UU DHIA UDDIN 208014000017
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. Advisor : Dr. M.Farkhan M.Pd
Yenny Rahmawati M.Ed
Key Words: Cooperative Learning Method and Vocabulary of Adjectives
According to Carolyn Kessler cooperative learning is group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner in groups and in which learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. Cooperative learning as alternative way in teaching vocabulary of adjectives and in addition to that cooperative learning is one of the learning strategies in contextual teaching and learning approach that students actively involved in teaching and learning process and students exchange information between learners through group discussion. The process of cooperation enables students to overcome the difficulties in learning and understanding of vocabulary adjectives, so they will be motivated to learn and develop many other skills, such as positive interdependence and their interpersonal skills.
The purpose of the research is to know the weather teaching vocabulary of adjectives by using cooperative learning is an effective technique to increase students’ interest in learning English or not at the eight students of MTs. Al-IshlahCikarang. And the writer hopes it will give a better a way in teaching English especially in teaching vocabulary of adjectives.
The writer did his research at MTs Al-IshlahCikarang which is located in JL. GatotSubroto no 39 KecamatanCikarang Utara Kab.Bekasi and he conducted this research from 01st
up to 30th
of November 2012.
ii the writer compared both scores used t-test.
The result showed that teaching vocabulary of adjectives by using cooperative learning is more effective. The T-test result is 2.02<17.86> 2.71 and the differences of mean scores of pre- test of experimental class is 56and the controlled class is 77. Meanwhile, mean scores of post-test of experimental class is 77 and the controlled class is 62. The result above proven that there is significance difference in students’ score between teaching vocabulary of adjectives by using cooperative learning and without cooperative learning.
All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and by His help, guidance, and blessing, finally the writer could finish this skripsi properly. Peace and blessing be upon Muhammad SAW, his descendents, his companions, and his followers.
This “skripsi” is presented to English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training SyarifHidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Strata I (S1).
In this occasion, the writer would like to express his gratitude, appreciation and honor to all people who have helped him in finishing this “skripsi”. The writer is absolutely conscious that he could not carry out this work without others’ helping either material or spiritual.
The writer is greatly indebted to Dr.H.M.Farkhan,M.Pd, and YennyRahmawati, M,Pd, as her advisor, for time, guidance, kindness, contributions and patience in correcting and helping his finishing this “skripsi “.
It is a must for the writer to say acknowledgement to them for their help.
father(Ust.Hasbiyallah,S.Pd.I)hismother(DadahSuhaedah),hissisters (Robi’ahAl -Adawiyah),hisbrothers (CecepSupriyadi, S.Pd.I) and also to my love ( Robi’atulAdawiyah) for their love, support, and irreplaceable encouragement and patience to motivate the writer to accomplish this “skripsi “.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.P.d, the head of Department of English Education and Zaharil Anasyi M.Hum, the secretary of Department of English Education 3. All lecturers in Department of English Education who always give
motivation and valuable knowledge during his study at the State Islamic University of SyarifHidayatullah of Jakarta.
4. HilmanAfif, M.Sos.I, the headmaster of MTs Al- IshlahCikarangutaraKab. Bekasiwho allowed the writer to do his research in MTs Al- IshlahCikarang.
5. Mrs.EmaSuhaema,S.S, the English teacher and all staffs of MTs. Al- Ishlah. Cikarang, who always sincere to spend their time and offer much help in collecting the data he needs,
6. LelohNurlelah,S,Pd.I who always gives the writer spirit and support to finish this skripsi.
7. My best friends, Abd.Hamid, Khairul Ikhwan, M,Ikbal,HikmahFauzia, RikhaFeriza, Sri wahyuni; All of you are the greatest friends in the world 8. All his Freinds in English Department 2008 academic year especially in
9. All of his friends and all people who cannot mention one by one.
The words are not enough to say any appreciations for their help and contribution on this skripsi. May Allah guide and give them all happiness throughout their lives.
Jakarta, March, 10 2014
ABSTARCT ... i
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... v
LIST OF TABLES ... vii
LIST OF APPENDICES ... viii
CHAPTER I :INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. The Backgorund of Study ... 1
B. The Limitation of the Problem ... 3
C. The Formulation of the Problem ... 3
D. The Purpose of the Study ... 4
E. The Significance of Study ... 4
CHAPTER II :THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK. ... 6
A. The Vocabulary ... 6
1. Definition of Vocabulary ... 7
2. Kind of Vocabulary ... 8
3. Vocabulary of Adjectives ... 11
4. Problems in Teaching Vocabulary ... 15
B. The Coopeartive Learning... 16
1. Definition of Cooperative Learning ... 16
2. Purpose of Cooperative Learning ... 18
3. The Elements of Cooperative Learning ... 19
4. Principle Cooperative Learning ... 21
5. Types of Cooperative Learning ... 22
6. Technique of Cooperative Learning ... 23
F. Hypothesis ... 30
CHAPTER III :RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 31
A. Reseacrh Methodolgy ... 28
1. The Place and Time of Reseacrh ... 28
2. The Method of Research ... 28
3. The Technique of Sampling Taking ... 28
4. The Instrument of Reserach ... 32
5. The Technique of Collecting Data ... 33
6. The Technique of Data Analysis ... 34
CHAPTER IV :RESEARCH FINDINGS ... 37
A. Data of Students’ Achievment in Teaching Vocabulary of Adjective by Using Coopeartive Learning ... 37
1. Description of Data ... 37
2. The Analysis of Data ... 43
3. The Interpretation of Data ... 45
CHAPTER V :CONCLUTION AND SUGGESTION ... 46
A. Conclution ... 46
B. Suggestion ... 47
Table 1 The table example of the form adjective ... 13
Table 2 TheTest Result of Experiment Class ... 37
Table 3 TheResult of Controlled Class………. ... 38
Table 4Individual Pre-test and Post-test in Experiment Class… … ... 40
LIST OF APPENDICES
1. Lesson Planing ... 50
2. Kisi Kisi Penulisan Soal Pre-Test ... 94
3. Kisi-Kisi Penulisan Soal Post-Test ... 96
4. Soal Pre-Test ... 98
5. Soal Post- Test ... 104
6. Key Pre-Test ... 109
7. Key Post-Test ... 110
8. T-Table Statistik ... 111
9. Silabus MTs, Al- Ishlah ... 112
10. Surat Pengajuan Judul Skripsi ... 113
11. Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian... 14
of the problem, the formulation of the problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, the scope of study and the organization of the study.
