THE EFFECT OF APPLYING INTERACTIVE NOTATION
SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE READING AND THINKING
STRATEGY ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT
IN READING ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT
Submitted to the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of SarjanaPendidikan
POPPY PRISCILIA MARBUN
Registration Number: 2103121033
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
I have familiarized with the university’s policy on academic integrity.
Except where appropriately acknowledged, this thesis is my own work, has been
expressed in my own words and has not previously been submitted for
I understand that this thesis may be screened electronically or otherwise
Medan, March 2015 The Researcher,
Marbun, Poppy Priscilia. 2103121033. The Effect of Applying Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) Strategy on Students’ Achievement in Reading Analytical Exposition Text. A Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Languages and Arts. State University of Medan. 2015.
This study deals with the Effect of Applying Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) Strategy on Students’ Achievement in Reading Analytical Exposition Text. The objective of the study is to find out whether Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) Strategy significantly affects the students’ achievement in reading analytical exposition text. It was an experimental research. The subject of the study was the students of eleventh (XI) grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Tebing Tinggi. The sample was divided into two groups. The Experimental group was taught by applying Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) strategy, while the control group was taught by applying Question Answer Relationship (QAR) strategy. Levels of reading comprehension used in the reading test were literal, interpretative and critical reading. The percentages of each level were 35%, 45% and 20%.To obtain the reliability of the test, the writer applied Kuder Richardson formula (KR-21). The result of the calculation showed that the reliability of the test was 0.83, which means that the reliability of the test is very high. The data was analyzed by using t-test formula. The analysis showed that tobserved is exceeded than ttable (4.10 > 2.00) at the level of significance of 0.05 with the degree of freedom (df) 58. The findings indicate that using Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) strategy significantly affected the students’ reading analytical exposition text.
First of all, the writer would like to express her deepest gratitude to the Almighty God for His grace, mercy and glory who has given His uncountable blessing, everlasting love, guidance, opportunity and strength to the writer during her study and in completing this thesis which is entitled: The Effect of Applying Interactive Notation System for Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) Strategy on Students’ Achievement in Reading Analytical Exposition Text. This thesis is aimed to fulfill one of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S-1) of the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan (UNIMED).
In completing this thesis, the writer realized that she faced some problems and she had received the academic guidance, suggestions, and comments and got a lot of assistance and moral support from many people. Therefore, the writer would like to express her gratitude and special thanks to:
Prof. Dr. Ibnu Hajar Damanik, M.Si., the Rector of State University of Medan.
Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., the Dean of Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.
Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., the Head of English Department, Dra. Meisuri, MA., the Secretary of English Department and Dra. Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed., the Head of English Education Program, Dr. Rahmah, M.Hum., the Head of English and Literature Program, Faculty of Languagaes and Arts, State University of Medan.
Dra. Tjut Ernidawati, M.Pd., her Thesis Consultant.
Dr. Anni Holila Pulungan, M.Hum., Prof. Dr. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd. and Indra Hartoyo, M.Hum., her Reviewer and Examiner.
All the Lecturers of English Department
H. Mhd. Syarif, M.Si., M.Pd., the Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Tebing Tinggi, who had given his permission and opportunities to the writer to do observation and to collect data.
Her beloved parents, B. Marbun, S.E. and Dra. N. Tambunan, S.Pd. who give their everlasting love, prayers and the financial support that have enabled her finish her study. The writer’s special gratitude also goes to her lovely brothers and sister, Ns. Agnes Silvina Marbun, S.Kep. and Anicetus Marbun, S.K.M and all her families for their endless love, prayers, inspiration, motivation and everything that they have given to the writer.
Her dearest friends in Regular B 2010, her great class for the love and togetherness throughout four years, especially for D’Clique Five Desy Fortin Hutabarat, S.Pd., Detha Sari Anjani Sinulingga, S.Pd., Fitri endless contribution in the process of completing this thesis.
The writer realizes that this thesis still has the paucity, she conveniently welcomes any suggestions, comments, critics, and advices that will improve the quality of this thesis. She hopes that this thesis would be useful for those who are read and interested in the field of this study.
