Environmental Chemist ry I
Environment al Chemist ry, Sevent h Edit ion,
1994 by St anley E. M anahan
–Oxidat ion-Reduct ion
–Phase Int eract ions
–Aquat ic M icrobial Biochemist ry
–Wat er Pollut ion
–Wat er Treat ment
–Part icles in t he at mosphere
–Gaseous Inorganic Air Pollut ant s
–Organic Air Pollut ant s
–Phot ochemical Smog
–The Endangered Global At mosphere
is t he science of t he
complex int eract ions t hat occur among t he
t errest rial, at mospheric, aquat ic, living, and
ant hropological environment s.
has evolved int o
ENVIRONM ENTAL CHEM ISTRY & ENVIRONM ENTAL BIOCHEM ISTRY
is t he st udy of t he
sources, react ions, t ransport , effect s, and
fat es of chemical species in wat er, soil, air, and
living environment s and t he effect of
t echnology t hereon.
is t he st udy t hat
deals specifically w it h t he effect s of
Water and The hydrosphere
–Wat er is an essent ial part of all living syst ems and is t he medium from w hich life evolved and in
w hich life exist s.
Air and The atmosphere
Earth and The geosphere
–The most import ant part of t he geosphere for life on eart h is soil formed by t he disint egrat ive
w eat hering act ion of physical, geochemical, and biological processes on rock.
Life and The biosphere
The Anthrosphere and Technology
–The survival of humankind and of t he planet t hat support s it now requires t hat t he est ablished two-way interaction bet w een science and t echnology become a three-way relationship including
There is a st rong int erconnect ion bet ween t he
biosphere and t he ant hrosphere.
Humans depend upon t he biosphere for food,
fuel, and raw mat erials.
understanding of ecology
is essent ial in t he
management of modern
in ways t hat are compat ible w it h
preservation and enhancement
deals w it h predict ing t he
impact s of
and development and
making recommendat ions such t hat t hese
ENERGY AND CYCLES OF ENERGY
on Eart h are driven by energy from
t he sun.
During t he last t wo cent uries, enormous human
has result ed in many
of t he
M at erials cycles may be divided bet ween
endogenic cycles and exogenic cycles.
involve subsurface rocks of
Biogeochemical cycles can be described as
HUM AN IM PACT AND POLLUTION
The demands of
coupled w it h
of most people for a
higher mat erial st andard of living are result ing
worldw ide pollution
a massive scale
Environment al pollut ion can be divided
among t he cat egories of
water, air, and land
For example, some gases emit t ed t o t he
at mosphere can be convert ed t o st rong acids
by at mospheric chemical processes, fall t o t he
eart h as acid rain, and pollut e wat er w it h
Some of t he major ways in w hich
has cont ribut ed t o
alteration and pollution
are t he follow ing:
–Agricultural practices t hat have result ed in
int ensive cult ivat ion of land, drainage of w et lands, irrigat ion of arid lands, and applicat ion of
–M anufacturing of huge quant it ies of indust rial product s t hat consumes vast amount s of raw mat erials and produces large quant it ies of air
pollut ant s, w at er pollut ant s, and hazardous w ast e by-product s.
–Energy product ion and ut ilizat ion w it h
environment al effect s t hat include disrupt ion of soil by mining, pollut ion of w at er by release of salt -w at er from pet roleum product ion, and
emission of air pollut ant s such as acid-rain-forming sulfur dioxide.
–M odern transportation pract ices, part icularly
There are numerous ways in w hich t echnology
can be applied t o minimize environmental
–Use of state-of-the-art computerized control t o achieve maximum energy efficiency, maximum
ut ilizat ion of raw mat erials, and minimum product ion of pollut ant by-product s.
–Applicat ion of processes and materials t hat enable maximum mat erials recycling and
minimum w ast e product product ion, for example, advanced membrane processes for w ast ew at er t reat ment t o enable w at er recycling.