarily more

than attempt to piece together all collection of fact and jumble ideas. Even

in early drafts it may still be searching for order, trying to make out

pat-terns in its materials and working to bring particulars of its subject in line

with what is still only a half-formed notion of purpose.

3. Vocabulary

Vocabulary refers to the selection of words those are suitable with the

con-tent. It begins with the assumption that writer wants to express the ideas as

clearly and directly as he/she can. As a general rule, clarity should be

his/her prime objective. Choosing words that express his/her meaning is

precisely rather than skews it or blurs it.

4. Language use

Language use refers to the use of correct grammatical form and synthetic

pattern of separating, combining, and grouping ideas in words, phrases,

clauses, and sentences to bring out logical relationship in paragraph

writ-ing.

5. Mechanic

Mechanic refers to the use graphic conventionalof the language, i.e., the

step of arranging letters, words, and paragraphs by using knowledge of

structure and some others related to one another.

Based on the categories of writing aspects above, it can be concluded that

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ganization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic. Students can make a

well-organized text by those aspects.

2.8 Theoretical Assumption

Writing is far more than merely the act of transferring thought to paper; the act of

writing helps to shape and refine our thinking. The present study is aimed to know

which level of motivation (very low, low, normal, high, very high) that is

approriate to students writing ability. The teacher should know how to build their

motivation to make students being active learners especially in writing. But, it will

take a long process because each student has different level of motivation

depend-ing on their environment and themselves. From the explanation above, it is

as-sumed that if the learners have high motivation, they would love to write. Because

by having high motivation, the students will have self-confidence and effort to

develop their ability in writing.

2.9 Hypothesis

Based on the theoretical assumption above, the researcher formulates the

follow-ing hypothesis:

There is a significant correlation between the students’ motivation and their

writ-ing ability of second year students of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar Lampung in the

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That is the literature review of this research. It explained the writing as language

skill, motivation, writing and motivation relationship, advantages and

disadvantages, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis. The next chapter will deal

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III. METHOD

This chapter will discuss about the research method. Everything relates to the

model of the research, such as research design, data, data source, data collecting

technique, research procedure, instrument, scoring criteria, data analysis, validity

and reliability, and hypotheses testing will be described as follows.

3.1. Research Design

The researcher used quantitative descriptive design (ex post facto) in conducting

the research. That design considered suitable to analyze level of motivation (very

low, low, normal, high, very high) of the students and how it influenced the

writ-ing ability. Ex post facto design is a non-experimental research technique in

which pre-existing groups were compared on some dependent variables. As Hatch

and Farhady (1982) say, “Ex-post facto design are often used when the researcher

does not have control over the selection and manipulation of the independent

variable... correlation designs are the most commonly used subset ex-post facto

design”. Then, Karl (1996) adds “we may use the ex-post strategy when we wish

to investigate the influence of variables like home environtment, sex, motivation,

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In accordance with Setiyadi (2006), there are two types of ex post facto research

design, “co-relational study involves one group and causal comparative study

in-volves two groups.” Since this research was about correlation between the

stu-dents’ motivation and their writing ability so the researcher would look at the type

and/or degree of relationship between two variables rather than at cause-effect

re-lationship. Thus, co-relational is used with its formula as follows:

X Y

In which:

X: students’ motivation as an independent variable

Y: students’ writing ability as a dependent variable

The researcher used one class as the experimental class. Whereby, in collecting

the research data, the researcher administers test of motivation in form of

ques-tionnaire and test of writing ability. The researcher shared a quesques-tionnaire first in

order to know the students’ motivation level. After that, the researcher gives the

test of writing ability in form of fostering a topic into paragraph to measure the

students’ writing ability. Henceforth, the output from questionnaire will be

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3.2. Population and Sample

The researcher would choose the sample from the population.

3.2.1. Population

Population is the most often a theoretical group of all possible scores with the

same trait or traits (Coolidge, 2000: 24). Simply, a population is the whole

sub-jects of the research.