A. The Background of Study
Language is a basic need for human communication in expressing ideas, thoughts and feelings. It is always in our thoughts and expressed as means of communication. Most human knowledge and culture are stored and transmitted in language. Through language people can develop their personality, intelligence, skill and attitude.
To communicate in foreign language, especially in English, grammatical competence and mastering vocabularies are demanded. The opinion and the ideas are unable to be applied well without grammar or vocabulary, because both of them are the basic of language.
As a developing country, Indonesia has been programming the English language Education at formal institutions because English is considered as key to get into international technology and other developments; it is undeniable that the role of English is very important nowadays. But in fact, the students are still unable to use English. However, English learners understand structures and grammar very much but they are not able to apply it in their life. This means, the result of teaching English is far below from the standard prescribed by the curriculum.
easily. There are some problems for the learner in vocabulary learning, such as; the lack of communication between students and teachers; or the teachers themselves who do not master the material, the lack of knowledge about vocabulary; and the students themselves are not active in the classroom, the lack of confidence in the learning; and the students who lack of the spirit and motivation to learn English, the unfavorable situation in the classroom, etc.
According to M. Buchori in his book Psikologi Pendidikan "Tugas utama seseorang bukanla hmenerangkanhal-hal yang terdapa tdalam buku-buku,
tetapimendorong, memberikaninspirasi, memberikan motif-motif dan membimbing
murid dalam usaha mereka mencapai tujuan-tujuanyang diinginkan. ”(a teacher's job is not to explain whatever in books but to encourage the students, to inspire, to motivate, to guide and to help the students achieve their goals).1
There are many components in English learning, such as Listening, Speaking, reading, Writing, Grammar, Vocabulary, etc. Learning a new language should be fun, interactive and exiting. So, strategies are very important for language learning because they are tools which are essential for developing vocabulary. Vocabulary is one the important aspects in language teaching and learning, besides grammar and pronunciation. Good vocabulary and the ability to use the words correctly and affectively can be the passport to information. People can travel through the words they need and hear
Based on the fact above, it is necessary for anyone who concerns in teaching English to find out the easier technique which can improve student's motivation for improving their vocabulary.
To solve those problems, the writer tries to offer an alternative solution in teaching vocabulary which aims to make vocabulary easier to learn with the help of cooperative learning.
According to ShlomoSharan Cooperative learning is a group-centered and student-centered approach to classroom teaching and learning.2
Cooperative Learning is more than just small group activity. Cooperative Learning activities can contribute to create a community of learners to work collaboratively on important goals to the group. According to Robert E. Slavin the most important goal of cooperative learning is to provide students with knowledge, concept, skill, and understanding they need to become happy and contributing members of our society.3
By using this technique the teacher does not have to translate every single unfamiliar word. Through Cooperative Learning, the students will be more active in developing vocabulary because they will not depend on their teacher. In this case the teacher just becomes the facilitator of the students.
Finally, based on the background above, the writer would like to carry out the research under the title “Teaching Vocabulary of Adjectives by Using
B. The Limitation of the Problem
The writer limits the discussion on teaching vocabulary of adjectives by using cooperative learning, in this case matching vocabulary, focusing on cooperative learning of professions at the eighth grade of MTs Al- Ishlah, Cikarang Utara. Kab.bekasi
C. The Formulation of the Problem
To make the study easy to understand, the writer formulates the problem as follows: whether Cooperative Learning is effective in teaching vocabulary of adjective or not?
SholomoSharan, Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods. (London. Preager Westport, 1994) p.336
D. The Purpose of Study
This general purpose of the research is to know whether teaching vocabulary by using cooperative learning is an effective technique to increase students’ interest in learning English.
E. The Significance of Study
The significance of this writing might be expected as follows: 1. English Teacher
To be able to enrich the teachers about how to teach vocabulary adjective using Cooperative Learning.
2. The students
To make process of vocabulary by using cooperative learning. 3. The further research
6 A. The Vocabulary
One of the important language aspects in learning English is vocabulary. It is impossible to learn a language without mastering vocabulary. With sufficient vocabulary, we can communicate effectively. Vocabulary is the stock of words use in language. And in teaching English as a foreign language, vocabulary is the most important thing, because no matter how well the student learns grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of foreign language is mastered, without mastering wide vocabulary, communication in foreign language is imperfect.
Good mastery of vocabulary is important for anyone who learns the language: it is used in Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, besides Grammar. A learner of foreign language will speak fluently and accurately, write easily, or understand what s/he reads or hears if s/he enough vocabulary and has a capability of using it accurately. As Nasrun Mahmud stated in his book English for Muslim University students,
A good vocabulary goes hand in hand with your ability to think logically and to learn easily and quickly. A good vocabulary and your ability to use words correctly and effectively can be your passport to worlds of interesting and exciting information. You can travel in the past, in the present, and in the future through the words you need or hear. You can learn to use words to help transport other to the world you have discovered.1
From information above, the writer concludes that when someone learn English, the first this should be mastered is vocabulary.
