THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ FREQUENCY OF LISTENING ENGLISH SONG AND THEIR VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMPN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG

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ABTRACT

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ FREQUENCY OF LISTENING ENGLISH SONG AND THEIR VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT

AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMPN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG

By

SITI MARDELIZA DEA

Vocabulary is a set of words by which a person make use for communication. It is also an important aspect of language because it has a big influence in English language learning. Listening to a song can introduce a new English word to the students to improve their vocabulary. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate whether there is significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their vocabulary achievement. The research was conducted at SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung. This is quantitative research using ex post pasto design.

The data were taken from the questionnaire and the test that were given to the VIII D class. The sample was chosen randomly through lottery. There are two kinds of the tests i.e., the questionnaire of students’ listening frequency that consists of thirty questions and vocabulary test consists of thirty questions of multiple choice. The data were analyzed by using the statistical formula of Pearson Product Moment.

The result of the this research, rvalue (0.738) was higher than rtable (0.463). It means

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CORRELATION BETWEEN THE STUDENTS’ FREQUENCY OF LISTENING TO ENGLISH SONG AND THEIR VOCABULARY

ACHIEVEMENT AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMPN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG

(A Script)

By

Siti Mardeliza Dea

Advisors:

1. Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M.A. 2. Dra. Hartati Hasan, M. Hum.

English Department Education and Pedagogy Faculty

LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY

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CURRICULUM VITAE

The researcher’s name is Siti Mardeliza Dea. She was born in Bandar Lampung,

January 4th, 1992. She is a second daughter of a harmonious couple, Rana Deya and Yuliantini. She has two brothers and one sister named Yuda Prawira Dea, Tri Andika Dea and Putri Aura Dea.

She began her study at Melati Puspa Kindergarten, Tanjung Senang, Bandar Lampung in 1997, she went to elemantary school at SD Al-azhar, Way Halim, Bandar Lampung in 1998 and graduated in 2003. She continued her study to SMP Negeri 19 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2006. After graduating from Junior High School, she entered SMA YP UNILA Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2009.

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MOTTO

Lifeisn't about finding yourself, life is about creating yourself." “Falling down is how we grow, staying down is how we die”

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CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ FREQUENCY OF LISTENING TO ENGLISH SONGS AND THEIR

VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT

Siti Mardeliza Dea., Muhammad Sukirlan., Hartati Hasan., Ujang Suparman Email: Mardelizadea@yahoo.com

Mobile Phone: +6285789889144 Institution: Lampung University

Abstract: The objective of this research is to investigate whether there is significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening English songs. The research was conducted at SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung. This is quantitative research using ex post pasto design. The data weretaken from the questionnaire and the test was given to the VIII D class. The sample was chosen randomly through lottery. There are two kinds of tests, i.e. the questionnaire of students’ listening frequency that consists of thirty questions and vocabulary test that consists of thirty questions of multiple choice. The data were analyzed by using the statistical formula of Pearson Product Moment. The result of the this research, rvalue (0.738) was higher than rtable (0.463). It means that there is correlation and H1 is accepted. It can be concluded that there is significant correlation between the students’ frequency of listening English song and their vocabulary achievement. Most of the students who have good frequency of listening English song tended to have good score in vocabulary test too. It can be concluded that students’ frequency of listening English song influence their vocabulary achivement.

Key words: achivement, frequency, listening, song, vocabulary.

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HUBUNGAN ANTARA FREKUENSI SISWA DALAM MENDENGARKAN LAGU BERBAHASA INGGRIS DENGAN

PENCAPAIAN KOSATA

Siti Mardeliza Dea., Muhammad Sukirlan., Hartati Hasan., Ujang Suparman Email: Mardelizadea@yahoo.com