The population of this research is the students of second year of SMA Al Kautsar

Bandar Lampung in the academic year of 2014/2015. There were 8 classes (four

science classes and four social classes) and each class consisted of 29 to 40

stu-dents.

3.2.2. Sample

Sample is a smaller group of scores selected from population of scores (Coolidge,

2000: 24).

The researcher chooses second grade students because the researcher assumed that

they had known English better than first grade or third grade and they also already

had experienced of learning English. The researcher determined the sample by

using random sampling technique. First, the researcher wrote those eight classes

on a small-folded paper, one class for one piece of small-folded paper. Then she

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Finally, the researcher got one class XI IPA 1 with the total number 34 students as

the sample. Then the writer chose one class more to be the try-out class for trying

and class XI IPA 2 as the experimental class.

3.3. Data

The data of this research are the result in form of score of students’ motivation

test (questionnaire) and the result of writing test. The data were taken by

questionnaire of motivation in learning English and writing test. In addition, data

was being proceed by parametrics analysis using Product Moment Formula by

Pearson. The researcher used random sampling technique to collect the data.

Every class in population has the same chance to be chosen as sample. First, the

researcher wrote those eight classes on a small paper, one class for one piece of

small paper. Then she took one paper randomly to choose the class to be the

sample.

Finally, the researcher got one class XI IPA 1 with the total number 34 students as

the sample. Then the writer chose one class more to be the try-out class for trying

out the questionnaire of motivation before it is conducted in the research class.

That class XI IPA. The researcher chose this school because there was no research

yet conducted here previously and the topic for testing the students’ writing ability

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3.4. Data Collecting Techniques

In collecting the data, the researcher will use:

1. Questionnaire

After deciding the subject, the researcher gave the questionnaire to the

subject. To find out what is most influence students’ motivation in their

writing ability. There were 30 items of motivation questionnaire and the

students had to checklist the optional honestly. There are four optional

answer; A, B, C, and D. The indicators of motivation are (1) learning

dura-tion; (2) activity frequency; (3) persistency; (4) perseverance; (5)

devo-tion; (6) aspiration level; (7) qualification level; and (8) attitude.

Ques-tionnaire was used by the researcher to gain the data of the students’ En

g-lish learning motivation.

2. Writing test

This step is done after the researcher had given the questionnaire to the

subject. The researcher gave writing test to find out their writing ability.

The writing test (essay form) is used to elicit the students’ composition

based on the given topic. The text is about descriptive text. In the writing

test, the students focused only on descriptive text. Since the students had

been done this text at the first grade so they will definitely understand this

text well. The topic given was just one. It is about family tree. The

students were instructed to finish the test for 45 minutes. They were given

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before they were asked to do their test. Thus, they just wrote about their

family and developed it into a paragraph.

3.5. Research Procedures

In collecting the data, the researcher uses following steps:

1. Selecting instrument of materials

The instrument materials of writing test were chosen by the researcher.

The selecting process is considered the materials that had been taught to

the students and level of the students that was second year students. The

researcher uses one type of writing text and it was descriptive text. The

se-lecting process for the questionnaire test was considered based on

classifi-cation of students’ motivation in learning English. In order to get honest

data, the questionnaire uses understandable sentence and Indonesian.

Thus, it facilitated students to answer the questions.

2. Determining the sample of the research

A sample is a smaller group example chosen from the population that

ac-tually measures. Sample consists of some members of population. The

sample of this research was determined by using purposive sampling.

There were eight classes of second grade of SMA Al Kautsar Bandar

Lampung. However, only class XI IPA 1 that had an opportunity to be the

sample of this research. This research only uses one class because there

was no treatment to the sample but the data are collected by seeing the

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3. Trying out the instruments

The motivation questionnaire is tried out to the students in order to find

out reliability and validity of the instrument that was given. While for

writing test, it is not being tried out to the students.