Definition of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one the language components; it supports the teaching and learning of the four skills. In learning language, vocabulary plays a very important role. How can students understand what they listen, reads or writes if students do not understand any word?
Vocabulary is very important in English teaching and learning. If the learner do not know the meaning of word, they will have difficulty in understanding what they see, read, and learn. Their vocabulary will increase if they read more word. This reason makes vocabulary imortant; a bad mastery of vocabulary will cause bad understanding of the text.
Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basic for how well learners speak, listen, read and write. 2According to A.S Hornby, Vocabulary is all the words that a person knows or uses, the words that people use when they talking about particular subject; and also a list of words with their meaning, especially in a book for learning a foreign language.3
While Harimurti kridalaksana says, “kosakata adalah komponen bahasa yang memuat informasi tentang makna dan penggunaan kata dalam suatu bahasa.”(vocabulary is a component of a language that maintains all information about meaning and using words in a language).4
According to Merriam Webster’s ninth collegiate dictionary, vocabulary is:
a) A list or collection of word and often phrases, abbreviation inflectional form, etc. usually arranged as in alphabetical order and defined or otherwise identified as in a dictionary of glossary.
Jack C. Richard and Willy A.Renandya, ed, Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2002),p.255
A.S.Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learne’s Dictionary of International students , (London;Oxford University Press,2000)p.1506
b) An interrelated group of non-verbal symbols, signs, gestures, etc. used for communication or expression in particular art, skill, etc.5
Hatch and Brown define vocabulary as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of language might use.6
According to D Houghton, the vocabulary, the main innovation, was presented after the students had begun to make regular use of a text book. Though the entries are constructed on linguistic principles, the main intention of the vocabulary is to give students help in understanding the most basic accounting terms, ideas and practices.7
From the statements above, the writer concludes that vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of communication especially in foreign using words in a language with rules combining them to make up a language. Also, vocabulary is a list or a stock of words, phrases, signs, codes or rules of the world, which can be defined and identified.
Kinds of Vocabulary
Vocabulary has large area to discuss, especially in term of kinds. Whatever their nations the point are still same.
According to Gorell and Laird, Almost everyone has at least four basic vocabularies. First, he uses a relatively small number of words which may be called as the speaking vocabulary. It includes words which come to the speaker’s tongue without his thinking much about them. A dull person is likely to use only a
Ninth new collegiate dictionary., (America: Meriam Webster’s, inc.1984),p.1494
Evelyn Hatch and Cheryl Brown, Vocabulary, Semantic and language Education, ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995), p.1
few hundred words in this way; even a moderately articulate speakers uses only a few thousand.8
Every literate person has a second vocabulary, a writing vocabulary, which includes the words in the speaking vocabulary, plus other words that he can call up. A good writer may employ a vocabulary of ten thousand, twenty-five thousand, and perhaps fifty thousand words. A poor writer, on the other hand, may suffer from a vocabulary little larger than his speaking vocabulary.9
Every literate person has also a reading vocabulary, make up of words that he would not speak in conversation or use when he writes but which he knows when he sees him or her written. For most people the reading vocabulary is much larger than either the speaking or writing vocabulary- fifty thousand, seventy-five thousand, a hundred thousand words perhaps more.10
The fourth vocabulary, the largest of all, may refer to as the acquaintance vocabulary. It includes the other three, but it includes, also a considerable number of words which the owner has seen or heard before but does not know much
Active vocabulary refers to items which learner can use appropriately in speaking or writing. And it is also called as productive vocabulary, although in fact, it is more difficult to put into practice.
Gorell and Laird, Modern English Handbook, third Edition,( New Jersey: Prentice-Hall 1962), p.413
It means that to use the productive vocabulary, students must know how to pronounce it well; they must be familiar with collocation and understand the communication meaning of the word. This type is often used in speaking and writing skills.
b) Passive Vocabulary
Passive vocabulary refers to language items that can be recognized and understood in context of reading or listening, and it is also called as receptive vocabulary.
The content words can be divided into three general classes13:
1. Words naming thing, ideas, entitles, that we might call them nouns.
2. Words naming action called verbs.
3. Words used to describe the qualities of those thing or action called adjectives and adverbs.
According to S.H. Burton, there are two kinds of vocabulary used by the people for communications, namely: General and Special Vocabulary. The General Vocabulary is of the words used in general; there is no limit of fields or users, general in meaning and use. And the special vocabulary is used in certain field, job, profession or special science. For example: politicians, journalists, and lawyers. All these have specialized vocabulary arising from particular circumstances of their lives and work.14
Besides, Fries classifies vocabulary into two, namely:
1. Function words: are a closed class, cannot add to the preposition or auxiliaries or modals or any structure words of language.
Example: I have eaten two apples (a sign of the tense of the verb) The apple is pretty good
Charles C fries, Teaching and learning English as a foreign language, (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press,1945), p.47.
2. Content Words on the other hand, can be added at any times as new scientific advances to make new words and communication about new inventions necessary.15
Example: I have two apples (a sign of meaning) The apple is pretty
From the kinds of vocabulary mentioned above, the writer concludes that there are many kinds of vocabulary such as: Active and Passive vocabulary, and Function words, content Words, Substitute Words and words of negative or affirmative distribution.
Vocabulary of Adjectives
In many languages the forms of modifiers are extremely difficult; they elaborate systems of endings connect modifiers with expressions they modify. In English many modifiers are phrases or clauses, marked by function words, and single –word modifiers have lost most of their endings.
