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AINUN RIDA NASUTION. Figures of Speech in Surah Ar-Rahman. English Applied Linguistics Study Program, Postgraduate School, State University of Medan. 2017.

The aims of this study were to find out the kinds of figures of speech in surah Ar-Rahman, and to investigate realization of figures of speech in surah Ar-Rahman. The research was conducted by using qualitative descriptive design. The data of this study were 78 verses of surah Ar –Rahman. Besides, Miles, Huberman’s, and Saldana’s analysis applied in this study. In addition, Keraf theory (2004) was used in this study to find out kinds of figures of speech in surah Ar-Rahman, and Arp and Perrine theory (1963) was applied to investigate realization of figures of speech in surah Ar-rahman. The results of this study were (1) There were 10 kinds figures of speech in surah Ar-Rahman namely 3 Simile 2 Personifications 1 Apophasis 31 Repetition 2 Paralellism 1 Apostrophe 2 Pleonasm 1 Prolepsis 1 Antonomasia 1 Tautology (2) In realization figures of speech in surah Ar-rahman . ways in figures of speech in surah Ar-Rahman namely explicitly, comparing things, noun, repetition, synonym, denial, redundancy, substitution, and future. (3)The reason used figures of speech in surah Ar-rahman namely faith, laws of justice, man and jinn, hell and favors heaven.



AINUN RIDA NASUTION. Bahasa Kiasan dalam Surah Ar- Rahman. Tesis: Program Studi Linguistik Terapan Bahasa Inggris. Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Medan 2017.


Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis – jenis makna kiasan dalam surah Ar-Rahman dan untuk menyelidiki realisasi makna kiasan dalam surah Ar-Rahman. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain kualitatif deskriptif. Data dari penelitian ini adalah 78 sayat dalam surah Ar-Rahman peribahasa. Disamping itu, dalam menganalisis data, Miles, Huberman, dan Saldana diterapkan dalam penelitian ini. Lebih lanjut lagi, teori Keraf (2004) digunakan dalam penelitian ini untuk mengetahui jenis – jenis makna kiasan dalam surah Ar-Rahman, dan teori Arp dan Perrine (1963) diterapkan untuk menyelidiki realisasi surah Ar-Rahman. Hasil penelitian ini adalah (1) ada 10 jenis makna kiasan dalam surah Ar-Rahman, yaitu 3 simile 2 personifikasi 31 repetisi, 2 paralelisme 1 apostrof 2 pleonasma 1 prolepsis 1 antonomasia dan 1 autologi (2) realisasi makna kiasan dalam surah Ar-Rahman yaitu eksplisit, membandingkan, kata benda, pengulangan, sinonim, penyangkalan, redundansi, penggantian dan masa depan (3) alasan makna kiasan terdapat dalam surah Ar-Rahman yaitu iman, hukum keadilan, manusia dan jin, neraka dan nikmat surga.





Praises be to Allah SWT for His Great Blessing, Health and Luck that

have been continuously poured to the writer in the process of completing her

studies and this piece of academic writing. Praises are also addressed to our

Prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us to the better life of today. In the

process of completing this thesis, the writer has to confess her profound thank

fullness for the generous guidance and assistance which has been rendered to her

by many people. It would be impossible to list all names but on this very special

opportunity the writer would like to express her gratitude to the following people.

First of all, the writer deepest appreciation and gratitude is dedicated to

Prof.Dr. Sumarsih, M.Pd hers first adviser for the guidance, comments, criticisms,

suggestions and special notes for the improvement of the thesis from the very

beginning up to the end of this thesis.

Next, her deepest appreciation is addressed to Prof.Amrin Saragih, M.A,

Ph.D her second adviser for him available time spent for consultation, guidance,

comment, encouragement, special notes for improvement of the thesis, and full

support in shaping this thesis.

She would like to take this special occasion to express him gratitude to

Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed. and Dr. Anni Holila Pulungan, M.Hum as the Head

and Secretary of the English Applied Linguistics Study Program for their

administrative assistance and administrative requirements during the process of



Sincere gratitude also to her reviewers and examiners, Prof. Dr. Zainuddin.

M.Hum, Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed and Dr. Anni Holila Pulungan, M.Hum , for

their valuable inputs to be included in this thesis. She would like to express her

gratitude to all lecturers who have given the valuable knowledge and the excellent

performance in delivering the lectures during hers study at the English Applied

Linguistics Study.

