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Environmental Chemist ry I


Environment al Chemist ry, Sevent h Edit ion,

1994 by St anley E. M anahan




Aquatic Chemistry

Basic Principles

Oxidat ion-Reduct ion

Phase Int eract ions

Aquat ic M icrobial Biochemist ry

Wat er Pollut ion

Wat er Treat ment


Atmospheric Chemistry

Basic Principles

Part icles in t he at mosphere

Gaseous Inorganic Air Pollut ant s

Organic Air Pollut ant s

Phot ochemical Smog

The Endangered Global At mosphere


Evaluat ion




Environmental science

is t he science of t he

complex int eract ions t hat occur among t he

t errest rial, at mospheric, aquat ic, living, and

ant hropological environment s.

Environmental science

has evolved int o





Environmental chemistry

is t he st udy of t he

sources, react ions, t ransport , effect s, and

fat es of chemical species in wat er, soil, air, and

living environment s and t he effect of

t echnology t hereon.

Environmental biochemistry

is t he st udy t hat

deals specifically w it h t he effect s of


Water and The hydrosphere

Wat er is an essent ial part of all living syst ems and is t he medium from w hich life evolved and in

w hich life exist s.

Air and The atmosphere


Earth and The geosphere

The most import ant part of t he geosphere for life on eart h is soil formed by t he disint egrat ive

w eat hering act ion of physical, geochemical, and biological processes on rock.

Life and The biosphere


The Anthrosphere and Technology

The survival of humankind and of t he planet t hat support s it now requires t hat t he est ablished two-way interaction bet w een science and t echnology become a three-way relationship including



There is a st rong int erconnect ion bet ween t he

biosphere and t he ant hrosphere.

Humans depend upon t he biosphere for food,

fuel, and raw mat erials.



understanding of ecology

is essent ial in t he

management of modern

industrialized societies

in ways t hat are compat ible w it h


preservation and enhancement


Applied ecology

deals w it h predict ing t he

impact s of


and development and

making recommendat ions such t hat t hese



Biogeochemical cycles

(biological, geological,

and chemical)

on Eart h are driven by energy from

t he sun.

During t he last t wo cent uries, enormous human

impact on

energy utilization

has result ed in many

of t he

environmental problems

now facing



M at erials cycles may be divided bet ween

endogenic cycles and exogenic cycles.

Endogenic cycles

involve subsurface rocks of

various kinds.


Biogeochemical cycles can be described as

elemental cycles


nutrient elements



The demands of

increasing population

coupled w it h

the desire

of most people for a

higher mat erial st andard of living are result ing


worldw ide pollution


a massive scale


Environment al pollut ion can be divided

among t he cat egories of

water, air, and land




For example, some gases emit t ed t o t he

at mosphere can be convert ed t o st rong acids

by at mospheric chemical processes, fall t o t he

eart h as acid rain, and pollut e wat er w it h

acidit y.


Some of t he major ways in w hich



has cont ribut ed t o


alteration and pollution

are t he follow ing:

Agricultural practices t hat have result ed in

int ensive cult ivat ion of land, drainage of w et lands, irrigat ion of arid lands, and applicat ion of


M anufacturing of huge quant it ies of indust rial product s t hat consumes vast amount s of raw mat erials and produces large quant it ies of air

pollut ant s, w at er pollut ant s, and hazardous w ast e by-product s.


Energy product ion and ut ilizat ion w it h

environment al effect s t hat include disrupt ion of soil by mining, pollut ion of w at er by release of salt -w at er from pet roleum product ion, and

emission of air pollut ant s such as acid-rain-forming sulfur dioxide.

M odern transportation pract ices, part icularly


There are numerous ways in w hich t echnology

can be applied t o minimize environmental

impact .

Use of state-of-the-art computerized control t o achieve maximum energy efficiency, maximum

ut ilizat ion of raw mat erials, and minimum product ion of pollut ant by-product s.


Applicat ion of processes and materials t hat enable maximum mat erials recycling and

minimum w ast e product product ion, for example, advanced membrane processes for w ast ew at er t reat ment t o enable w at er recycling.


Use of best available catalysts for efficient synt hesis.





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