Telepon: +6285789889144 Institusi: Universitas Lampung

Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah ada korelasi signifikan antara frekwensi mendengarkan lagu berbahasa Inggris siswa dengan pencapaian kosakata mereka. Penelitian diadakan di SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung. Ini adalah sebuah penelitian kwantitatif menggunakan desain ex-post-facto. Data diambil dari kuisioner dan tes diberikan untuk kelas VIII D. Sampel diambil secara acak melalui lotere. Ada dua macam tes: kuisioner frekwensi mendengarkan lagu berbahasa inggris siswa yang terdiri dari tiga puluh pertanyaan and test kosakata terdiri dari tiga puluh pertanyaan pilihan berganda. Data dianalisa menggunakan rumus statistik Pearson Product Moment. Hasil dari penelitian ini, rnilai (0.738) lebih besar dari rtabel (0.463). Itu artinya bahwa terdapat korelasi dan H1 diterima. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada korelasi signifikan antara frekwensi mendengarkan lagu berbahasa inggris siswa dengan pencapaian kosakata mereka. Sebagian dari siswa yang mempunyai frekwensi yang baik dalam mendengarkan lagu berbahasa Inggris cenderung mempunyai nilai yang baik dalam pencapaian kosakata mereka. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa frekwensi mendengarkan lgu berbahasa Inggris berpengaruh terhadap pencapaian kosakata mereka.

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INTRODUCTION

Listening takes the main role in language learning because before someone

understands and before he or she starts to speak, they have to hear the sound,

words, and speech pattern first. In using the language, listening gives the students

information to complete their knowledge. Listening also develops the students to

be able to do speaking, reading and writing. So, listening is the first skill and the

most important of the other language skill, i.e. (speaking, reading, and writing). In

fact, the students still get difficulties in listening. They hate doing listening

comprehension in the teaching learning process.

Therefore, listening is the first skill which is required to be taught, before the

people can speak, Vandergrift cited in Angliawati (2011) argues that listening

comprehension lies at the heart of language learning, but it is the least understood

and least researched skill. There are several reason for considering their language

skill as important element for language acquisition. Firstly, it is to provide input

for language learning. Secondly listening is dominantly used in daily life. It is an

important role in daily live because the information and communication cannot be

achieved without listening first. In fact, students often take the wrong way when

listening and this leads them to the poor result. It should be noted that the

learner’s perception of their listening problem and strategies can affect their

comprehension both positively and negatively (Wenden, 1986).

The students confront many problems when they study English in the class like

having low motivation in learning English. So, the students have a negative

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and finally the students regard English as a difficult subject. Therefore, the media

in teaching and learning process is very important to solve students’ problem and

to make them understand more English subject.

Most people like listening to music to spend their time in daily activity. This

activity is fun and good way because it has many benefits for study. Piro and Ortiz

in the Psychology of Music (2009) states that children who were exposed to music

training performed better on vocabulary and reading comprehension tests than

those who were not. Some students feel that the English song is a good way for

them to learn Englishsh. In some teaching and learning process they learned

English from textbooks, learning process will be ordinary and it makes the

students bored because the process is not interesting for student. Therefore, they

prefer listening English song to improve their English. Lynch (2006) cited in

Angliawati (2011) argues that one way of developing listening ability is by

listening to song since for most students singing songs and listening to music are

enjoyable experience. The song expose students to a wide vocabulary related a

lyric of the song.

On the other hand, vocabulary is one of important aspect for the learner and it has

a big influence in English language learning. Hatch and Brown (1995) states that

vocabulary is a set of words with their meaning as a fundamental and useful tool

for communication and acquiring knowledge in language. It is one of problems

confronted by the students because the students usually study the theory but the

chance of practicing English is not given sufficient proportion. According to

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kinds. First, high frequency vocabulary consists of words that are very often in

normal language, use in all four skills and accross the full range of situation of

use. It is consists of 2000 word families, which are about 87% of the running

words in formal written text and more than 95% of the words in informal spoken

texts.and low frequency vocabulary. Second, the low frequency vocabulary on the

other hand, covers only small proportion of the running words of a continous text,

it means that low frequency vocabulary is rarely, used in common activity of

English language. This group includes well over 10.000 word families.

If the learners lack of vocabulary, they will also have a limited capability to

understand in other skills of English and they cannot communicate with others

clearly in English language. conversely, when they have a large number of

vocabularies, the students can speak fluently and accurately. They can also read

the text effectively. The students with sufficient amount of vocabulary might be to

be write the passage comprehensively.

