The Relationship Between Students’ Motivation And Their English Learning Achievement (A Correlational Study At The Second Grade Of The Sman 3 Tangsel)

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT

(A Correlational Study at the Second Grade of the SMAN 3 TANGSEL)

By:

VIONA ROSALINA

109014000124

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING

THE SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA

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“Skripsi”

Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training in Partial Fulfillment ofthe Requirements for Degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts)

in English Language Education

By:

VIONA ROSALINA

109014000124

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING

THE SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA

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ABSTRACT

Viona Rosalina (NIM: 109014000124). The Relationship between Students’ Motivation and Their English Learning Achievement (A Correlational Study at the Second Grade of SMAN 3 TANGSEL). Skripsi. The Department of English Education. The Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training. The State of Islamic University.

Motivation is one of the important things in learning process. The motivation can help someone achieve his or her goals if they have strong motivation in doing steps to achieve it, but the students and the teachers don’t realize about it. So they need to know about that.

This study is purposed to find out the correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement at the second grade of SMAN 3 TANGSEL academic year 2013/2014. The sample of this study is the 31 students in the XI Science 4 class. The English learning achievement in this study refers to the students’ English learning score.

Based on the aim above, the researcher formulated the study correlational study. The students’ motivation score was obtained from the students after they filled out the questionnaire about it. The questionnaire consists of 33 items. This questionnaire was formulated based on Ur’s description about motivated learner. For the students’ English learning score, the researcher got it through documentation from the English teacher. This English learning score is obtained from the students’ midterm test. In the technique of data analysis, the researcher used Pearson Product Moment in the program SPSS 16.

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ABSTRAK

Viona Rosalina (NIM: 109014000124). Hubungan antara Motivasi Siswa dan Prestasi Belajar Bahasa Inggrisnya (Sebuah Studi Korelasi di Kelas 2 SMAN 3 TANGSEL). Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, 2014.

Motivasi adalah salah satu hal penting dalam proses belajar. Motivasi dapat membantu sesorang mencapai tujuannya jika mereka memliki motivasi yang kuat dalam nya, tetapi para siswa dan guru tidak menyadari hal ini. Maka mereka perlu mengetahui ini.

Studi ini bertujuan untuk menemukan bagaimana hubungan antara motivasi siswa dengan hasil belajar bahasa Inggrisnya pada kelas 2 SMAN 3 TANGSEL tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Sampel pada studi ini adalah 31 siswa di kelas XI Science 4. Hasil belajar bahas Inggris pada studi ini merujuk pada nilai belajar bahasa Inggris nya siswa.

Berdasarkan tujuan tersebut, peneliti memformulasikan studi ini dalam bentuk survey dan secara spesifik dilaksanakan dalam studi korelasi. Nilai motivasi siswa didapatkan dari siswa setelah mereka mengisi kuesionaire tentang motivasi siswas. Kuesionaire ini berisi 33 butir. Kuesionaire ini diformulasikan dari deskripsi tentang motivasi siswa yang dideskripsikan oleh Penny Ur. Untuk nilai belajar bahasa Inggris siswa, peneliti mendapatkannya melalui dokumentasi dari guru bahasa Inggris kelas tersebut. Nilai belajar bahasa Inggris ini didapatkan dari nilai hasil midtest mereka. Dalam menganalisis data, peneliti menggunakan Pearson Product Moment melalui program SPSS 16.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the world who has blessed and given the strength to the researcher in completing Skripsi. Sholawat and Salam are given upon our prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, who have given the way of truth and brought the true light of life.

Through this occasion, the researcher would like to express her greatest honor and her gratitude to the advisors, Drs. Bahrul Hasibuan, M. Ed and Neneng Sunengsih, M. Pd, who have spread their time and for giving consultation, contribution, guidance, and patience to the researcher during completing Skripsi. May Allah always bless their kindheartedness.

From the researcher’s deepest heart, the researcher was so thankful and the researcher realized that if there were no support and motivation from people around her, the researcher could not finish Skripsi. Therefore, she would like to express her gratitude and give her best appreciation to:

1. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd., as the chairman of the Department of English

Education, Zaharil Anasy, M. Hum., as the secretary of the Department of English Education, and Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M. Ag., as her academic advisor.

2. All of the lecturers and staffs of the Department of English Education.

They have given the researcher the wonderful experiences in learning, and also precious knowledge.

3. Drs. Nurlena Rifa’I, M. A, Ph. D., as the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya

and Teachers’ Training.

4. Drs. H. P. A. Sopandy, M. Pd., as the headmaster of SMAN 3 TANGSEL,

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staffs of SMAN 3 TANGSEL, and the students of XI Science 3 and XI science 4 for their help during the research.

5. The researcher’s parents, the late Yosman Nasir, Elfi Hendriani Faisal, and

Linggo Busono. Skripsi is dedicated to them who have given her the opportunity of an education from the best institutions and support her in the lifespan, their moral support, affection, and guidance to their daughter.

6. The researcher’s family members, her beloved brother and sister,

Firmansyah Maulana and Ardyana Amaraluhita, uncles and aunts, and cousins who always give their support, happiness, and spirit in finishing her study.

