DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL USING MATLAB/SIMULINK
MOHD FIRDAUS BIN JAHAR
This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronics) With Honours
Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
UNIVERS TI TEKNIKAL MALAYS IA MELAKA
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOM PUTER
BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN PROJEK SARJANA MUDA II
DESIGN A ND SIM ULATION OF ADA PTIVE CRUISE CONTROL USING MATLAB/SIMULINK
Pengaji an : 2008/2009………
Saya _________________MOHD FIRDAUS BIN JAHAR_____________________________ (HURUF BESAR)
mengaku me mbenarkan Laporan Proje k Sa rjana Muda ini d isimpan di Perpustakaan dengan sy arat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:
1. Laporan adalah hakmilik Un iversiti Teknika l Ma laysia Melaka .
2. Perpustakaan dibenarkan me mbuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.
3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan me mbuat salinan laporan in i sebagai bahan pertukaran antara in stitusi pengajian tinggi.
4. Sila tandakan ( √ ) :
(M engandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan M alaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASM I 1972)
TERHAD* (M engandungi maklumat terhad yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)
__________________________ ___________________________________ (T ANDATANGAN PENULIS) (COP DAN TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)
Alamat Tetap: KAMPUNG BARU JALAN PANJANG, 28030 TEMERLOH, PAHANG DARUL MAKMUR.
―I hereby declare that this report is the result of my own work except for quotes as
cited in the references.‖
Signature : ………
―I hereby declare that I have this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient in
terms of the scope and quality for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronics) With Honours. ‖
Signature : ………
First and foremost, I would like to take this opportunity to thank my project supervisor, Zulkarnain bin Zainudin for his invaluable guidance, assistance and support throughout the project. Under his supervision, many aspects regarding on this project has been explored, and with the knowledge, idea and support received from him, this thesis can be presented in the time given.
I also would like to thank all the lecturers at FKEKK for the lessons and guidance given. Not forget to all my friends and course mate for their help and ideas during the course of this study.
x 18.104.22.168 Stateflow Chart Model Coverage 13
22.214.171.124 Coverage Reports 14
3.1 Modeling Process of ACC System 29
3.1.1 Defining the System 31
3.1.2 Identifying System Components 31
3.1.3 Modeling the System with Equations 32 3.1.4 Building the Simulink Block Diagram 32
3.1.5 Running the Simulation 32
IV SIMULATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Simulation Parameters 45
4.2 Simulation of the Transfer Function 46 4.3 Implementation of the PID Controller 47 4.4 Tuning Results of PID Controller 48
4.5 Simulation of ACC system 54
4.6 Analysis and Discussion of ACC Performances 59
V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE
5.1 Conclusion 62
APPENDIX A 66
APPENDIX B 67
LIST OF TABLES
NO. TITLE PAGE
2.1 Effects of each of controllers gain on a closed- loop system 26
2.2 Equation created by Ziegler Nichols 26
3.1 Functional Requirements 5–9 39
4.1 Values of constant and parameter used in the block diagram 46
4.2 Gain value by Ziegler Nichols for each controller 49
LIST OF FIGURES
NO. TITLE PAGE
2.1 Signal Builder block 9
2.2 Controller block 10
2.3 Graphical Components of a Stateflow 11
2.4 The Debugger main window 12
2.5 Summary for coverage report 15
2.6 PID Controllers 16
2.7 PID controller subsystem 16
2.8 Zero-Order Hold block 17
3.12 Accelerator pedal signal 42
4.1 Simulink block diagram for ACC 46
4.2 Open loop response for ACC 47
4.3 Simulink block diagram for CC with PID Controller 47
4.4 Open-loop poles from Root Locus 48
4.5 Open-loop value for gain and frequency 48
4.6 P Controller step response 50
4.7 PI Controller step response 50
4.8 PID Controller step response 51
4.9 PID Controller step response (after Tuning) 51
4.10 PID Controller step response (after Tuning) 52
4.11 Satisfied open- loop system 53
4.13 Simulation results for Test case 1 54
4.14 Simulation results for Test case 2 54
4.15 Simulation results for Test case 3 55
4.16 Simulation results for Test case 4 55
4.17 Simulation results for Test case 5 56
4.18 Simulation results for Test case 6 56
4.19 Simulation results for Test case 7 57
4.20 Simulation results for Test case 8 57
4.21 Simulation results for Test case 9 58
4.22 Simulation results for Test case 10 58
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
ACC - Adaptive Cruise Control
ADAS - Advanced Driver Assistance Systems CC - Cruise Control
D - Derivative
I - Integral
P - Proportional
PI - Proportional-Integral
LIST OF APPENDICES
NO. NAME PAGE
A ACC system in Simulink 66
B Controller Subsystem 67
1.1 Background of Project
The cars of tomorrow  will be more and more equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) to support the driver in the driving task. One of the ADAS is the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). Pauwelussen and Minderhoud in  noted that the ACC could be defined as an extension of the Cruise Control (CC) and maintains, next to a certain set speed, a certain set distance with respect to the
because of comfort reasons and by law . This means that the driver has to intervene if the system is not able to achieve the required needs . Ideally, the driver only has to control the steering and only interrupt the ACC at takeovers or situations that might lead to accidents .