When the students listen to English song in the first time, they try to find the lyric

of the song and look up the dictionary to know some vocabulary that they do not

know. Unconsciously, that is the enjoyable activity learning process in a good

way. In other words, if the students listen to English song frequently, they will get

more new words. Murphey (1992) cited in Millington (2011: 134) says that songs

can also be useful tools in the learning of vocabulary, sentence structures, and

sentence patterns, not to mention their reflectivity of mother tongue culture.

Moreover, Milillington (2011: 135) points out that songs can provide the

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topic that can provide the context for vocabulary learning. Therefore, students can

get the advantages of using song as an input of their English language learning

especially to achieve the vocabulary. According to Zatnikasari (2008), song is

also effective to make the students to remember the word easily and feel more

motivated in the class because they learn in interesting way.

Based on the explanation above, this study aims to investigate the frequency of

listening to English song and the vocabulary achievement of Junior High School

Students. The researcher assumes that a high frequency of listening to English

songs can make students have a good skill and help them develop their

vocabulary. Thus, the writer wants to know the correlation between the frequency

listening to English song and students’ vocabulary achievement.

METHOD

In this research, the researcher investigated “The Frequency of Listening to

English Song and vocabulary achievement”. Thus, two variable employed in this

research; participants’ listening frequency and their vocabulary achivement. The

design is visualized as follows:

X Y

(Hatch and Farhady, 1982)

X : Listening frequency as independent variable

Y : Vocabulary achievement as dependent variable

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The participants of this research was the second grade of SMP N 3 Bandar

Lampung as population and the researcher chose VIII D as participants for

sampling by simple random sampling where the students in the same level.

In collecting the data,the researcher used questionnaire and vocabulary test as the

instrument. The try-out was administered to find out whether the vocabulary test

items used in the research were good or not. It refers to validity, reliability, level

of difficulty, and discrimination power. After that, the questionnaire of frequency

of listening to English song and vocabulary test was given in writing simple

sentence consists of thirty questions. The test was conducted in 60 minutes. The

questionnaire were done for 15 minutes and vocabulary test were done for 45

minutes.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

In this research, the try out had been administered to class VIII G which consists

of 30 students. The result of the try out test showed that 20 items of vocabulary

test were dropped because the items test were not valid (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20,

21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 38, 41, 43, 44, 48, 50). There were 30 questions that

administered to measuring the students’ vocabulary. the reliability analysis of the

test was 0.66, it means that the vocabulary test was moderate.

After gave the try out test, the researcher conducted the real test was administered

on february 21st, 2013 in VIII D class consists of 34 students but 2 of them were

absents. Therefore, there were only 32 students had followed the test. In the real

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average score of the test was 75.81; the highest score was 97 (two students), the

lowest score was 42 (one student). There were 18 students (56.25%) got score

below 76. So, it can state that 14 students (43.75%) got the score 76-97. The

questionnaire were done for 15 minutes.

In vocabulary test, the average score of the test was ; the highest score was 90

(one student), the lowest score was 56 (one student). There were 19 students

(59.37%) got score below 76. So, it can state that 13 students (40.63%) got the

score 76-90. Vocabulary test were done for 45 minutes.

From the result of the real test, it was found that most of the students who have

good frequency of listening to English songs are able to achieve more

vocabularies. Futonge (2005) states that song is also a great language package that

bundles culture, vocabulary, listening, grammar and a host of other language skills

in just a few rhymes. Songs can also provide a relaxed lesson. They can also form

the basis for many lessons. It can be seen from the result between the highest

score student and the lower score student in questionnaire of frequency listening.