7. All her friends in the Department of English Education, especially for C

Class 2009 for their support and friendship. She also would like to thank Siti Nuraeni, Arief Rahman, Nuraini, and Sheira Ayu Indrayani for the wonderful friendship, and the group of Skripsi advisory for their support, attention and motivation during finishing Skripsi.

8. The researcher’s workmates in BKB Nurul Fikri TANGSEL for their

support and reminding her to do this Skripsi.

And may Skripsi can be useful to the readers, particularly to the researcher. The researcher realized that this Skripsi is far from being perfect. It is a pleasure for her to receive constructive criticism and suggestion from anyone who read her Skripsi.

Jakarta, April 2014

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APPROVAL ... ii

ENDORSEMENT SHEET ... iii

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI ... iv

ABSTRACT ... v

ABSTRAK ... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix

LIST OF TABLES ... xii

LIST OF FIGURES ... xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xiv

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. The Background of the Study ... 1

B. The Identification of the Study ... 4

C. The Limitation of the Problem ... 5

D. The Formulation of the Problem ... 5

E. The Objective of the Study ... 5

F. The Significance of the Study ... 5

CHAPTER II : LITERATURE FRAMEWORK ... 6

A. Motivation ... 5

1. The Understanding of Motivation ... 5

2. The Influence Factors of Motivation ... 8

3. The Kinds of Motivation ... 10

B. English Learning Achievement ... 12

1. The Understanding of Learning ... 12

2. The Understanding of Achievement ... 14

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C. The Thinking Framework ... 16

D. Previous Study ... 16

E. The Research Hypothesis ... 19

CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 20

A. The Place and Time of the Research ... 20

B. The Method of the Research... 20

C. The Population and the Sample ... 20

D. The Technique of Instrument and Data Collection ... 20

1. The Questionnaire ... 21

a. Validity Instrument ... 22

b. The Result of Reliability Test ... 23

c. The Result of Normality Test ... 23

2. The Documentation ... 24

E. The Technique of Data Analysis ... 24

F. The Statistical Hypothesis ... 26

CHAPTER VI : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 27

A. The Description of the Data ... 27

1. The Students’ Motivation Score ... 27

2. The Students’ English Learning Score ... 28

3. The Correlation between Students’ Motivation and their English Learning Achievement Score ... 29

B. The Interpretation of the Data ... 31

1. The Frequency of the Data ... 31

2. The Histogram ... 33

3. The Normality Test ... 34

3. The Correlation Result ... 35

C. The Hypothesis Test ... 36

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 39

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The Likert Scale ... 21

Table 3.2 The Indicators of Instrument ... 21

Table 3.3 The Result of Validity Instrument ... 22

Table 3.4 The Result of Reliability Test ... 23

Table 3.5 The Result of Normality Test ... 24

Table 3.6 The Interpretation of Correlation ... 25

Table 4.1 The Motivation Score (X) ... 27

Table 4.2 The English Learning Score ... 28

Table 4.3 The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable ... 29

Table 4.4 The Summary Score of Motivation (X) and English Learning (Y) ... 31

Table 4.5 The Frequency of Motivation Score... 31

Table 4.6 The Frequency of English Learning Score ... 32

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Figure 4.1 The Motivation Score ... 33

Figure 4.2 The English Learning Score ... 34

Figure 4.3 The Normal Q-Q Plot of Motivation Score ... 34

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 The Students’ Motivation Scores

Appendix 2 The Students English Learning Score

Appendix 3 The Questionnaire for the Validity Test

Appendix 4 The Questionnaire for the Students’ Motivation

Appendix 5 Surat Bimbingan Skripsi

Appendix 6 Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian

Appendix 7 Surat Izin Penelitian

Appendix 8 Surat Keterangan Penelitian

Appendix 9 Nilai-nilai r Product Moment

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A.

The Background of the Study

Language is a means of communication of human beings. Language can be in written, spoken, or signal forms. According to

Santrock, ―Language is a form of communication—whether spoken, written, or signed—that is based on a system of symbols.‖1 From those symbols, it is combined to be the words then those words become a

language. According to Santrock, ―Language consists of the words used by

a community (vocabulary) and the rules for varying and combining them

(grammar and syntax)‖.2

Language helps people communicate easily in their community. In each community, they have their own language. However, when one community would like to communicate with other communities from different language backgrounds, they need to use a language which each of them can speak with.

English is a language widely used in the world. English has an important role in many aspects of life. English is used in technology, education, science, career, and also as a primary means in communication. English is one of foreign languages that it is taught in Indonesia.

English in Indonesia is an important subject. English subject in Indonesia is taught from kindergarten until the university. This subject in kindergarten and elementary level is a local content. Meanwhile in junior

and senior high school, English is a compulsory subject and also is

John Santrock, Educational Psychology (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2011), 5th edition, p. 58.

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skills are listening, reading, writing and speaking, (b) build the importance of learning English as one of foreign language to be main learning material, and (c) develop an understanding about interrelation between language and culture and expanded sight, so the students have cross-communicatively, they are likely to broaden their inter-lingual and cross cultural insight so that they can promote their culture to the world.

These communicative objectives are contrary with the practical realities. The researcher has seen that students do not use English communicatively. From the researcher experiences, she had seen her friends in her school life seemed that they did not have a high motivation. In spite of the fact, her friends got the high scores in their learning.