Before the writer discussed vocabulary adjectives; the writer advisable gives to know definition of adjective. According to Paul Roberts “Adjective is a word that modifiers a noun or pronoun.”16 Marcella Frank says „the adjective is a
modifier that has the grammatical property of comparison. It is often identified by special derivational endings or by special adverbial modifiers that precede it. It most usual position is before the noun it modifies, but it fills other positions as well.17
Charles C.Fries, as quoted by Mary Finnochiaro and Micheal Bonomo., “ The Foreign
Language learner : A Guide for Teacher”,(New York: Regent Publishing Company, inc,1973)p.86 16
Paul Roberts, Understanding Grammar, (New York; Haper & Row publishers,1954), p.91
According to Marcella Frank, adjective modifies a noun or pronoun.
1. Adjective modifying a noun
a) The small boy b) The boy is small.
Boy Boy is small The Small The
2. Adjective modifying a pronoun
a) Everybody else b) He is small.
Everybody He is small Else
According to Evelyn and Robert M,Vago, a good way to decide if a word is an adjective is to see if it can be placed between the and a noun. But it doesn’t mean that it is the only place where an adjective can occur; it’s just a way to test a word to see if it’s an adjective.
Here are some sentences where the adjective is in a different place. In each case, the adjective is underlined.
a) He is a tall boy
b) My best friend loves chocolate cake c) The house had a low roof
d) Large cars are harder to drive than small cars.18
A number of adjectives, all used in the phrase the boy are listed below. The adjectives are underlined:
a) the brilliant boy b) the embarrassed boy c) the blonde boy d) the hungry boy e) the delightful boy 19
There are five main criteria used in identifying an adjective, but not all adjectives meet all the criteria. They are:
a) Adjectives occur after forms of to be: it’s soft.
b) They occur after articles and before nouns: an every basis.
c) They occur after intensifiers, such as very, rather, so, extremely: very elusive.
d) They occur in the comparative and superlative form: more useful. e) They occur before-ly to form adverbs: secure- securely.20
The following table shows the example of the form adjectives Table 1. The use of Adjective
a) The form of Adjective
an old man
a nice room
b) The position of Adjective 1) Adjectives come before noun
- a young man - new shoes - a nice girl - empty boxes 2) Adjectives come after verb
An adjective comes after the verb (be, look, appear, seem, feel, taste, smell, sound) to describe the subject of a sentence.
- He is young
- The soup smells good - She looks nice
3) Certain adjectives (asleep, alone, alive, awake, afraid, ill, well) come after a verb, but they do not come before noun
He is asleep or He is a sleeping man c) Order of Adjective
1) When we use two or more adjectives in a sentence, and the adjective is telling opinion (nice, beautiful ) normally they comes before adjectives telling facts (sunny, blue)
a nice sunny day
2) When two or more adjectives telling about facts, they come before a noun.
a) a large wooden box b) a tall thin man
Problems in Teaching Vocabulary
In teaching and learning process, there are many problems found, from understanding difficult words until applying the words. The factor has various kinds; it is quite useful to have the ideas of what makes words relatively easy or difficult to learn. As we know that English is one of the subjects in school and it sometimes brings difficulty to the teaching or learning process. The fact is when students attempt to translate a passage is to look up too many words. When the students find out the words he does not know, they take often the dictionary and look up the meaning. The problems arise when they select the right word to go into a sentence but use the wrong means of grammatical marking for them.
Below are the factors that make some words difficult to master. They are: a) Pronunciation
Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn. Many learners find that the words with cluster of consonant, such as strength or crisps or breakfast are problematic.
Sound and spelling mismatches will be the cause of errors in pronunciation or in spelling, and can be contribute to a word difficulty. For example: muscle, headache, etc.
c) Length and complexity
Long words are more difficult to learn than the short ones. And the variable stresses or polysyllabic words are difficult too. For example: necessary, necessity
e) Range-connotation and Idiomatic
Words that always used in wider range will be easier than those in narrower range. For example: Thin is more used than skinny, slim, slender.21
The Cooperative Learning
Definition of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning is an approach to teaching that makes maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom.
According Olsen and Kagan, Cooperative learning is group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchanges of information between learners in groups and in which each learner held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others.22
According to Diane Larsen, Cooperative learning essentially involves students learning from each in groups. But it is not the group configuration that makes cooperative learning distinctive; it is the way that students and teachers work together. The teacher helps students learn how to learn more effectively. In cooperative learning, teachers teach students collaboratively. Indeed, cooperation is not only a way of learning, but also a theme to be communicated about and studied.23
According to Kate Kinsella and Kathy Sherak, Small group learning is widely recognized as one of the most advantageous practices in contemporary education. Although classroom collaboration is beneficial in improving outcomes for all students, it is particularly helpful for second language learners, especially
Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Vocabulary, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p.27-28
Jack C,Richards. Approaches and Method in Language Teaching. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001 ), p.192
those ESL, students with a dire need to become more proficient in the target language who have scant opportunities for sustained and varied practice. In addition to promoting use of a wider range of communicative functions, group work helps students develop their subject area knowledge.
According to Shlomo Sharan, learning in small groups has been shown to increase opportunities for meaningful practice and fairly realistic language use, to improve the quality of students talk (namely, the range of language functions, such as asking question or requiring additional information), to create a positive affective climate in the classroom, and to increase students motivation.24
One behavioral indication of students motivational involvement is the proportion of class time spent on task. Behavioral observers have been used in several cooperative learning studies to collect information on this measure.
Meanwhile according to Johnson Cooperative Learning is the instructional use of small groups through which student’s works together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. It may be contrasted with competitive learning in which students work against each other to achieve an academic goal such as a achievement. Essentially, the argument is that cooperative incentives motivate students to try to get each other to do academic work, and thereby gets students to feel that their classmates want them to do their best.
ShlomoSharan , Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods, (London , Preager Westport,1994), p. 199
Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2001 ), p.195
Assumption of the writer on Cooperative Learning is that it is working together to achieve shared goals. When students works together in small groups of learners in the classroom. The writer agrees of that cooperative learning is applied at learners because cooperative learning can help teacher build positive relationship among students, give students the experiences they need for healthy social, physiological, cognitive development, promote students learning and academic achievement increased students retention and also can help students develop skill in oral communication and promote students self- esteem.
