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Environmental Chemist ry I

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Environment al Chemist ry, Sevent h Edit ion,

1994 by St anley E. M anahan

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Syllabus

Introduction

Aquatic Chemistry

Basic Principles

Oxidat ion-Reduct ion

Phase Int eract ions

Aquat ic M icrobial Biochemist ry

Wat er Pollut ion

Wat er Treat ment

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Atmospheric Chemistry

Basic Principles

Part icles in t he at mosphere

Gaseous Inorganic Air Pollut ant s

Organic Air Pollut ant s

Phot ochemical Smog

The Endangered Global At mosphere

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Evaluat ion

Presence

Task

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Environmental science

is t he science of t he

complex int eract ions t hat occur among t he

t errest rial, at mospheric, aquat ic, living, and

ant hropological environment s.

Environmental science

has evolved int o

ecology

.

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ENVIRONM ENTAL CHEM ISTRY & ENVIRONM ENTAL BIOCHEM ISTRY

Environmental chemistry

is t he st udy of t he

sources, react ions, t ransport , effect s, and

fat es of chemical species in wat er, soil, air, and

living environment s and t he effect of

t echnology t hereon.

Environmental biochemistry

is t he st udy t hat

deals specifically w it h t he effect s of

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Water and The hydrosphere

Wat er is an essent ial part of all living syst ems and is t he medium from w hich life evolved and in

w hich life exist s.

Air and The atmosphere

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Earth and The geosphere

The most import ant part of t he geosphere for life on eart h is soil formed by t he disint egrat ive

w eat hering act ion of physical, geochemical, and biological processes on rock.

Life and The biosphere

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The Anthrosphere and Technology

The survival of humankind and of t he planet t hat support s it now requires t hat t he est ablished two-way interaction bet w een science and t echnology become a three-way relationship including

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THE BIOSPHERE

There is a st rong int erconnect ion bet ween t he

biosphere and t he ant hrosphere.

Humans depend upon t he biosphere for food,

fuel, and raw mat erials.

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An

understanding of ecology

is essent ial in t he

management of modern

industrialized societies

in ways t hat are compat ible w it h

environmental

preservation and enhancement

.

Applied ecology

deals w it h predict ing t he

impact s of

technology

and development and

making recommendat ions such t hat t hese

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ENERGY AND CYCLES OF ENERGY

Biogeochemical cycles

(biological, geological,

and chemical)

on Eart h are driven by energy from

t he sun.

During t he last t wo cent uries, enormous human

impact on

energy utilization

has result ed in many

of t he

environmental problems

now facing

humankind.

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M at erials cycles may be divided bet ween

endogenic cycles and exogenic cycles.

Endogenic cycles

involve subsurface rocks of

various kinds.

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Biogeochemical cycles can be described as

elemental cycles

involving

nutrient elements

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HUM AN IM PACT AND POLLUTION

The demands of

increasing population

coupled w it h

the desire

of most people for a

higher mat erial st andard of living are result ing

in

worldw ide pollution

on

a massive scale

.

Environment al pollut ion can be divided

among t he cat egories of

water, air, and land

pollution

.

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For example, some gases emit t ed t o t he

at mosphere can be convert ed t o st rong acids

by at mospheric chemical processes, fall t o t he

eart h as acid rain, and pollut e wat er w it h

acidit y.

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Some of t he major ways in w hich

modern

technology

has cont ribut ed t o

environmental

alteration and pollution

are t he follow ing:

Agricultural practices t hat have result ed in

int ensive cult ivat ion of land, drainage of w et lands, irrigat ion of arid lands, and applicat ion of

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M anufacturing of huge quant it ies of indust rial product s t hat consumes vast amount s of raw mat erials and produces large quant it ies of air

pollut ant s, w at er pollut ant s, and hazardous w ast e by-product s.

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Energy product ion and ut ilizat ion w it h

environment al effect s t hat include disrupt ion of soil by mining, pollut ion of w at er by release of salt -w at er from pet roleum product ion, and

emission of air pollut ant s such as acid-rain-forming sulfur dioxide.

M odern transportation pract ices, part icularly

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There are numerous ways in w hich t echnology

can be applied t o minimize environmental

impact .

Use of state-of-the-art computerized control t o achieve maximum energy efficiency, maximum

ut ilizat ion of raw mat erials, and minimum product ion of pollut ant by-product s.

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Applicat ion of processes and materials t hat enable maximum mat erials recycling and

minimum w ast e product product ion, for example, advanced membrane processes for w ast ew at er t reat ment t o enable w at er recycling.

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Use of best available catalysts for efficient synt hesis.

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