Next, greatest and sincere gratitude should also go to her beloved parents

H. Abdurrahman Nasution and Hj. Samsiah Hasibuan S.Pd, her lovely sisters

Fitri Wahyuni S.Pd, Rezki Hidayati S.Pd, Hikmah Maulida Sari S.Pd and Putri

Fauziah Nasution all who have patiently given moral support, their never ending

love , and pray.

She also would like to express hers thank fullness for her beloved friends

on A2 LTBI UNIMED 2015 especially for Sheila Salera Canete, Devi

Rahmawyta Sitompul and Siti Aisyah who given sweet memories and all friends

who can not mention one by one for their love, support and help to finish this


Medan, April 2017 The writer,

Ainun Rida Nasution



3.5. The Technique of Data Analysis ... 43 3.6. The Trustworthiness of the Study ... 46

CHAPTER IV Data Analysis, Research Finding And Discussion

4.1. Data Analysis ... 49 4.1.1.The Kinds of Figures of Speech ... 53 4.1.2 Linguistics Realizations of Figures of Speech 66 4.1.3 The Reason used Figures of Speech ... 75 4.2 Research Findings ... 76 4.3 Discussions ... 78 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Conclusions ... 79 5.2 Suggestions ... 80





Figures 2.1 Conceptual Framework Chart ... 39



CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. The Background of the Study

The teachings of Al- Qur’an are universal, addressed to all people

throughout the world regardless of their creed and color. They enlighten man's

soul, purify his morals, condemn all wrongs, order good deeds and call for the

establishment of justice and fraternity through obeying Allah as the supreme

authority. Al- Qur’an provides the regulations that create the proper relations

between man and Allah, man and man. It leads man to understand his role in this

world, encourages him to think and ponder, and guides him in the usage of natural

resources. Al- Qur’an provides all the guidance that humanity needs. Without the

guidance of the Quran, humanity would still be groping in the darkness of


“Surely we have sent down the reminder (Al-Quran) and we will most surely

be its guardian (Surah Al-Hijr -verse 9)

Al Qur'an is pure revelation of Allah, not of lust sayings of the Prophet

Muhammad. Al –Qur’an contains the rules of human life on earth. Al-Qur'an is a

guide for those who are faithful and devoted. In Al- Qur'an there is a great grace

and a lesson for those who believe. Al- Qur’an is the holy book of which contains

revelation from Allah that was given to the prophet Muhammad SAW. It is the

way of life for all humans until the end of time. It orders people to be dignified,

modest, trustworthy, kind, faithful, mature and responsive.




describes the way we should walk: "Turn not your face away from men with

pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth.

-Fatihah, and closed with a letter An- Nas. Al- Qur’an is the holy book of which

contains revelation from Allah that was given to the prophet Muhammad SAW. It

is the way of life for all humans until the end of time. It orders people to be

dignified, modest, trustworthy, kind, faithful, mature and responsive. Al-Qur’an

even describes the way we should walk: "Turn not your face away from men with

pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth.

Children, teenagers or parents gathered in mosque on certain days to read

Al- Qur'an. Many people who are not good at reading Al-Quran. They

sometimes just reading without knowing the meaning and significance that are

in surah they have read. And most public schools lack of knowledge in

understanding the original meaning very well about Al-Qur'an, because they

very rarely do observation measure the ability of understanding Al- Qur'an,

and translations of the surah they have read and understood themselves.

Related to phenomena above from the researcher found that fact of

phenomena occurring over most of the Muslims themselves , from the our

environment and public schools especially in the public schools of Islamic

religious education does not understand the meaning contained in the holy

book Al- Qur'an with real meaning in Qur'an itself. Although public schools

are one religion school of Islam that it contains the teachings of Islam.

Muslim society we are less aware about how important benefits of the Qur'an



more meanings in the Qur'an. Whereas Allah promises plenty of enjoyment

for those who learn the Qur'an and the meaning hidden in the Qur'an.

Surah Ar-Rahman has benefits in education, indicates that the properties of

educators are generous, compassionate, gentle, polite and morality to their

students and anyone (Personal Competence). A teacher should has the

competence pedagogy good as God teaches the Al-Qur’an to prophets. Al-

Qur'an shows as the material given to the students was the truth or knowledge

of God (Professional Competence). The success of an educator was students

are able to accepted and develop the education they provide, so that students

become the generation that has a spiritual intelligence and intellect.