2. The Purpose of Cooperative Learning
The purpose of cooperative learning is to enhance learning and achievement by encouraging peer-to-peer interaction and cooperation.27 Moreover, according to Roger T and David W.Johnson the purpose of cooperative learning groups is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her own right. Students learn together so that they can subsequently perform better as individuals. To ensure that each member is strengthened, students are held individual accountable to do his/her fair share of the work, teachers need to asses how much effort each member is contributing to the group’s work, provide feedback to groups and individual students, help groups avoid redundant effort by members, and ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome. Common ways to structure individual accountability:
a. Keeping the size of the small group. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be.
b. Giving and individual test to each student.
c. Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group’s work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class.
d. Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member contributes to the group’s work.
e. Assigning one student in each group the role of the checker. The checkers as other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answer.
f. Having students teach what they learned to someone else. When all students do this, it is called simultaneous explaining.28
3. The Elements of Cooperative Learning
There are five elements that should have understood in order for successful cooperative learning:
a. Positive Interdependence
In a cooperative groups share a common goal; each learner has an essential role to play if that goal is to be achieved. Cooperation, in this regard, is more than just collaboration, where it is a possible to complete a task or develop a product without the contribution of each the members. The success (or failure) of a cooperative group is dependent on the efforts of all of its individual members.29
b. Team formation
Students can group themselves;”leaders” can take turn selecting teammates; or teachers can assign students to teams. Informal or spontaneous grouping is less desirable in many situations than formal or planned grouping methods. Four types of formal team formation - heterogeneous, random, interest, and homogeneous/heterogeneous language ability.30
Research shows that both individual and group accountability is important for achievement in cooperative learning settings, and most scholars (e.g., Slavin,1990) consider this to be a defining characteristic of
Jane Arnold, Affect in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p 227
cooperative learning. Methods which use only a group grade or a group product without making each member accountable do not consistently produce achievement gains. Students may be made individually accountable by assigning each student a grade on his or her own portion of the team project or by the rule that the group may not go on the next activity until all team members finish the task. A primary way to ensure accountability is through testing. 31
d. Social skills
Social skills include ways students interest with each other to achieve activity or task objectives (e.g., asking and explaining) and way students interact as team mates (e.g., praising and recognizing). Social skills can be emphasized by assigning all teammates to practice specific social skills to ensure that students can fill these functions when required. Social skill behavior may not occur spontaneously with all students(Hertz-Lazarowitz,1990),and teaching them can have a profound impact on attentiveness, morale, and motivation.32
e. Group processing
Besides engaging in group tasks, learners also need to reflect upon their group’s experiences, noting how group members interacted doing that task, the kind and number of contributions each made, and the difficulties that were encountered as different views were suggested or one member was noticeably silent or vocal. Trough this processing, learners acquire or refine meta cognitive and socio-affective strategies of monitoring, learning from others, and sharing ideas and turns. In that reflection they also engage in language use that is not typically available or fostered in traditional language classroom activities.33
In forming group of cooperative learning, generally teams are deliberately heterogeneous and consist of two to five members. In bigger groups there is a high achiever, one or two average achievers and low achievers. The groups are chosen by the teacher after careful consideration. The teams are responsible for learning the task together, helping each other. Learners are encouraged to explain ideas or skills to one resource person for the whole team.
Those elements in group learning situations help ensure cooperative effort and enable the disciplined implementation of cooperative learning for long-term success.
Principle Cooperative Learning
In cooperative learning there is an interdependence established among the students in each groups as they strive for the achievement of group or individual objectives. This technique draws from both behaviorism and humanism. For that reason in teaching through cooperative learning the teacher and students should have known and understood some principles in cooperative learning, they are:
a. Students are encouraged to think of „positive interdependence’ which means that the students are not thinking competitively and individualistically and in terms of the group.
b. In cooperative learning, students often stay together in the same groups for a period of time so they can learn how to work better together. The teacher usually assigns students to the groups so that the groups are mixed. This allows students to learn from each other and also gives them practice in how to get along with people who are different from themselves.
c. The efforts of an individual help not only the individual to be awarded, but also others in the class.
d. Social skill such as acknowledging another’s contribution, asking others to contribute and keeping the conversation calm need to be explicitly taught. e. Language acquisition is facilitated by students interacting in the target
h. Each group member should be encouraged to feel responsible for participating and for learning.
i. Teachers not only teach language but also teach cooperation as well as. Since social skills involve the use language, cooperative learning teaches language for both academic and social purposes. 34
The successes of Cooperative Learning crucially depend and organize on group work. This requires a structured program of learning carefully designed so that learners interact with each other and motivate to increase each other’s learning. Olsen and Kagan propose the following key element of successful group- based learning in Cooperative Learning:
a. Positive interdependence b. Group formation
c. Individual accountability d. Social skills
e. Structuring and structures. 35
Based on the principles of cooperative learning above, the writer concludes that when students have not been taught how to works with others, teachers should not expect to be able to put them together in groups and ask them work together effectively but teachers should consider skills of students. Teachers have to understand that students need to be taught interpersonal and small group learning skills in order to students can adapt with other students.
5. Types of Cooperative Learning
Johnson et al., (1994:4-5) describe three types of cooperative learning groups:
a. Formal cooperative learning groups. These last from one class period several weeks. These are established for a specific task and involve students working together to achieve learning goals.