Another experience that the researcher has found recently is her students learning in an English course. Her students learn English because they love to learn. They love to learn with their own favorite activities like watching movies or playing games. The students who do it through this way have the high learning score.

For other students in the same English course, they learn English just because they have to learn it or because of their parents want them to learn it. These students never feel excited to learn. It affects their score.

They just have a standard score and might be too bad for some others. However, there are some other students who never spend their time to learn beyond the class, but they are good enough in their English learning score.

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From those facts, the researcher concludes that something plays an important role inside that makes the objective of curriculum can be accomplished. In building a communicative language, the researcher sees that there is a motivation which makes the accomplishment of the

instructional objectives possible. Harmer in How to Teach English points out;

Whatever we think of the teaching methods used –or the reason for language learning – the teachers and the students in these cases had a number of things on their side: they were highly motivated, they really wanted to learn and they had powerful reasons for doing so –including, of course, a fear or failure4

It means no matter what and how the methods are used, the result will be affected by the motivation of the students and the teachers. With motivation, people are eager to do more. In this education field, motivation makes the students want to learn their subject more from everything and the teachers also try to make the dynamic class. It can be summed up that high motivation will affect learning achievement.

In fact, some teachers in schools don’t realize that they have to motivate their students to study. Teachers just give the learning process

without direct the students to be interested in their learning or even don’t

let their students to know what their learning purposes are. The researcher had interviewed some students whom took learning course after their school time and asked how the students got their great or low scores in the subject. Then the result of interview indicates that they are motivated because of how the teachers delivered the subject or because they know what their learning goals are. This condition is same as Dornyei states that

one of main determinants of second/foreign language learning achievement is motivation.5

4

Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English, (Essex: Addision Wesley Longman Limited, 2001) p. 8

5Zoltán Dōrnyei,

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Nowadays the Ministry of Education has developed a good communicative learning especially in English learning. One of efforts that Ministry of Education has done is bilingual class. Literally, bilingual is

―(of a person) able to use two languages for communication, or (of a thing) using or involving two languages‖.6 That means the students who learn in bilingual class always get chance to listen and use two languages to communicate and are expected to be able to use English communicatively. In Indonesia, bilingual class students use English and Indonesian as the medium of class interaction.

To see how the role of motivation and native teacher has in a school, the researcher did observation. The researcher has come to the school nearby her house. The researcher chose this school because of the time efficiency. The school’s name is Al Syukro Islamic Universal Elementary School. From this school, the researcher gets the points that students are excited to have native teacher in their school.

SMAN 3 TANGSEL is another school which have native English teacher. The native English teacher comes to teach this school because of

the schools’ program. This program helps the students to improve their

English skill. Through this school the researcher hopes that she can see how the objectives learning English and the influence of native teacher involve in.

Based on the conditions above, the researcher is interested in studying the correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement.

B.

The Identification of the Study

Based on the background above, the identification of the study are: 1. The objectives of English subject in Indonesia have not accomplished. 2. Some students feel that they are hard to achieve their English learning

score as the compulsory subject and some neither.

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3. English is examined in National Examination as the graduation

requirement in Indonesia.

4. Motivation is one of determinants of second/foreign language

learning achievement.

C.

The Limitation of the Problem

The study is focused on motivation as one of determinants of second/foreign language learning achievement. So, the researcher is interested to see how the correlation between the motivation and learning achievement is.

D.

The Formulation of the Problem

Based on the limitation of the problem above, the researcher formulates the question of research as follows; ―Is there any correlation

between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement?‖

E.

The Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to find empirical evidence of whether or not there is significant correlation between the students’ motivation and their learning achievement in English subject.

F.

The Significance of the Study

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A.

Motivation

1.

The Understanding of Motivation

Motivation is a common word for people nowadays. It can be seen through some seminars, and television programs. These programs motivate people to have a better life sight and also push them to be better than before. For this study, the researcher needs to know what motivation is for her own understanding to do the research latter.

As stated literally, motivation is an enthusiasm or need for doing something.1 Theorists actually have their own understanding what motivation is. Most of them have the same perception. According to Woolfolk, “motivation is usually defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior.”2 Santrock also defined that “motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior.”3

Schunk and friends also state that “motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained.”4 It means that motivation can direct a person’s behavior to achieve his/her goals. A person has a reason and enthusiasts to do something in his/her life by motivation. Those theorists above have same perception that motivation is a thing which directs and also has the relation with behavior. In another way, Yun Dai and Stemberg state about motivation as follow; “motivation attempts to explain the “what,” “why,” and “where” of a person’s more or less conscious

1

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Advance Learner Dictionary (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 928.

2

Anita Woolfolk, Educational Psychology (Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007), 10th Edition, p. 372.

3

John Santrock, Educational Psychology (New York: McGraw Hill, 2011), 5th Edition, p. 438.

4

Dale H. Schunk et al., Motivation in Education –theory, research, and applications-

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praxis and practice.”5 It helps the researcher concludes that motivation can be a reason for someone to do something or practice.