4. Analyzing the try out result

After the try-out class finished answering the motivation questionnaire and

writing test, an analysis is done in this phase to find out the validity and

re-liability of the instruments.

5. Final testing of the instruments

In this phase, the instruments are revised based on the result of try-out test.

The revision is done by revising the items of instrument that had low

va-lidity and reliability.

6. Distributing the questionnaire of motivation

The researcher distributes the questionnaire to the sample in order to get

the information about the students’ motivation and the students have to

an-swer the questions based on the statements which are provided.

7. Conducting writing test

The researcher distributes the writing test to the students in order to get the

information about the students’ writing. The students directly do the

writ-ing test without any treatment first. They are instructed to make a

para-graph.

8. Analyzing the data from the instruments

The output data from questionnaire and score of writing test were analyzed

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for the correlation between two variables. Therefore, whether there is any

significant correlation between the students’ motivation and their writing

ability.

9. Scoring system

Five aspects evaluated by the researcher are content, organization,

vocabu-lary, language use, and mechanic. The researcher uses computation of

writing score revised from Heaton (1988: 146) as follows:

Table 3.1. Computation of Writing Score

a. Content is scored as much as 30% from the total sentences supporting the main idea (unity).

b. Organization is scored as much as 20% from sentences using correct grammar.

c. Vocabulary is scored 20% as much as from vocabularies which are used correctly

d. Language use is evaluated as much as 25% from the total sentences which are written in chronological order (coherence).

e. Mechanic is evaluated as much as 5% from use punctuation, spelling and capitalization correctly.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher evaluates the aspects of

de-scriptive text writing based on the content, organization, vocabulary,

lan-guage use, and mechanic. The lowest score is 0 and the highest score is

100.

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3.6. Instrument

The researcher uses two instruments in this research. They are students’ English

learning motivation questionnaire and writing test.

3.6.1. English Learning Motivation Questionnaire

In collecting the data, the researcher uses questionnaire as the tool of

measure-ment. Questionnaire is an instrument which is very effective to measure aspects

and variables in associated psychology aspect or sociology (Setiyadi, 2006). In

this study, the researcher uses a closed direct questionnaire. A closed direct

ques-tionnaire is a quesques-tionnaire that provides several answers. So the respondents only

give cross mark for the most suitable answer. The questionnaire that was used is

in Indonesian language. There are 30 items of questionnaire with four alternatives

answer (a, b, c, and d). The score is based on the Likert Scale which is most often

used to measure attitude, opinion, and perception of respondent. That scale is

cho-sen because it was relative easy and had high reliability. The range is 4 to 1 for the

positive statements while the range which is from 1 to 4 for the negative

state-ment.

The 30 items questionnaire asked about the motivation students in learning

Eng-lish implemented by respondent. The students are supposed to give their answers

as factual and real information about themselves or the information that is close to

the fact as provided in the four alternative answers. Thus, the researcher can

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Each of the alternatives is scored as follows:

A = 4, for the very high motivation answer.

B = 3, for the high motivation answer.

C = 2, for the middle motivation answer.

D = 1, for the low motivation answer.

Except items number 2, 6, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25 are the inverse answers which

are scored as follows:

A = 1, for the low motivation answer.

B = 2, for the middle motivation answer.

C = 3, for the high motivation answer.

D = 4, for the very high motivation answer.

In addition to the indicator of motivation, the researcher took the indicators from

Samsudin in Sadewo (2009: 32). Learning motivation consists of some aspects,

they are: (1) learning duration, that is, how long someone is able to use the time to

do an activity; (2) activity frequency, that is, how often an activity is done in a

period; (3) persistency, that is, the continuity at the purpose of the activity; (4)

perseverance, that is, the ability in facing hindrance and difficulty; (5) devotion,

that is, sacrifice to achieve the aim; (6) aspiration level, that is, the target that

would be achieved with the activity that would be done; (7) qualification level,

that is, achievement which is achieved from the activity; and (8) attitude, that is,

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Table 3.2 Specification of Motivation Questionnaire Test

No. Category Item

Num-ber

Total Item 1.