Diane Larsen Freeman, Technique and Principles in Language Teaching, (New York: Oxford University Press,2000), p.167-168
b. Informal cooperative learning groups. These are ad-hoc groups that last from a few minutes to a class period and are used to focus student attention or facilitate learning during direct teaching.
c. Cooperative base groups. These are long term, lasting for at least a year and consist of heterogeneous learning groups with stable membership which primary purpose is to allow members to give each other to support, to help, encouragement, and assistance they need to succeed academically.36
6. Technique of Cooperative Learning
There are some techniques of cooperative learning namely; Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), Cooperative integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC), Team Assisted Individualization (TAI), Teams Games Tournament (TGT), Learning Together, Jigsaw, Group Investigation. 37
According Jeanne M.Stone there are steps of cooperative learning namely: a. Brainstorming h. Numbered head together i. Round robin
36Jack C.Richard and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approach and Methods…., p.196 37
Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning;theory, research and practice,( New Jersey Prentice Hall,1995),2nd ed P.5-12
7. Roles in Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning strategy might not be familiar to many teachers and students. The roles of the teacher, the learner and the instructional material are different in cooperative learning than they were in traditional classroom. a. Learners roles
The primary role if the learners are members of a group is that they must work collaboratively on task with other group members. Learners have to work teamwork skills. Learners is also director of their own learning, is viewed as complication of lifelong, learning skills. Thus, learning is something that requires students’ direct and active involvement and participation. Pair grouping is the most typical cooperative language learning format, ensuring the maximum amount of time both learners spend engaged on learning tasks. Pair tasks in which learners alternate roles involve partner in the role of tutors, checkers, recorder, and information sharers.
b. Teachers role
The role of the teacher in cooperative language learning differs considerably from the role of teachers in tradition teacher- centered lesson. The teacher has to create a highly structured and well-organized learning environment in the classroom, setting goals, planning and structuring tasks, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning students to group and roles, and selecting material and time. An important role for the teacher is that of facilitator of learning. In his or her as a facilitator, the teacher must move around the class help students and groups.
They provide broad questions to challenge thinking, they prepare students for the tasks they will carry out; they assist students with the learning tasks, and they give few commands, imposing les disciplinary control.
c. The role of instructional material
Material plays an important role in creating the opportunities for students to work cooperatively. The same material can be used for other types of lessons but variations are required in how materials are used. For example, if students are working in groups, each might have one set material, or each group might have different sets of materials), or each group member might need a copy of text to read and refer to. Materials may be especially designed for cooperative language learning (such as commercially sold jigsaw and information-gap activities), modified from existing materials, or borrowed from other disciplines.
Teaching Vocabulary by Using Cooperative Learning
Vocabulary is something to deliver in the oral or written communication. And vocabulary is not easy to be increased without a proper way of how to build it up.
Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Cooperative learning can motivate students to memorize vocabulary easily and also happily. Teaching vocabulary by using cooperative learning is not only as an effective tool for bringing out students from the monotonous or boring situations in learning process, but also for developing students’ vocabulary.
In my hypothesis, teaching vocabulary adjective by using cooperative learning at eight grade students of MTs. Al- Ishlah is an alternative teaching aid because almost the students like work together to understand for the lesson. By cooperative learning students practice to use vocabulary to try small group learning skill and adapt with other students.
To apply cooperative learning in teaching learning process, the teacher has to do as follows: cooperative work and what they are supposed to do.
After that the teacher explain about vocabulary of adjective using objects, questions, model of dialogue, and explain about rule of adjective and then practice it in written and oral.
2. Make small group based on the heterogeneous class
involves cooperation and collaboration. And the teachers only have to listen into group work to hear students correcting one another’s mistakes.
3. Give the instruction clearly, whether it is individual project or group project The teacher explains that each group will accept the different project; she/he explains that each student will be an expert. In the “expert step” the student in each group will learn the project together. Then, the teacher asks one student of one group to teach his group’s project to the other groups, so do the other groups.
4. Monitor students „learning and involved within the groups to provide task assistance or to increase students’ teamwork skill.
The teacher gives the students opportunity to acquire learning experience in order to reach the goal of learning activity. During the students are getting work, the teacher systematically observes and collect data on each group as it works. When it is needed, the teacher intervenes to assist students in completing the task accurately and in working together effectively.
5. Evaluate the students’ achievement through giving the test
The teacher gives the test to know how well the students understand about the material, and to know how well the group functioned.
The writer took two previous relevant studies as a guideline to implement the research, they are:
1. The research about vocabulary mastery using cooperative learning had been done by Kristiantari that was “The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery (A Classroom Action Research at the Eighth Grade Students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Nadlotul Muslimat
Surakarta 2009-2010)”39.This research explained about the application of
39Kristiantari, The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning to Improve
cooperative learning to improve students’ vocabulary. She used the cooperative learning to improve students’ vocabulary in order to get information of cooperative learning to students’ vocabulary mastery of the 8th grade in MTs.Nadlotul Muslimat, because this learning strategy is one of strategy that is hoped to be used in improving students’ vocabulary mastery. In fact, the result of interpretation of the data shows that cooperative learning improves students’ vocabulary mastery. It can be seen from the improvement of the mean score of every cycle: pre-test and post-test of every cycle. By using cooperative learning, the researcher hopes that the students will be interested in learning vocabulary, then, it is easier for the students to memorize or enrich the students’ vocabulary. This is suitable such as what the researcher does to his research.
2. The research paper by the title “The use of Cooperative Learning in Teaching Vocabulary”(an experimental research at the first grade students of Junior High School of Assalam Islamic Boarding School Sukabumi) written by Zaini Rahman40. The researcher would like to know the influence of using cooperative learning in teaching vocabulary to the first grade students of junior high school of Assalam Islamic Boarding School Sukabumi. The result his research shows that his experimental research is successful. It means that the result of analysis of interpretation of the data shows that using cooperative learning can give an influence to increase students’ achievement in vocabulary. It can be seen that the score of post-test is higher than pre-test.