In another statement Santrock states the example of it as follow; “If students don’t complete an assignment because they are

bored, lack of motivation is involved. If students encounter challenges in researching and writing a paper, but persist and overcome hurdles, motivation is involved.”6 As Santrock gives examples above, the researcher concludes that motivation include in good learning process. It means students need motivation to be included as energy or support for their successful learning. Harmer also states that “it is accepted for most fields of learning that motivation is essential to success: that we have to want to do something to succeed at it. Without such motivation we will almost certainly fail to make the necessary effort.”7 That means motivation can be as the key for the successful learning. The failure of successful planning process can be caused by there is no motivation. It can be seen that motivation is important in learning process. Aronson also states in his book that the role of motivation in achievement based on many researchers is the key component.8

The researcher concludes that motivation generally as energy to support all goals that humans have made. Motivation can be as a

David Yun Dai and Robert J. Sternberg (eds.), Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition – Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development- (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004), p. 198.

6

Santrock, 2011, op. cit., p. 438.

7

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language (Essex: Pearson Limited, 2002), 3rd Edition, p. 51.

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helps the researcher to understand it through these characteristics of motivated learners: (a) positive task orientation, it means that the learners have willing to undertake the tasks and challenges and also confidence in their success. (b) ego-involvement, it means that the

learners feel the important of the learning for themselves. (c) need for achievement, means that the learners have a need to achieve and overcome difficulties and succeed. (d) high aspiration, can be assumed that the learners are ambitious in getting the best learning for their own self. (e) goal orientation, it assumes that the learners know better with what they have to achieve in learning process. (f) perseverance, it means that the learners have the high level in doing their efforts. (g) tolerance of ambiguity, the ambiguity is not the big problem for the learners.9

Based on Ur’s description above, the researcher deduces that need achievement and high aspiration points can be mixed in one description, because it describes that the learner is ambitious to achieve their learning goals. Then the researcher figures out that the motivated learner will have the best effort to face their challenges in learning, have willing to finish the challenges, ambitious, know what their goals in learning, adapt in a confused meaning as learning process, and never feel hesitant in learning. These characteristics can be as a description for the researcher to see which the learners are having motivation in their learning process.

2.

The Influence Factors of Motivation

Motivation also has the factors which can influence how the motivation can be decreased or increased in the learning process. The researcher gets this understanding from Hamalik.

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Hamalik points out that the influence of motivation are; (a) environment. All of these roles are have their own influences to make motivation exist. Due to the existence of motivation, the successful learning can be achieved. This theory has same meaning with Dornyei’s that the researcher has mentioned in the previous chapter that is stated “motivation is one of the main determinants of Sanjaya define it in their book.

Schunk and friends define “motivated learning is a motivation to acquire skills and strategies rather than to perform tasks that modeling by with highlights the role of self-efficacy”.12 Sanjaya also has the same perception that the learning can be success if students’ motivation as direct and arouse.13 It can be stated that motivation is acquired in learning in order to achieve the skills and strategies.

From the theories above, the researcher concludes that

motivated learning is a thing that can help to build success learning in

10

Dr. Wina Sanjaya, M. Pd., Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran-Teori dan Praktik

Pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) (Jakarta: Kencana Perdana Media Group, 2008), p. 256-257.

11Zoltán Dōrnyei,

Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom, The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 78 No. 3, 1994, p. 273-284.

12

Schunk et al., 2008, op. cit., p. 147.

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class. In a learning process, motivation can be a good machine as the energy.

3.

The Kinds of Motivation

Motivation can be divided into two kinds. These kinds of motivation are divided through how the motivation arrives and the influences around the person itself. They are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.

a.

Extrinsic Motivation

To get more understanding about extrinsic motivation, the writer found out some theories that help her to understand.

Santrock defines extrinsic motivation as below:

Extrinsic motivation involves doing something to obtain something else. Extrinsic motivation is often influenced by external incentives such as rewards and punishments. For example, a student may study hard for a test in order to obtain a good grade in the course.14

Motivation can be stated as extrinsic motivation in condition of external influenced. The influences can be

rewards and punishments. For example, the boy studied hard due to his father will give him the new robot as his reward in getting best score. It is same as Alderman says. Alderman has perception that “Extrinsic motivation occurs when students engage in activities for external reasons (outside of themselves) such as praise, grades, special privileges, and certificates or material rewards.”15

14

Santrock, 2011, op. cit., p. 441.

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In a book named Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, the researcher finds that extrinsic motivation has different perspective to know what extrinsic motivation is as follows:

… .Two distinct definitions of extrinsic motivation appear to have emerged: (1) when motivation is based on something extrinsic to the activity and (2) when motivation is based on something extrinsic to the person.16

The author of this book thinks that extrinsic motivation happens in two kinds of condition. It is based on outside of the activity and also from the person.

It can be deduced that extrinsic motivation is a type of motivation that comes from outside of the people themselves. In the learning process, extrinsic motivation can come from the teachers’ reward for their students, praising, or others. It makes the motivation as drive in learning process.

b.

Intrinsic Motivation

According to Santrock, “intrinsic motivation involves the internal motivation to do something for its own sake. For coercion such as satisfaction, interest, learning, and challenge.”18 With intrinsic motivation, the students don’t need to be pushed in doing something. This statement is same

16

Carol Sansone and Judith M. Harackiewicz (eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation – The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance- (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000), p. 445.

17

Santrock, 2011, loc. cit.