Medan, March 2015 The writer,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. The Background of the Study ...1
B. The Problem of the Study ... .. 5
C. The Objective of the Study ... .. 5
D. The Scope of the Study ... .. 5
E. The Significance of the Study ... .. 6
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ...7
A. Theoretical Framework ... .. 7
1. Students’ Achievement in Reading Analytical Exposition ... .. 7
2. Reading Comprehension ... .. 8
a. Purpose of Reading Comprehension ... .. 10
b. The Process of Reading Comprehension ... .. 11
c. Factors of Reading Comprehension ... .. 12
d. Levels of Reading Comprehension ... .. 15
e. Assessment of Reading Comprehension ... .. 16
3. Text Genre ... .. 19
4. Exposition Text ... .. 21
a. Analytical Exposition ... .. 22
5. Teaching Strategies ... .. 24
a. The Process of INSERT Strategy ... .. 26
b. The Advantages and Disadvantages of INSERT ... .. 28
7. Question-Answer Relationship Strategy ... .. 29
a. The Advantages and Disadvantages of QAR Strategy ... .. 30
B. Relevant Studies ... .. 31
C.Conceptual Framework ... 32
D. Hypothesis ... 35
CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHOD ... 36
A. Research Design ... 36
B. Population ... 36
C. Sample ... 37
D. The Instrument of Collecting Data ... 37
E. Procedure of Research ... 37
1. Try Out ... 38
2. Pre-Test ... 38
3. Treatment ... 38
4. Post-Test ... 41
F. Scoring the Test ... 41
G. The Validity and the Reliability of the Test ... 41
1. The Validity of the Test ... 42
2 .The Reliability of the Test ... 42
H. The Technique for Analyzing Data ... 43
I. Statistical Hypothesis ... 44
CHAPTER IV. THE DATA AND DATA ANALYSIS ... 45
A.The Data ... 45
B.Data Analysis ... 46
1. Testing Reliability of the Test ... 46
2. Analyzing the Data using t-test... 47
C.Testing Hypothesis ... 48
D.Discussion ... 49
A. Conclusion ... 51
B. Suggestion ... 51
REFERENCES ... 53
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Students’ Accumulated Score ... 3
Table 3.1 Research Design ... 36
Table 3.2 Teaching Procedure in Experimental Group ... 39
Table 3.3 Teaching Procedure in Control Group ... 40
LIST OF FIGURE
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX A. The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test by the Students of
Experimental Group ... 56
APPENDIX B. The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test by the Students of Control Group ... 57
APPENDIX C. The Reliability of the Test ... 58
APPENDIX D. The Calculation of t-test for Experimental Group ... 60
APPENDIX E. The Calculation of t-test for Control Group ... 61
APPENDIX F. Table of Distribution t ... 64
APPENDIX G. Reading Tests for Experimental and Control Group ... 65
APPENDIX H. Answer Keys... 75
APPENDIX I. Lesson Plan for Experimental Group ... 76
A. The Background of the Study
People have to adapt to social and technological changes in order to face this
globalization era. The current globalization and the continuing increase in
international communication in various fields have resulted in greater demand for
English as a foreign language. In this context, reading is a resource for continued
education, for the acquisition of language and skills, for gaining information and
ideas through media, especially newspaper, books, radio, television, and etc.
Reading is one of English skills should be acquired well by all of English
learners who want to learn English as a foreign language. It is a learning process
through gaining information or ideas from a text in order to enrich readers’
knowledge. Many large opportunities can be derived through reading. It is like a
key to a wealth of experience that links people in a way far beyond distance or time.
The readers may expand their horizons, identify, extend and intensify their interest
and gain deeper understanding of the world. Thus reading is an essential tool for
lifelong learning for all students.
Grabe and Stoller (2002: 9) state that reading is the ability to draw meaning
from the printed page and interpret the information approximately. It is an active
cognitive process of interacting and monitoring interpretation or understanding to
establish meaning by giving test. Students may know the vocabulary and understand
text, but they may not arrive at the specific development of the text or the
new information created by the writer.
To consider the above importance of reading, it is very essential for students
to understand what they will read. English Language Teaching in senior high school
is aimed at enabling students to reach functional level in a sense that students must
be able to catch and express the meaning in short functional written texts and simple
essays of descriptive, report, narrative, procedure, hortatory exposition, analytical
exposition, news item and etc in the daily-life contexts. Students are expected to
comprehend, analyze factual knowledge and apply the procedural knowledge
specific field of study according to their talents and interests to solve the problem.
This concludes that mastering reading comprehension is very important and crucial
for the students in order to enable them in getting success in reading learning
In fact, most students have difficulties in grasping the content of reading
comprehension such as understanding vocabulary, seeing in the relationship among
words and concept organizing ideas, recognizing the author’s purpose, making
judgment and evaluating. Clarke and Silberstein (1987) argue that reading
comprehension requires a reader to identify the main point and its supporting
details. The difficulties might be caused by the students having insufficient
vocabulary of English, do not know English comprehensively, lack motivation to
read in another language because the texts given in the reading lesson are not
interesting, and do not know how to apply certain techniques of reading in finding
Based on the result of observation that was conducted in SMA N 1 Tebing
Tinggi, students had many problems in learning reading process. The teacher said
that the ability of students’ reading comprehension is still low. The teacher showed
the data of the students’ scores in reading test. The data showed that there were only
ten out of 32 students who achieved the standard score that is 70. The average score
was only 69.03, it means that there were 67% of them failed the test. This proves
that they could not grasp the information of the text they had read and got
difficulties in constructing the meaning of the text.