Ar-Rahman can help us multiply praise God, surrender to God

wholeheartedly. Reminds us to be compassion for all creatures of God.

Reminds us to be grateful that Allah has given to us. Ar-Rahman reminded us

that there are other creatures besides humans who worship God. Ar-Rahman

reminded that humans are forgetful by repeating the verses '’

'' (Maka nikmat Tuhan kamu yang manakah yang kamu dustakan)

The verse is a question that demands an answer sentence of man who remembers

when reading the verse. The reasearcher quote preliminary data from Ar-Rahman




‘’(Tuhan ) Yang Maha Pemurah’’

The process of this verse substitution by replace proper name, official title,

or title of honor. The wording of the Most Gracious to mention the name of Allah, because it replaces God's name with the mention of the Most Gracious.

God as the creator, also often referred to by used His names are numbered 99, and

we refer to as Asmaul-Husna, the names of God are so beautiful. Forms of use of

the Wise, The Forgiving, and the Almighty to mention or to replace the name of

God, belonging to the language style antonomasia, as the Merciful.

No one who has the title of the Most Gracious other than Allah. If the views of

the meaning of the word maha, meaning very or extremely. Thus, the Merciful

also means which was very gracious. Said so, had a higher level of intensity. The

presence of almighty word in the sentence structure was of course impacts the

sense that God was not just the gracious, but the Merciful.


‘’Hai jemaah jin dan manusia, jika kamu sanggup menembus(melintasi) penjuru langit dan bumi, maka lintasilah;kamu tidak dapat menembusnya melainkan dengan kekuatan’’

The process of this surah was Denial as most common defense mechanisms



that if the jinn and humans were able to penetrate out of the areas of the heavens

and the earth, then through! Indeed the jinn and mankind will not be able to

penetrate it without the power of God.

Allah confirms something once denied. Leaving a declaration and orders notified, that humans and jinn Allah has commanded to penetrate areas of the

heavens and earth, if they could. Why does God reigns and let the jinn and

humans penetrates heaven and earth area? Because Allah was known that they

cannot penetrate through except by the power of God. Here God let something

happened but denied it. Let the humans and jinn penetrate regions of heaven and

earth, but at the same time deny that they actually will not be able to do all of that.

Only God Almighty. That was, you cannot be able to escape from the decisions

and acts of God, even He saw you. You will not be able to escape from his law,

wherever you are, He will always include you. And that's what took place at the

time of collection of human nature Mahsyar.


‘’Dan tetap kekal Zat Tuhan-mu yang mempunyai kebesaran dan kemulian’’

This process of this surah Synonym by use generated by the pursuit of

equality in the use of words occupying the same functions in the same

grammatical form. Kebesaran was synonym for kemualiaan. In the noble verse

above, Allah Almighty Himself characterize as Rabb who have greatness and

glory. That is, he has the right to be raised, so as not to be disobeyed, and adhered

to so as not to be resisted. Ibn Abbas said: When Allah Taala tells about the

inhabitants of the earth overall equation in terms of death and that they will all go

to the hereafter, then He will give a decision against them based on his just laws.

Surah Ar- Rahman Remind ourselves to the nature of Ar-Rahman belongs



although they often forget Him. Notify and remind that in addition to us, there is

Allah's creation is also given the duty to worship God. Reminds us not to forget

favors. Forget the favors given by God, and even tended to feel what God can

now simply the result of his own efforts. And this is the message seems most

emphasized in the letter of Ar-Rahman.

Figurative language was the one that uses figures of speech. Figurative language is used in any form of communication, such as in daily conversation, articles in newspaper, advertisements, novel, poems, so forth. Figures of speech may be said to occur whenever a speaker/ write for the sake of freshness or emphasis departs from the usual denotations of words (Kennedy:1993). Figures of speech are not devices to state what was demonstrably untrue. Indeed they often state truth that more literal language cannot communicate, they call attention truths. Every use of figurative language involves a risk of misinterpretation, though the risk is well worth taking.

Tirajoh (1988) also argues that figures of speech help to communicate the experience because they appeal to the reader’s own experience. The figures of speech gives depth and richness to the experience. According to Francis in Masruri (2012), figurative means, imitation, meanwhile language is a set of signals and the structures and can be studied by human being. In other words, the figures of speech is a way of saying something and meaning something else in order to bring about impressive effect. Figures of speech or figurative languages are words or groups of words used to give particular emphasis to an idea or sentiment. A figures of speech



of speech may seem even more direct than literal because it helps the listener

grasp important ideas immediately.