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with this next statement that “Intrinsic motivation describes self-initiated task engagement with no apparent extrinsic rewards beyond the activity itself.”19 The researcher also finds that “a number of researchers define intrinsic motivation as occurring when an activity satisfies basic human needs for competence and control, which makes the activity interesting and likely to be performed for its own sake rather than as a means to an end.”20

It means that intrinsic motivation can be a parameter to someone in doing the job. If the person feels interesting to do learning, it means that he/she has the intrinsic motivation.

Each scientist has their own theory about what is learning. Kimble said that learning is a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice.21 That means learning has a change in behavioral and needed a reinforcement to reinforce it.

Nowadays that theory also has a meaning that learning is a change in behavior or potential behavior of a relatively permanent that comes from experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states as a

19

Dai and Robert J. Sternberg (eds.), op. cit., 2004, p. 329.

20

Sansone and Judith M. Harackiewicz (eds.), 2000, op. cit., p. 444.

21

B. R. Hergenhahn and Matthew H. Olson, Theories of Learning (Teori Belajar), terj.

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condition caused by illness, fatigue or drugs.22 In this theory, learning still need an experience but it leaves to the theorists itself what kind of that experience. The experience may be as the correlation of stimulus and response, reinforcement and others.

Schunk defines the learning involves acquiring and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.23 It means that learning is not only getting knowledge, but also modifying the knowledge itself and elaborates it into skills, attitudes and so on. Learning is an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience.24 So learning is the process that involves not only the practice but also other forms of experiences. It is described by Schunk as follow;

Three criteria of learning;

a. Learning involves change—in behavior or in the capacity for behavior. People learn when they become capable of doing something differently.

b. Learning endures over time.

c. Learning occurs through experience.25

It means that learning is not a simple process. Learning has to make the changing in the person. Learning must make the learner being able to do what they have learned. Learning needs time to make the

successful learning can be achieved.

The researcher deduces that the learning have to be able to make the learners have their new experiences, knowledge. Then these new parts of learning also have to be modified by the learner. The modifying means that the learners are able to apply their knowledge in any condition because they are really understand it.

22

Ibid., p. 8.

23

Dale H. Schunk, Learning Theories –An Educational Perspective- (Boston; Pearson Education, Inc., 2012), 6th Edition, p. 2.

24

Ibid., p. 3.

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2.

The Understanding of Achievement

To see how far the students have learned in their learning, the

teacher can see it through their achievement test. An achievement test is intended to measure what the student has learned or what skills the student has mastered.26 It makes the researcher concludes that achievement test is the way to measure the students progress in their learning. With achievement test, the teachers get the evidence of the students’ progress result from their class that they have taught.

The researcher also gets another theorist that “achievement refers to school-based learning, while ability and aptitude refer to broader learning acquired mostly through nonschool sources such as parents and peer groups.”27 Ur also states that “an achievement test measures how much the material taught in a given course, or part of one, has in fact been learned.”28

It is same with Oosterhof who states “achievement tests measure students’ present status with a set of skills. Achievement test are used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and to identify students with learning disabilities.”29

That means achievement test is the measurement tool that teachers give to their students in order to see the effectiveness of the learning process is going in their students. Also with this test, the teachers can see what difficulties that the learners have in their

learning process. Gary also helps the researcher to know deeper what achievement is in his book as follows;

One definition of achievement can be found in the Dictionary of Education (which is currently undergoing its first revision in over two decades). In this reference, achievement is defined as "(1) accomplishment or proficiency of performance in a given skill or body of knowledge; (2) progress in school" (C. V. Good, 1973, p.

26

Santrock, 2011, op. cit., p. 521.

27

Peter W Airasian, Classroom Assessment –Concepts and Application- (McGraw Hill Online Resources, 2008), p. 53.

28

Ur, 2009, op. cit., p. 44.

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7). Academic achievement is defined as "knowledge gained or skills developed in the school subjects, usually designated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers, or by both" (p. 7).30

That means achievement is the proficiency that students have in their learning process. This achievement is also as indicator that what

students get in their learning. The achievement commonly is designed in the scores by test scores or teachers’ marks.

With these theories, the researcher concludes that achievement is the accumulative result of learning process. In achievement, the teachers or the students themselves can see how far their learning process that they did.

3.

The Understanding of English Learning Achievement

From the explanation above, the researcher has the understanding for this variable that English learning achievement is a result of students learning progress in class. This achievement appears as the score that can be as description of their successful in learning. If the students get 60 in their test, it can be concluded that they are not really successful in the learning. This assuming also can be used in opposite words.

English learning achievement in this study can be described as the result of English learning process that students get from the teachers in form of score. The score is getting trough test that teachers’ made or a kind of standardized test.

In this study, the achievement scores can help the researcher to describe how far the students’ ability in English. The achievement scores also come from the calculation of some test that teachers have made for their students.

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C.

The Thinking Framework

Motivation is a drive inside of the people in doing something.

Motivation can be as energy fuel in doing everything, included learning. With motivation, the learning can run well. Motivation can be as the indicator that the person enjoys what he/she does. In the learning process, students’ motivation is one of factors that make their learning works well. As the theorists state above, the motivation is the key component in students and the teachers also.