The duration of students in learning English; how long is the ability of students to use time in doing activity of learning.

3, 12, 16,

20, 24 5

2. The frequency of students’ activity in learning En

g-lish; how often does the activity take place. 2, 4, 13,17 4

3.

The persistence of students in learning English; how functional in doing activity; how strong his/her tenacity is.

1, 5 2

4.

The perseverance of students’ in learning English;

how to solve the difficulties and face the problems in learning English.

7, 8, 11, 16 4

5.

The devotion of students to get the objective of learning English. For instance: thought, time, mon-ey, effort.

14, 19, 29 3

6. The aspiration of the students, for instance: purpose

target etc 21, 25, 26 3

7. The qualification level of students’ ability in lear

n-ing English. 10, 28 2

8. The students’ attitude to the purposes of learning English.

conducted writing test to find out which motivation that the students have and use

in fostering their writing ability. Thus, the researcher differentiates the students’

writing test score according to their motivation. The students are asked to write

descriptive text based on their own thought with the topic is about family tree.

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3.7. Reliability and Validity of the Instruments

3.7.1. Reliability of Questionnaire

Even though reliability is only supporting data, but reliability aspect is really

im-portant. Reliability can be defined as the extent to which a test produces consistent

results when administered under similar conditions (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:

244). The instrument which has low reliability means invalid instrument. A test is

called reliable if the score gained by the examiners is constant whenever and by

whomever the test is conducted. To make sure whether the instruments are

relia-ble or not the researcher used the Cronbach’s Alpha. It was counted based on the

motivation scale and the range of 1 to 4. The higher Alpha is the more reliable the

questionnaire will be (Setiyadi, 2006: 35).

According to Arikunto (1998: 260), the standard of reliability of the instrument

can be described as follows:

1. 0.80 – 1.0 : very high reliability

2. 0.60 – 0.79 : high reliability

3. 0.40 – 0.59 : medium reliability

4. 0.20 – 0.39 : low reliability

5. 0.0 – 0.19 : very low reliability

As stated before, to measure whether the test is reliable or not, the researcher used

Cronbach’s Alpha. Each item in motivation questionnaire iss analyzed to make

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of 30 items on four point Likert Scale from one to four, ranging from very high

motivation, high motivation, normal motivation, and low motivation.

From the calculation of reliability analysis, the alpha point is 0,921. It means that

the questionnaire has very high reliability. It could be interpreted that the

ques-tionnaire is proper to be used for the research. The analysis of each item showed

that if an item deleted, it would make alpha lower. By considering this, it could be

stated that if item number 1 was deleted, Alpha would be lower than 0,921

where-as the higher alpha wwhere-as the better the questionnaire is.

3.7.2. Reliability of Writing Test

For writing test, inter rater reliability is used as the standard for measuring the

writing test’s reliability. Two raters would score the students’ compositions. First

rater is the researcher herself, while for the second rater is Mrs. Liszia Devi

Muti-ara, S.Pd. She is the English teacher for second grade two of science class at SMA

AL Kautsar Bandar Lampung. To measure the reliability, Pearson’s Product M

o-ment formula is used as the means for calculation. The formula is:

Where:

r : Coefficient of rank correlation

: Square of differences of rank correlation

d : Sum differences between each pair of ranks

N : Number of students

Figur

Table of Scoring Criteria by Heaton  .....................................................

Table of

Scoring Criteria by Heaton ..................................................... p.15
Table 3.1. Computation of Writing Score

Table 3.1.

Computation of Writing Score p.51
Table 3.2 Specification of Motivation Questionnaire Test

Table 3.2

Specification of Motivation Questionnaire Test p.54

Referensi

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