40Zaini Rahman, “The use of Cooperative Learning in Teaching
To use the language, mastering vocabulary is needed. Vocabulary is a basic element to know the language. It is needed for understanding the meaning of word and using it in the communication. Vocabulary mastery can be reached by learning activities. It is not easy to learn vocabulary. The learner must learn actively. A suitable method is needed to improve the vocabulary.
Cooperative Learning appears as one of the promising learning concept offering some new views in teaching and learning a second language especially vocabulary learning. Particularly cooperative learning give learner the opportunity to think for themselves, compared their thinking with others, make a small research project and investigate subject matter with other learner. It is expected in teaching and learning vocabulary that memorizing and spelling the words will be gotten by understanding the meaning with the context of a phrase or larger in group situation.
This research is to know whether teaching vocabulary by using cooperative learning is an effective technique to increase students’ interest in learning English. And to find the answer of the problem, the writer should propose alternative Hypothesis (Ha) and Null Hypothesis (Ho) as bellow:
a. The Experiment Hypothesis (Ha). There is a significance difference between the students’ vocabulary of adjectives scores taught by using Cooperative Learning and without using Cooperative Learning for students at MTs. Al- Ishlah Cikarang.
1. The Place and Time of Research
The writer conducted the research at MTs Al- Ishlah, Cikarang utara - Kab.Bekasi from 01st up to 30th of November 2012.
2. The Method of Research
In collecting the data, the writer used experimental research, which consited of experiment class and conventional method (controlled class)
3. The Technique of Sample Taking
Based on Prof.Dr.SuharsiniArikunto, population is whole of research subject.1
The population in this research is students of eight grade of MTs Al- Ishlah cikarang utara-Kab.Bekasi. There are about 250 students of eighth grade. But the writer only took 40 students of them.
Sample is part of population research2. And the technique of sample taking in this research is random sampling.
The sample of the research was two classes of the eighth grade students of MTs Al- Ishlah Cikarang Utara-Kab. Bekasi, they are 8-a and 8- b. Both classes are equal, such as:
1Prof.Dr.SuharsiniArikunto, “ ProsedurPenelitian, SuatuPendekatanPraktik”, ( Jakarta: PT. RenekaCipta, 2006 ) p.130
1. Consist of 45 students
2. The classroom is large enough.
3. The students come from the middle-lower social life 4. Almost of the students parents are seller or vendor 5. The students have no high motivation in learning, etc
The writer decided to take two classes of eight grade of MTs Al- Ishlah Cikarang utara-Kab.Bekasi that is 8-a and 8-b which consist of 45 students for each classes, and the writer took 20 students from each class by random sampling, 8-a student’s taught teaching vocabulary adjective by using cooperative learning called Experiment class and 8-b students taught without cooperative learning called Controlled Class.
4. The Instrument of Research
The instrument of the research used by the writer in collecting data is taken from the application test of vocabulary adjective. The writer gave the test to eight grade students of MTs Al- Ishlah, which was decided into two categories, the first students is taught by using cooperative learning method and second students is taught without using cooperative learning method.
Pre-test and post test are the test given in this research. Pre-test is the test given to the students before the test vocabulary of adjectives by using Cooperative Learning method.
5. The Technique of Collecting Data
Collecting data is an important thing in this research that can be determined. The writer did the following techniques as method in ollecting data: 1. Experiment
The teacher taught vocabulary of adjective by using Cooperative Learning method at the eighth grade of MTs. Al-Ishlah Cikarang. The teaching process was conducted in eight meetings and was systematically arranged in a lesson plan.
2. Test (Pre-test and Post-test)
The writer used test as data collection. The writer gives a pre-test to the students before beginning the lesson and pos-test at the end of the lesson. The test was given in two kinds: pre-test and post- test in the form of instruments test. The writer used pre-test and post-test to collect the data:
The pre-test was given in the beginning of the class (the pre-test was given before the writer doing the experiment) to know the student knowledge of the material that will be taught. It explains with the following direction:
a) Multiple choice items with vocabulary of adjective. It consisted of 30 questions.
b) Match the pictures with the list of skill on vocabulary adjective the left side. It consisted of 10 questions.
c) Fill in the blank with vocabulary of adjective. It consisted of 5 questions.
The writer gave the post-test after the lesson finished to know the student's ability in mastering the materials taught. It follwed the following steps:
a) Multiple choices item with vocabulary of adjective. It consisted of 30 questions.
b) Match the pictures with the list of skill on vocabulary adjective the left side. It consisted of 10 questions.
6. The Technique of Data Analysis
After collecting the data the writer analyzed the data by using statistical calculation. In analyzing the data, the writer used the comparative technique.
In the comparative technique, the variables are compared to know whether differences are significant. The writer uses t- test to find out the
differences score of students’ achievement in teaching action verbs without cooperative learning which adapted from Anas Sudijono.
The writer analyzed the result of final test using statistical calculation of t- test as follow.
The Formula is as follows:
Mean of variable X
Mean of variable Y
Standard error mean of difference mean of variable X and mean of variable Y
The procedure of calculation as follow:
a. Determining Mean of variable X, with formula:
=the average of gained score (mean of variable X)
=sum of gained score (variable X) N= number of the students
b. Determining Mean of variable Y, with formula:
=the average of gained score (mean of variable Y)
c. Determining of Standard of Deviation score of Variable X, with formula:
Standard Deviation score of Variable X
Sum of squared gained score (Variable X)
Number of the students
d. Determining Standard Deviation Score of Variable Y, with formula:
Standard Deviation score of Variable Y
Sum of squared gained score (Variable Y)
Number of the students
e. Determining Standard Error Mean of Variable X, with formula:
Standard Error Mean of Variable X
=Standard Deviation of Variable X
Number of the students
f. Determining Standard Error Mean of Variable Y, with formula:
Standard Error Mean of Variable Y
=Standard Deviation of Variable Y
g. Determining Standard Error Mean of Difference Mean of variable X and Mean of Variable Y, with formula:
Standard error of difference mean of variable X and mean of variable Y
Sum of squared standard error mean of variable X
Sum of squared standard error mean of variable Y h. Determining t- table in significant level 5% and 1 % with df.