So the researcher concludes that it can be happened in English learning process. With the description above that explains motivation affects learning achievement, it makes the researcher believes that there is correlation between students’ motivation and their learning achievement.

D.

Previous Study

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low achievers of learning English, altogether 12 students aged 17 to 20, were invited to attend semi-structured interviews. Through the account of their English learning experience, the relationship between motivational factors and academic achievement in foreign language learning was

investigated. The findings indicated that there was a positive relationship between motivation and achievement among this sample of Hong Kong Advanced-level students in this sixth form college. The results also indicated that all the high, average and low achievers had strong extrinsic motivation, but this did not have any significant correlation with students’ English attainment. Instead, it was intrinsic motivation that had a positive correlation with students’ English grades. In this sample, intrinsic and extrinsic motives did not inhibit each other as they had no significant correlation.31

Another study by FengXia Wang (2008) in the study titled Motivation and English Achievement: An Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of New Measure for Chinese Students of English Learning also helps the writer to know deep about the study of motivation and achievement. This research conducted in order to (1) construct a scale of English learning motivation in a particular Chinese context, the intrinsic/extrinsic motivation scale of English learning (I/EMSEL) and (2) explore the relationship between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and English achievement. The I/EMSEL scale was administered to two samples of first-year non-English-majors. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were then performed between different kinds of motivation and English achievement. Results indicated that autonomous

extrinsic motivation correlated positively with intrinsic motivation and achievement, while controlled extrinsic motivation correlated negatively with them. In this study, there were two samples in the survey. The size of

31Chan Chiu Yuet, “The Relationship between Motivation and Achievement in Foreign

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18

Sample 1 was 140 and participants were freshmen from several non-English majors (for example, educational technology, journalism, and education) at a comprehensive university in China. Males constituted about 45.6% of the sample with a total mean age of about 20. The

participants in Sample 2 were 329 freshmen from the same university and they were randomly selected from several non-English-majors, such as mathematics, physics, education, computer science, Chinese literature, and art. The participants were about equal numbers of men and women between the ages of 18 and 20 years. The researcher used questionnaire. Most items of the scale were written based on the constructs proposed in SDT and SLA motivation. The questionnaire, consisting of 24 five-point Likert scale items, was developed and group administered to two samples, Sample 1 for exploratory factor analysis and Sample 2 for confirmatory factor analysis. The mark on the final English examination of the semester was used as an indication of English achievement.32

Yang, Y. and Mukherjee, D. in their research with the title The Correlation between English Learning Motivation and Achievement in Three Chinese Junior Middle Schools find out that there is positive correlation between students’ English learning motivation and students’ achievement. The sample is taken from three classes of students selected from first grade junior middle school. Data are collected from the motivation questionnaires administered to students and also interviews with their English teacher to collect their average English grade, which indicates their English achievement.33

32

FengXia Wang, An Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of New Measure for Chinese Students of English Learning, North American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 10, 2008, pp. 633-646.

33

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E.

The Research Hypothesis

Based on the literature review and the thinking framework above,

the hypothesis is formulated as follow:

Ho = there is no correlation between students’ motivation and students’ English learning achievement.

Ha = there is correlation between students’ motivation and students’ English learning achievement.

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20

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A.

The Place and The Time of the Research

The researcher conducted the research at the second grade of SMAN 3 TANGSEL which is located on Jl. Benda Timur XI Pamulang Permai 2 Benda Baru Pamulang. The researcher did this research on March 2014 in the 2013/2014 academic year.

B.

The Method of the Research

The researcher used survey method to do this study. With survey method, the researcher doesn’t need to give a treatment for her objects. Specifically, this research was conducted through correlational study. In this research, the researcher would like to see the possibility of correlation

between the students’ motivation as independent variable (X variable) and their achievement as dependent variable (Y variable).

C.

The Population and the Sample

The population in this research is the students of the second grade of SMAN 3 TANGSEL. Total students of the second grade in SMAN 3 TANGSEL are 220 students. These students are distributed in 8 classes, 6 classes for science class and the other 2 classes for social class. In each science class, the class consists around 32 - 31 students. For social classes, the class has 35 students in each.

The technique of sampling in this research used purposive cluster sampling technique. From this sampling, the writer got XI Science 4 as the sample for this research. This class consists of 31 students.

D.

The Technique of Instrument and Data Collection

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motivation is in form of score. Therefore, students’ English learning achievement variable are getting from documentation score that the English teacher has.

1.

The Questionnaire

In this research, the researcher used questionnaire to know the students’ motivation of SMAN 1 Tangsel at the second grade. The questionnaire consists of 33 items, 21 positive statements and 12 negative statements. The instrument has some alternative options based on Likert Scale; Strongly Agree (sangat setuju), Agree (setuju), Disagree (tidak setuju), and Strongly Disagree (sangat tidak setuju). As see below:

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22

Validation of instrument was conducted to see whether the instrument is capable to collect the data or not. The writer got the standard coefficient validity minimum for this instrument with N = 31 and coefficient significance level 5%. The coefficient validity is 0.35. To see the validity instrument, the researcher did it through SPSS 16 Program.

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Goal orientation

3, 14, 34, 20,

27 12

Perseverance 1, 6, 18, 30, 33 2*, 21, 26, 28, 31

Tolerance of ambiguity 11, 35, 36 15, 25, 29*

(*) means invalid

b.