The result were taken from questionnaire that asking students’ frequency of

listening to English song. Some questions in the questionnaire asked the genre of

songs of 32 students, there are 26 students frequently chose a pop genre, 25

students of rock genre, 21 students of pop-rock genre, 18 students of slow-rock

genre, 16 students of RnB, then 13 students of hip-hop and jazz. genre It can be

assumed that the students tend to prefer pop songs than the others because the

genre of pop is easy listening for students so they can easily listen the lyric of the

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The table specification of vocabulary showed that there are four kind of

vocabulary. Based on the result of vocabulary test, the students made the most

correct answers is nounbetter than the other three type of vocabulary i.e., verb,

adjective, and adverb. Noun is a crucial part of speech because it is the

arrangement with the verb as the sentence core which is essential to complete the

sentence and it is also easily for students investigate the noun because it could be

the name of person, thing or place.

In this research showed that there is significant correlation between students’

frequency listening English song and students’ vocabulary achievement. It can be

seen at the result of students’ frequency listening who have good frequency and

students’ vocabulary who have good achievement. Wati (2012) states that a good

part of vocabulary acquisition has to be incidental. Incidental learning is

facilitated through exposure to language input, by using song as one of the ways.

The researcher also found that some of the students who got good score of

frequency listening, got bad score of vocabulary test. Besides that, there are

students who got good score of frequency listening, got bad score of vocabulary

test. Some students claimed that song is one of their ways to improve their

English acquisition well. As Brown (2001) states that a successful language

learning will be depend on the learner’s investment of time, effort, and attention

to understand and produce the language, as the form of an individualized strategy.

The result of coefficient correlation between students’ frequency listening to

English songs and students’ vocabulary achievement was 0.738, there is higher

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significant level of 0.01. It means that there is a significant correlation between

students’ frequency of listening to English song and students’ vocabulary

achievement. The researcher analzed the data by using Pearson Product Moment

Coefficient Correlation (SPSS 17.0).

Therefore, listening a song has a good effect in learning activities. It supports

Lynch (2006) cited in Angliawati (2011) state that there are some factors

contributing to listening comprehension of song and one of the factor is “the use

of new vocabulary, idioms and expressions. Students need to address the new

material offered in each song. This includes grammar, vocabulary and usage”.

Based on the data from questionnaire, it can be assumed that most of students

state that song is a interesting media. It can help them to get more vocabularies

and to learn English.It can be summarized that there is a significant correlation

between the students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their vocabulary

achievement because by having a high frequency of listening to English songs, it

helps the students to have a good vocabulary achievement.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Based on the data analyzed and discussions of findings, it can be concluded that:

There is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to

English song and their vocabulary achievement. The coefficient correlation

between students’ frequency of listening to English song and their vocabulary

achievement is found to be high with index correlation 0.738, it is higher than

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English song can be one factor in influencing students’ vocabulary achievement.

Most of the students have high category in listening frequency. The percentage of

students’ listening frequency scores shows that 56.25% of the students is high

category, 40.63% is average categor, and 3.12% is low category. It can be

concluded that more than half of students have high and average category. The

result of students’ frequency of listening and result of students’ vocabulary test

showed that the students who have a good score in listening frequency also have a

good score in vocabulary test. It can be concluded that the students’ freqeuency in

listening English songs can improve the students’ vocabulary achievement.

Regarding the conclusion stated previously, the researcher would like to propose

several suggestions, as follows:

1. It is suggested for students to have a habit in listening to English songs

because they can achieve new vocabularies from the song. They also can

practise and improve their English acquisition well all the time unconsiously.

2. For the English teacher, it recommend them to create the techniques of

teaching process which is make students more interested and easier to

understanding the materials because they have capability in designing and

presenting the materials to the students in teaching learning process.

3. For further research, it can be investigated the correlation between students’

frequency of listening to English songs with other acquisition, such as

grammar or pronunciation. It can be also to compare frequency of listening to

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4. For future researcher, they can use this research as a literature to guide them

when they want to do the similar research. Although this study has been done,

it still has many weakness because of limited time and this research was

conducted only on small population of students, so the data gained in this

research only measured a small sample of students in SMPN 3 Bandar

Lampung. Therefore, any writers interested in the same field are suggested to

do deep analysis and focus on achievement in vocabulary in order to give big

contribution in academic life.