Degree of freedom
Number of student (experiment class)
Number of students (controlled class)3
Adjectives by Using Cooperative Learning
Description of Data
The data of students’ achievement divided into two kinds, namely the data
in experiment class and the data in control class, which were gained from pre- test and post- test that were applied in both of class.
The test was arranged in an instruments paper for pre- test and post- test. The result of the test is presented on the table below:
The Test Result of Experiment Class
Students Pre- Test Score Post-Test score Gained Score
1 62 72 10
2 66 80 14
3 46 76 30
4 38 78 40
5 56 74 18
6 54 78 24
7 68 84 16
8 68 80 12
9 52 78 26
10 78 84 6
11 60 75 15
12 52 74 22
13 60 72 12
14 60 78 18
15 32 74 42
17 52 74 22 students who got score 52, two students who got score 54, one student who got score 56, three students who got score 60, one student who got score 62, one student who got score 66, three students who got score 68, only one student who got score 78 and there wasn’t any student who didn’t get a gained score.
In post- test their scores were higher than in the pre- test. It can be seen in the table above that the highest score in post- test was 84 and there werethree students who got it. There was five students who got 72 (the lowest score).
The Result of Control Class
13 22 54 32
14 26 58 32
15 28 62 34
16 54 76 22
17 32 68 36
18 18 52 34
19 40 70 30
20 46 74 28
The table II above informs that in control class, there were one student who got 18, one studentwho got score22, two students who got score 26, one student who got score 28, three students who got score 32, one students who got score 36, two student who got score 38, one student who got score 40, two students who got score 42, two students who got score 46, one student who got score 50, one students who got score 54, and only one student who got 56.
In post- test, their scores were higher than pre- test. It can be seen that the highest score in post- test was 76(only one student who got it) and the lowest score was 42.
From the table presented above the writer can conclude the experiment class (learning vocabulary of adjectives by using cooperative learning) got the higher score than the control class (without cooperative learning technique when they learnt vocabulary adjectives). As mentioned before, that in analyzing the data from the result of pre- test and post- test, the writer used statistic calculation of the t- test formula with the degree of significance 5 % and 1 %.
Individual Pre-test and Post- test Score of the Students in Experiment Class No Pre- test ( 1) Post- test ( 2 ) D= 1 - 2 D²
No : Amount of students given the test
: The result of Pre- test of Experiment Class : The result of Post-test of Experiment Class
Individual Pre-test and Post- test Score of the Students in Controlled Class No Pre- test ( 1) Post- test ( 2 ) D= 1 - 2 D²
No : Amount of students given the test
: The result of Pre- test of Controlled Class : The result of Post-test of Controlled Class
The result calculation of the post test Both experiment class and controlled class N
From the table above it show that the score of both classes is on average
level, means that the students’ achievement in learning English by using
2. The Analysis of Data
From the table above, the writer gets the calculation using the following test formula:
a. Determining mean variable X with formula:
b. Determining mean variable Y with formula:
c. Determining Standard of Deviation of variable X with formula:
d. Determining Standard of Deviation of variable Y with formula:
√ √ √
e. Determining Standard Error Mean variable X with formula:
√ √ √
f. Determining Standard Error Mean variable Y with formula:
g. Determining the Standard Error Mean Differences of MX and MY with formula:
√ √ = √ = 0.84
h. Determining with formula :
i. Determining t-table in significance level 5 % and 1 % with df:
= (20 + 20) = 38 t-table 5 % = 2.02
1% = 2.71 t-score = 2.02 < 17.86 > 2.71
j. The comparison between t-score with t-table :
3. The Interpretation of Data
As mentioned in chapter one that this field research was conducted in order to know whether Cooperative Learning is effective in teaching vocabulary of adjectives or not at eight grade of MTs.Al- Ishlah.
To answer those questions above, the writer hypothesis that:
1. Alternative hypothesis (Ha). There is a significance difference between the
students’ vocabulary of adjectives scores taught by using Cooperative
Learning and without using Cooperative Learning for students at MTs. Al- Ishlah Cikarang.
2. Null hypothesis (H0). There is no significance difference between the
students’ vocabulary of adjectives scores taught by using Cooperative
Learning and without using Cooperative Learning at MTs. Al-Ishlah Cikarang.
Based on research findings in the previous chapter, the writer concludes that teaching vocabulary of adjective by using cooperative learning to the eight grade students of MTs. Al- Ishlah is more effective than without using cooperative learning. It can be seen from the result of statistic calculation. That the comparison between score with table. In the table of significance or in t-table, it can be seen from the df = 38 and on the degree of 5 % and 1 %, the result is 2.02 and 2.71, t-score is 17.86, so it can be concluded that t-score is higher than t-table. It is effective to teach vocabulary by using Cooperative Learning
Dealing with the conclusion, the writer would like to suggest as follow, teachers should:
1. Improve their way in teaching vocabulary; they should motivate and stimulate students by using cooperative learning especially in teaching vocabulary
2. Consider the use of Cooperative Learning as a method to teach vocabulary as it is effective for students.
3. Be able to manage and control small group discussion or any kind of cooperative learning activities to encourage cooperation among the students and eliminate competition. Because it was difficult to maintain the effective learning without the class which under controlled. Since small group discussion is an effective learning for students, teacher should not leave the class.
well. If it is necessary the teachers can use media to get the students more understand.
5. Improve their knowledge about the various method or learning strategies, so they can choose the best method for their students
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