The Result of Reliability Test

The researcher used SPPS 16 in order to get the reliability of the questionnaire. The result can be seen as below:

Table 3.4

The Result of Reliability Test

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's

Alpha N of Items

.907 40

From the result, it can be seen that . Then the researcher compared to with N= 40 and 5%

as significant level, that is . It can be

concluded that this instrument reliable because = .

c.

The

Result of Normality Test

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24

Table 3.5

The Result of Normality Test

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.

Total .113 31 .200* .967 31 .449

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

With and N = 33, and it can be described then can be concluded that the items of the instrument are normal.

2.

The Documentation

To know the students’ English learning achievement, the researcher used their midterm scores as the documentation. The data was collected from the English teacher. The detail score can be seen in the appendix.

E.

The Technique of Data Analysis

After getting data from the students in the questionnaire, the researcher need to analyze the data and correlate between questionnaire result and students’ English learning scores. The researcher did description analysis to describe the data statistically.

The technique on data analysis used correlation technique from

Pearson Product Moment1, that is;

√[ ][ ]

1

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Explanation:

= Coefficient of correlation between X variable and Y

variable

∑X = Sum of score in X distribution ∑Y = Sum of score in Y distribution ∑XY = Sum of multiplication of X and Y

N = Number of Respondents X2 = Sum of X quadrate Y2 = Sum of Y quadrate

With that formula, the researcher got r coefficient that can describe the correlation between X variable and Y variable, as below2:

Table 3.6

The Interpretation of Correlation

Interpretation

0.00 – 0.20 The correlation between X variable and Y variable is very weak or can be told there is no correlation between the variables

0.20 – 0.40 There is weak correlation between X variable and Y variable

0.40 – 0.70 There is enough correlation between X variable and Y variable

0.70 – 0.90 There is strong correlation between X variable and Y variable

0.90 – 1.00 There is very strong correlation between X variable and Y variable

2

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26

F.

The Statistical Hypothesis

The statistical hypothesis with significance level 5% was

formulated as follow: Ho : r = 0

Ha : r ≠ 0

If > means there is correlation between X variable and Y

variable, Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected.

If < means there is no correlation between X variable and Y

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27

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A.

The Description of the Data

As mentioned before in previous chapter, the researcher conducted the research using questionnaire in XI Science 4 class for getting motivation score. This class consists of 31 students. Before the researcher did her research, she did the validation of instrument in XI Science 3 that also consists of 31 students.

In English learning score, the researcher got it from the English teacher of XI Science 4 class, Mr. Ahas. The score is taken from the midterm test that was conducted on February 2014 and also from the daily test that was combined it to be a midterm score in students’ report school.

Finally, the researcher analyzed the data to know the correlation

between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement with

formula of Pearson Product Moment in SPSS 16 Program.

1.

The Student

s’ Motivation Score

Students’ motivation score as X variable (Independent variable) in this study. To get the score, the researcher conducted her research through questionnaire in XI Science 4 class as the sample. The table below

describes the result of the students’ motivation questionnaire

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28

2.

The Students’ English Learning

Score

As Y variable (dependent variable), students’ English learning

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24

3.

The Correlation be

tween Students’ Motivation

and their

English Learning Achievement Score

To see how correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement, it is calculated through Pearson Product Moment.

Table 4.3

The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable

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By using SPPS, the researcher got the summary as follows: Table 4.4

The Summary Score of Motivation (X) and English Learning (Y)

Parameter X Y

Minimum Score 78 72.50

Maximum Score 119 87.50

Std Deviation 11.399 3.847

Mean 99.84 80.145

Median 99.00 80.00

Mode 98 80.00

Sum 3095 2484.50

B.

The Interpretation of the Data

To get the result of relationship between students’ motivation score and their English learning score, the researcher calculated the data through SPPS 16. The result from the program as below:

1.

The Frequency of the Data

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32

The Frequency of English Learning Score English Learning Score

Frequency Percent Valid Percent

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81 1 3.2 3.2 61.3

82 2 6.5 6.5 67.7

82.5 2 6.5 6.5 74.2

83 1 3.2 3.2 77.4

84.5 2 6.5 6.5 83.9

85 4 12.9 12.9 96.8

87.5 1 3.2 3.2 100.0

Total 31 100.0 100.0

2.

The Histogram

Through histogram, the researcher can see how the distribution of data is distributed as below:

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34

Figure 4.2

The English Learning Score

3.

The Normality Test

In checking normality data both English score and Students’

motivation score, the researcher used Normal Q-Q Plot in SPSS 16 as the description. The result is normal as pictures below:

Figure 4.3

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Figure 4.3

The Normal Q-Q Plot of Motivation Score

4.

The Correlation Result

Table 4.7

The Result of Correlation Calculation Correlations

Motivation Score

English Learning

Score

Motivation

Score

Pearson Correlation 1 .143

Sig. (2-tailed) .444

N 31 31

English

Learning

Score

Pearson Correlation .143 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .444

N 31 31

From this table, the researcher describes that r coefficient is and the sig. (2-tailed) is . Then the researcher looked at r table as

mention in Chapter 3.

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36

students’ motivation score and their English learning score. Based on , > ; 0.355 > 0.143 and also from sig (2-tailed)

result, it can be described that 0.444 > 0.005 (probability score).