REFERENCES

Angliawati, R.Y. 2011 The Frequency of Listening to English Song and Listening Achievement. A researcher Paper. FPBS UPI Bandung: Unpublished.

Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: (An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy) 2nd ed. New York: addisson Wesley Longman, Inc.

Futonge, K. 2005. Using English Videos and Music in EFL, ESL Classrooms. ESL Magazine: Read & Publish ESL articles.

Hatch, E and Brown, C. 1995. Journal: Studies in second Language Acquisition Vol. 19 Issue 01. VOCABULARY, SIMANTIC , AND LANGUAGE

EDUCATION. New York: Cambridge University Press. Available at http//journal.cambridge.org/

Hatch, E and Farhady, H. 1982. Research Design and Statistic for Applied Linguistic. London: New Burry House, Inc.

Murphey, T. 1992. Music and song. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Cited in Millington. Neil T. (2011). Using Songs Effectively to Teach English to Young Learners. Japan: Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. Available at Language Education in Asia, 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.5746/LEiA/11/V2/I1/A11/Millington.

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Piro, Joseph M. and Ortiz, Camilo. 2009. Psychology of Music cited in Music and the Brain: Listening to Music Could Help You Learn articles. Available at http://education-portal.com/

Wati, F. E. 2012. The Use of English Song in Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery: A quasi experimental study at second grade in one vocational school in Bandung A researcher Paper. FPBS UPI Bandung: Unpublished.

Wenden, A. 1986. What do second language learners know about their language learning? A second look at retrospective account. Applied Linguistics 7 (2), 186–205. Available at http://ed.lhu.edu.vn/?CID=139&NewsID=662

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DEDICATION

This script proudly dedicated to:

 My beloved parents, Rana Deya and Yuliantini

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I. INTRODUCTION

This chapters presents background of the problem, research problem, objective of problem, uses of the research, scope of the research and definition of term.

1.1 Background of the problem

Listening takes the main role in language learning because before one understands and starts to speak, he or she has to hear the sound, words, and speech pattern first. In using the language, listening gives the students information to complete their knowledge. Listening also develops the students to be able to do speaking, reading and writing. So, listening is the first skill and the most important of the other language skill, i.e. (speaking, reading, and writing). In fact, the students still get difficulties in listening. They hate doing listening comprehension in the teaching learning process.

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important role in daily live because the information and communication cannot be achieved without listening first. In fact, students often take the wrong way when listening and this leads them to the poor result. It should be noted that the learner’s perception of their listening problem and strategies can affect their

comprehension both positively and negatively (Wenden, 1986).

The students confront many problems when they study English in the class like having low motivation in learning English. So, the students have a negative attitude to learn English because they get difficulities to understand the subject and finally the students regard English as a difficult subject. Therefore, the media in teaching and learning process is very important to solve students’ problem and to make them understand more English subject.

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enjoyable experience. The song expose students to a wide vocabulary related a lyric of the song.

On the other hand, vocabulary is one of important aspect for the learner and it has a big influence in English language learning. It is one of problems confronted by the students because the students usually study the theory but the chance of practicing English is not given sufficient proportion. If the learners lack of vocabulary, they will also have a limited capability to understand in other skills of English and they cannot communicate with others clearly in English language. conversely, when they have a large number of vocabularies, the students can speak fluently and accurately. They can also read the text effectively. The students with sufficient amount of vocabulary might be to be write the passage comprehensively.

When the students listen to English song in the first time, they try to find the lyric of the song and look up the dictionary to know some vocabulary that they do not know. Unconsciously, that is the enjoyable activity learning process in a good way. In other words, if the students listen to English song frequently, they will get more new words. Students can get the advantages of using song as an input of their English language learning especially to achieve the vocabulary. According to Zatnikasari (2008), song is also effective to make the students to remember the word easily and feel more motivated in the class because they learn in interesting way.

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SMPN 3 Bandar lampung. The researcher assumes that a high frequency of listening to English songs can make students have a good skill and help them develop their vocabulary. Thus, the writer wants to know the correlation between the frequency listening to English song and students’ vocabulary achievement.