In the classroom, students did passive reading activity. They always asked
the teacher about the meaning of words that they found in the text. They just read
and translated it based on what they’ve known so that they got wrong ideas. Some
of them just copied their friend’s answer without doing any discussion to
comprehend the text.
The students had no self confidence to read without comprehend the text.
Without comprehension, the goal of reading process is not success. The students
also felt hesitate to ask the teacher and expressed their ideas or opinions towards the
text. The students failed to express themselves adequately in reading English. Thus,
it made the students felt bored and discouraged in the reading activities.
The ability to comprehend the text seems so low with that learning style.
The writer attached the students’ score in two semesters, academic year 2013-2014
Students’ Accumulated Score
Semester Score Students Percentage Mean
1st Semester 2013/2014 <70 20 Students 62.50 % 58.12
Semester Score Students Percentage Mean
1st Semester 2013/2014 ≥ 70 12 Students 37.50 % 58.12
This finding proves that most of the students had not reached the Minimum
Criteria Mastery yet. It means the students’ achievement in reading was bad.
Students should have knowledge in many aspects especially in academic terms. One
of the best ways to get more knowledge is by reading. Because without knowledge
they cannot even compete with others student in modern ages like nowadays.
As an English teacher, we should be creative to find a good and appropriate
way to help students to get more knowledge, to be able to comprehend a story,
especially mastery the forth skills, moreover in an entertaining and enjoyable way
so they will not feel bored in the class.
Dealing with the facts previously mentioned, the writer interested in
conducting research entitled “The effect of applying Interactive Notation System for
Effective Reading and Thinking (INSERT) strategy on students’ achievement in
reading analytical exposition text’’. INSERT is an active reading strategy designed
by Vaughn & Estes (1986). This strategy can be used by students during the guided
reading phase of class work. It employs a set of symbols or notation and helps
students to interact and make connections with text without taking extensive notes
such as, (√) for agree with the readers, (X) for disagree with the readers, (?) for
confusing and unclear to readers, (+) for new information, (!) for interesting and
awesome fact/ideas and (*) for important ideas
.Theoretically, the problem could be
solved by applying INSERT strategy, as the teaching strategy involves the students
in the teaching-learning process and it is student-centered activities.
B. The Problem of the Study
Based on the discussion in the background of the study, the problem of the
research is formulated as the following: “Is the students’ achievement taught by
applying INSERT strategy higher than the taught by applying Question-Answer
Relationship strategy on students’ achievement in reading analytical exposition
C. The Objective of the Study
Based on the formulation of the problem above, the objective of the study is
to find out whether students’ achievement taught by applying INSERT strategy
higher than the taught by applying Question-Answer Relationship strategy on
students’ achievement in reading analytical exposition text.
D. The Scope of the Study
Comprehension in reading process can be reached if the readers know the
steps that derived from the appropriate strategy and skills needed for a kind of text
and understand how to use them. There are several types of text such as descriptive,
item. This study focuses on identifying the effect of applying INSERT strategy on
students’ reading comprehension in analytical exposition text.
E. The Significance of the Study
The findings of this study are expected to be useful:
The result of the study will enrich the strategy of English teaching and
learning and also contribute the development of knowledge in English
teaching and learning.
The teachers to give worthwhile experiences and improvement in teaching
English especially for teaching reading.
The readers to add some knowledge about INSERT strategy, update their
information and as the reference for those who are interested in doing the
related study, especially in reading analytical exposition.
Helping the students to improve their ability in comprehending the text
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Students in experimental group had better comprehension in reading than those
in control group. In the experimental group, all students had participated in learning
process although they worked in group. They shared and exchanged their ideas about
the text by assigning the symbols. Then, they connected their ideas with the new
information they got from the text. The students became enthusiastic to compare their
thoughts each other so that many questions had been raised. Levels of reading
comprehension used in the reading test were literal, interpretative and critical reading.
The percentages of each level were 35%, 45% and 20%.
Having analyzed the data, the researcher found that the using of INSERT
strategy significantly affects the students’ achievement in reading analytical
exposition text, since the t-test > t-table (4,10>2,002; df = 58, = 0,05). The findings
shows that the null hypothesis is rejected, so the students’ achievement in reading
analytical exposition text taught by using INSERT strategy is higher than the taught
using QAR strategy.
Based on the conclusion drawn above, it is suggested to:
1. English teachers use INSERT Strategy in teaching reading in order to increase
their students’ achievement in reading analytical exposition text.
2. Readers who want to develop all information and knowledge and for those who
3. Students use this strategy in reading text. The strategies in INSERT are
able to improve the readers’ their ability in comprehending the text
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