C.

The Hypothesis Test

As described in previous chapter, if > means there is

correlation between X variable and Y variable, Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. Then if < means there is no correlation between X

variable and Y variable, Ho is accepted and Ha is rejected. From the result

above, the researcher got that < ; 0.143 < 0.355 that means H0 is

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37

As mentioned before in the previous chapter, motivation is one of the important things in learning process. The motivation can help someone achieve his or her goals if they have strong motivation in doing steps to achieve it. So the students and the teachers need to know about it. In order to prove the assumptions, the researcher did this study.

Based on the description of data in the previous chapter that has been described, it can be concluded that null hypothesis is accepted and

alternative hypothesis is rejected. It can be seen that is 0.143 then the

result from in 5% significance level is 0.355. So is smaller than or it can be stated that < ; 0.143 < 0.355. It means that the researcher gets conclusion for the study that there is no correlation between students’ motivation and their English motivation in SMAN 3 TANGSEL for 2013/2014 academic year.

From interpretation correlation table that the researcher displayed in the previous chapter, 0.143 is included in the first category that the correlation between X variable and Y variable is very weak that be stated there is no correlation. It can be guessed that motivation has the correlation in students’ score even it is very weak. So if the teachers increase the students’ motivation or the students aware about the important role of motivation, the result score will be better than the researcher got from this data.

B.

Suggestion

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38

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Bibliography

Airasian, Peter W., Classroom Assessment –Concepts and Application-. McGrawHill Online Resource, 2008.

Alderman, M. Kay., Motivation for Achievement –Possibilities for Teaching and Learning, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004.

Aronson, Joshua, Improving Academic Achievement –Impact of Psychological Factors on Education-, New York: Academic Press, 2002.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Advance Learner Dictionary, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Creswell, John W. Educational Research-Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th Edition, Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2012.

Dai, David Yun and Robert J. Sternberg (eds.), Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition –Integrative Perspective on Intellectual Functioning and Development-, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Standar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Bahasa

Inggris Sekolah Menengah Atas dan Madrasah Aliyah di Indonesia, Jakarta: Pusat Kurikulum Depdiknas, 2003.

Fraenkel , Jack R. and Norman E. Wallen., How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 7th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,

Hasan, Iqbal. Analisis Data Penelitian dengan Statistik, Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara, 2009.

Hergenhahn, B. R. and Olson, Matthew H., Theories of Learning (Teori Belajar), terj. Tri Wibowo B. S., Jakarta: Prenada Media Group, 2010.

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Phye, Gary D., Handbook of Classroom Assessment –Learning, Achievement, and Adjustment-, San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.

Sanjaya, Wina. Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran –Teori dan Praktik Pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP), Jakarta: Kencana Perdana Media Group, 2008.

Sansone, Carol and Judith M. Harackiewicz (eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation –The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance-, San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

Schunk, Dale H. Learning Theories –An Educational Perspective-, 6th Edition, Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2012.

Schunk, Dale H., et al, Motivation in Education –Theory, Research, and Application-, 3rd Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 2008. Sudijono, Anas. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada,

2006.

Sugiyono. Statistika untuk Penelitian, Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta, 2012.

---. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D), Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta, 2009.

Ur, Penny. A Course in Language Teaching –Practice and Theory-, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Wang, FengXia, An Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of New Measure for Chinese Students of English Learning, North American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 10, 2008.

Woolfolk, Anita. Educational Psychology, 10th Edition, Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007.

Yang, Y. and Mukherjee, D., The Correlation between English Learning Motivation and Achievement in Three Chinese Junior Middle Schools, ICERI2012 Proceedings, 2012.

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Figur

Table 3.2 The Indicators of Instrument

Table 3.2

The Indicators of Instrument p.36
Table 3.1 The Likert Scale

Table 3.1

The Likert Scale p.36
Table 3.3 The Result of Validity Instrument

Table 3.3

The Result of Validity Instrument p.37
Table 3.4 The Result of Reliability Test

Table 3.4

The Result of Reliability Test p.38
Table 3.5 The Result of Normality Test

Table 3.5

The Result of Normality Test p.39
Table 3.6 The Interpretation of Correlation

Table 3.6

The Interpretation of Correlation p.40
Table 4.1 The Motivation Score (X)

Table 4.1

The Motivation Score (X) p.42
Table 4.2 The English Learning Score (Y)

Table 4.2

The English Learning Score (Y) p.43
Table 4.3 The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable

Table 4.3

The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable p.44
Table 4.4 The Summary Score of Motivation (X) and English Learning (Y)

Table 4.4

The Summary Score of Motivation (X) and English Learning (Y) p.46
Table 4.5

Table 4.5

p.46
Table 4.6 The Frequency of English Learning Score

Table 4.6

The Frequency of English Learning Score p.47
Figure 4.1 The Motivation Score

Figure 4.1

The Motivation Score p.48
Figure 4.3

Figure 4.3

p.49
Figure 4.2 The English Learning Score

Figure 4.2

The English Learning Score p.49
Figure 4.3

Figure 4.3

p.50
Table 4.7 The Result of Correlation Calculation

Table 4.7

The Result of Correlation Calculation p.50

Referensi

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