1.2 Identification of the problem

In reference to background of the problem, the following problems can be found: 1. The students hate doing listening comprehension in teaching listening

process.

2. The students regard English as a difficult subject because they have low motivation that makes the students get difficulties in learning English.

3. The learning process is not interesting for the students and it makes the students bored because they learn English from textbooks and the learning process will be ordinary.

4. The students lack of vocabulary because they usually study the theory but they do not keep practicing.

5. The school lack listening facilities that makes the teacher prefer teaching reading, writing, or speaking.

6. The students prefer listening to Indonesian songs to English songs therefore the lyrics are not familiar to them.

1.3 Limitation of the problem

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English song. As the solution, this research will investigate the correlation between the frequency of listening English song and students’ vocabulary

achievement. It is assumed that the high frequency of listen to English songs makes the students have a better skill and help them develop their vocabulary better way.

1.4 Formulation of the problem

The explanation above leads the researcher to formulated the problem as follow: “Is there any correlation between the students’ frequency of listening to English song and their vocabulary achievement at the second year of SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung?”

1.5 Objective of the problem

In relation to the formulating of the problem above, the objective of the problem is to find out the relationship between the students’ frequency of listen to English song and their vocabulary achievement at the second year of SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung.

1.6 Uses of the research The uses of this research are:

Theoretically

- The result of this research is support the theories concerning the benefit of song toward listening comprehension.

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Practically

- To provides the information for English teacher in teaching and learning English to improve student’s vocabulary by using songs.

- To help the students to increase their frequency listening English song in order to enhance their vocabulary achievement.

- To find the correlation between the frequency of listening to English song and their vocabulary. Thus, it is true that the use of English song can develop student’s vocabulary.

1.7 Scope of the research

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1.8 Definition of term Listening

is the first skill that should be mastered before the people can speak to the other to communicate.

Listening to a song

is the enjoyable activity to entertain some people in spare time.

Song in language teaching

is one of an interesting way in teaching and learning process and it is enjoyable because song is familiar in our daily life.

Vocabulary

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II. FRAME OF THEORIES

This chapter describes the review of the previous research, concepts of listening, concepts of listening a song, concepts of song as media, concepts of vocabulary, listening to song toward vocabulary achievement and the hypothesis.

2.1Review of Previous Reserch

Concerning the topic under the discussion, there are several studies that have been carried out, the first is Wati (2012) investigated the use of English songs to

improve students’ vocabulary mastery in second grade of vocational school. In

her research, students have difficulties in learning process to memorizing the vocabulary with the traditional language-teaching like oral drills, flash cards, written, definition and lists. Therefore, she investigates whether English songs

can improve students’ vocabulary mastery. She employed quasi experimental

method with two groups; an experimental group and control group. The result

showed that there was a significant increase on students’ vocabulary after being

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The second is Rosyida (2012) investigated the correlation between students’ frequency listening to English songs and their listening achievement. She investigate that many students regarded listening ability as the basic and the major of language mastery because good communication is not only indicated with good speaking ability of the speaker but also with good listening ability of the listener. She applied one group and two variables. The result showed that there was positive correlation between the frequency of listening to English song and their listening achievement

Based on the previous research, there is one issue that has not been investigated concerning the correlation between students’ frequency of listening English song and vocabulary achievement. The researcher wants to know whether the frequency of listening to English song has correlation in students’ vocabulary achievement.

2.2Concept of Listening

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listening is a complex process in which many things happen simultaneously inside the mind. According to Borisoff & Purdy in Listening in Ec in Everyday Life, 1997 there are some components in listening; is learned, a dynamic process, an active process. Listening involves verbal and nonverbal communication and allows us to be receptive to the needs, concerns, and information of others, as well as the environment around us. Buck cited in Angliawati (2011) state that there are three characteristics of listening activity; firstly, the automatic processing is important in listening activity. To make it success, knowledge of language that can make language processing fast and efficient is needed when there is no time to think about the meaning. Secondly, the sum total of the listener’s knowldege, past experience, current thoughts, feeling, intentions, personality and intelligence are allowed by the normal process of listening comprehension to interact freely with the acoustic input and with each other, and to create the interpretation of the text. Thirdly, as listening is a cognitive process and in reality the context is not external to the listener and the context of interpretation is cognitive environmet of the listener. From the statement above, it can be infered that listening is an active process to identify, interpretation what they listen, so they can understand what others are saying.