The ACC is mainly a comfort system that takes over the car-following task, but the driver remains responsible for steering and collision avoidance. If the deceleration of the ACC is not sufficient enough to avoid a collision, the ACC warns the driver with a warning sound . This system is usually used on the highway, where it is common to cruise at a constant velocity for long periods of time, as a relief for the driver .
These system , use radar to measure the distance from the vehicle they are in to the car ahead and its speed relative to theirs. If a car crosses into the lane ahead, and the distance is now less than the preset minimum, the system applies the brakes, slowing the car with a maximum deceleration until it is following at the desired distance . If the leading car speeds up or moves out of the lane, the system opens the throttle until the trailing car has returned to the cruise control speed set by the driver .
The advanced features of ACC systems include the ability to track a car in the lane ahead using forward looking radar. If the distance to a vehicle in front is below a pre-set value, the ACC system is designed to slow the car down, using brakes if required, to track the speed of the vehicle in front, then returning the car to its pre-set speed once the lane ahead is clear. Next, an intelligent lane prediction using steering angle and yaw rate sensors predict curves in the road, and to ensure that any vehicle ahead being tracked is in the same lane as the car itself.
in traffic, re-starting and following the car in front when the traffic begins to move again. Potential Key benefits of ACC are reduction in accident rate for vehicles fitted with collision avoidance type systems, reduction in driver fatigue and increase in fuel efficiency due to very gradual speed increase / decrease in traffic.
The controller developed for ACC consists of PID controller and Stateflow. The PID controller is a closed loop controller; designed to make the throttle decisions (control). The controller is created using parameters to allow easy modification (tuning) of the operation of the controller. This controller also included the Stateflow chart that is used to address design challenges that often occur when developing and implementing embedded software.
Matlab is the main software used for computation, model implementation, and simulation. The Matlab simulation tool Simulink, which is used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems, has been playing a major role during this work .
MATLAB/Simulink is a high- level technical computing language and object orientated environment for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis, and numerical computation. MATLAB/Simulink allows the development of a solution to technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming languages, such as C, C++, and Fortran. The easy of development along with the extensive toolboxes and functions available were the major reasons for selecting MATLAB/Simulink as the simulation environment.
The simulation environment starts as an overview of the implementation of the PID controller to the CC model. Next, the second model about the ACC model incorporates the high- level system blocks representing, the signal input, vehicle dynamics, distance and velocity controller will be designed to get the performances of the proposed controller.
requirements, we need to build test cases that check the design against each requirement. The simulation environment is flexible and if someone is interested in testing out another ACC algorithm, the controller is a single function that can be replaced easily.
Simulink software models, simulates, and analyzes dynamic systems. It enables user to pose a question about a system, model the system, and see what happens. With Simulink, we can easily build models from scratch, or modify existing models to meet our needs. Simulink supports linear and nonlinear systems, modeled in continuous time, sampled time, or a hybrid of the two systems can also be multirate-having different parts that are sampled or updated at different rates.
1.2 Objectives of Project
The objectives of this project are:
i) To design the ACC system in MATLAB/Simulink.
ii) To evaluate the simulation of ACC system.
The main objective of this project is to design the ACC system in MATLAB/Simulink. This design process is the important part in this thesis. The PID controller is used to observe the characteristics of each controller gain.
The evaluation of the simulation is completed using MATLAB/Simulink.
1.3 Statement of Research Problem
A lot of drawbacks of the designed ACC system in the real life environment pursue the researcher make the analysis and of the system in various aspect before the system will implemented to the wide range of country. This is because of the difference in weather condition in the other country. Thus, in Asian country the most challenge drawback problem is the effectiveness of the ACC system in heavy rain.
In the rain periods, the degree of fog and rain also increased over time, and then decreased symmetrically; the sight distance similarly decreased from 1000 to 10m at 90s then gradually increased back to 1000m .
Rain degraded the ability of the radar to detect vehicles ahead, as it attenuated the sensor sensitivity, masking the sensors and causing them to fail temporarily. With no lead vehicle detected, vehicle speed will increase .
As the intensity of the rain increased, the sensors failed for longer periods and failed more frequently. The momentary failure of the sensors to detect vehicles ahead compromised the ability of the ACC to maintain at safely headway
In contrast, Malaysia‘s geographical system has various structured condition.
So the road system in Malaysia will give road resistance to the ACC system. Then, the road resistance will use to assume the disturbance to the ACC system.
1.4 Scope of Project
The scope of work for this project includes:
i) Designing and modeling the ACC system in based on previous model.
ii) Implementing the PID controller into the ACC system.
iii) PID Controller with derived transfer function.
iv) Auto tuning PID Controller which is used as a comparison in analyzing the performance of the controller in part (iii).
v) Simulation study conducted in MATLAB/Simulink on the vehicle speed, road resistance and set distance with respect to the lead vehicle.
1.5 Method of Project
The research work is undertaken in the following stages:
1) Design the ACC system based on the previous model.
2) Use PID controller with Stateflow.
3) Simulation of the proposed controller in MATLAB/Simulink.
4) Comparison of the performance of PID controller in CC system and ACC system.