According to Wren and Martin (1995:297), figures of speech was a

departure from the ordinary form of expression, or the ordinary course of ideas in

order to produce a grater effect. Figures of speech convey of meaning that cannot

be expressed exactly in other ways, they convey the great deal in a shorter time

that would otherwise be possible, and they are immediate because they embody

the meaning in imagery instead of expressing it abstractly (Potter, 1967:56-57).

Many studied recently han been conducted that support this view

emperically. Related to the reseach that have been done by Andriyani (2015) also

investigated an analysis of figures of speech in William Wordsworth’s selected

poems. She found that poem usually uses figures of speech in order to make a

deep and great meaning in compact form of a poem. Figures of speech often

provides emphasis, freshness of expression or clarity. It uses figures of speech by

Perrine’s theory. The most figures of speech found in this poem are

personification, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, metonymy, and symbol.

Hanifah (2014) investigated about the figures of speech in Maher Zein’s

songs. The writer has analyzed the types of figures of speech used in Maher

Zein’s songs. She elaborated the figures of speech namely simile, metaphor,

personification, synecdoche, metonymy, symbol, allegory, hyperbole, apostrophe,

paradox, irony and understatement. She found that connotations of the song of

Maher Zein consist of his love for god, criticism of human life which is too fancy



Palestinian people in the face of nuclear bomb attack. Figurative language as beautiful as it makes us receptive to the message contained in the song. The meaning of the songs Maher zein spirit makes us excited to be changed for the better.

Moreover, Arista (2014) investigated about A Stylistic Analysis of Figures of Speech In Les Miserables Movie. She wants to know more about figures of

speech and their functions using stylistic approach and observe the utterences of

the characters because they use figures of speech that make the language very beautiful and have a deep meaning. Figures of speech applied in Les Miserables movie. She found that each type of figures of speech has more than one function.

They are to give imaginative pleasure, to bring additional imagery, to add

emotional intensity, and to concrete meaning in brief compass. Figurative

language can create pleasure for the reader or hearer through the imagination or

the poetic language existed in the utterance. Metaphor, personification, irony, and

hyperbole are the most frequent figures of speech to give imaginative pleasure for

the readers.

Based on the Phenomena above, the writer is interested in analyzing and

exploring deeply about the figures of speech in Surah Ar- Rahman. The figures of

speech can be maintenance meaning from Surah Ar- Rahman. The writer also

hopes that the finding of this study will give many contribution to all people to be

proud about their religion and introduce Surah Ar- Rahman process deeply.

Surah Ar- Rahman in figures of speech make people understand about

considered the eternal miracle of Islam. It is the complete and best guide for living



Allah SWT. Provide valuable motivation to us in order to keep their spirit worship

to God, as a reward for those who do good is nothing but goodness as well,

namely paradise, full of enjoyment.

1.2 The Problems of the Study

Related to the background of the study, the problems of the study are

formulated as the following.

Related to the problems, the objectives of the study are

1. to find out kinds of figures of speech used of the Surah Ar- Rahman

2. to find out the way of figures of speech used in the Surah Ar-


3. to describe the reason of figures of speech used in the Surah Ar-


1.4 The Scope of the Study

This research is restricted to the Figures of Speech Arabic-Indonesia

version of the surah Ar-Rahman in Al-Hidayah Al-Quran Tafsir Per Kata Tajwid

Kode Angka by Kalim, 2011. The surah consist of 78 verses. The verses selected

as data are those which contain 10 kinds of Figures of Speech.

1.5 The Significance of the Study

It is assumed that the research finding will be useful theoretically and



1. Theoretically, the findings of the study potentially add up new horizon in

theories of Sociolinguistics. In addition the findings can be references for further

studies. It can be regarded as the additional resources for lectures in teaching

sociolinguistics, especially these who are not fully aware in the Surah in Alquran

especially Surah Ar- Rahman. The can learn how Surah Ar- Rahman strengthen

the determination liver, steel-minded, and not to despair in the service and

worship of Allah Ta'ala.

2. Practically, the findings are expected guidance for reviews those who are

interested in the interpretation of Al-Quran, or analysis about other Surah.

Because we know so many favors, and the benefits when we practice what is in


Figures 2.1 Conceptual Framework Chart  .............................................................

Figures 2.1

Conceptual Framework Chart ............................................................. p.10