There are many types of listening. These five types of listening are classified according to the purpose of listening, proposed by Wolvin and Coakely cited in Goh, (2002);

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instead the focus is largely on sounds. In a basic level class this can be as simple as distinguishing the gender of the speaker or the number of the speakers etc. As mentioned before the focus is not on comprehending; but on accustoming the ears to the sounds. If one thinks she/he can see that this is where L1 listening begins - the child responds to sound stimulus and soon can recognise its parents' voices amidst all other voices. Depending on the level of the students, the listening can be discriminating sounds to identifying individual words.

2. Comprehensive listening where the focus is on 'understanding the message'. The writers consider this as the basis for the next three types of listening. However, the problem can come in the form of 'understanding'. Depending on many factors (both individual and social) students can end up understanding the same message in different, different ways. Lot of work in teaching listening in the classroom has to happen here in facilitating the students to develop their comprehension skills.

3. Therapeutic listening - is one kind of listening where the listener's role is to be a sympathetic listener without much verbal response. In this kind of listening the listener allows somebody to talk through a problem. This kind of listening is very important in building good interpersonal relations.

4. Critical listening is the fourth kind of listening where listeners have to evaluate the message. Listeners have to critically respond to the message and give their opinion.

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English music, even if they don't understand, they still enjoy thereby challenging the notion of comprehensive listening as the basis for other three types of listening. Then the teacher reflected on the practice of listening to songs in the language lab. Generally the students listen to the songs once and try to make out the lyrics before listening a second time with the lyrics. Then they recalled that they appreciated the song better during the second time and were able to see the relation between how one would enjoy something that s/he is able to make sense of.

There are six basic stages of the listening process: hearing, attending, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding. These stages occur in sequence, but they generally performed with little awareness an often rapid succession.

a. Hearing - it refers to the response caused by sound waves stimulating the sensory receptors of the ear; it is physical response; hearing is perception of sound waves; you must hear to listen, but you need not listen to hear (perception necessary for listening depends on attention.

b. Attention - brain screens stimuli and permits only a select few to come into focus- these selective perception is known as attention, an important requirement for effective listening; strong stimuli like bright lights, sudden

noise…are attention getters; attention to more commonplace or less striking

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c. Understanding - to understand symbols we have seen and heard, we must analyze the meaning of the stimuli we have perceived; symbolic stimuli are

not only words but also sounds like applause… and sights like blue

uniform…that have symbolic meanings as well; the meanings attached to

these symbols are a function of our past associations and of the context in which the symbols occur; for successful interpersonal communication, the listener must understand the intended meaning and the context assumed by the sender.

d. Remembering - it is important listening process because it means that an individual has not only received and interpreted a message but has also

added it to the mind’s storage bank; but just as our attention is selective, so

too is our memory- what is remembered may be quite different from what was originally seen or heard.

e. Evaluating - it is a stage in which active listeners participate; it is at these point that the active listener weighs evidence, sorts fact from opinion, and determines the presence or absence of bias or prejudice in a message; the effective listener makes sure that he or she doesn’t begin this activity too soon; beginning this stage of the process before a message is completed requires that we no longer hear and attend to the incoming message-as a result, the listening process ceases.

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only overt means by which the sender may determine the degree of success in transmitting the message.

(Stages of the listening process explained, articlesfactory.com)

The explanation above has a purpose to be a good listener because it has benefits. By having good listening skills one can avoid having misunderstanding, resolve conflicts, get people to open up, and build trust. Listening skills may help attain better information and research or even assist in reaching a compromise or conclusion.

2.3Concepts of Listening to a Song

Listening to the song is an essential part in our lives because it is one of the activity which the people like to entertain themselves in spare time. Every person has the favourite song and he/she has the favourite type of song to spend his/her time. Every song has a different genre, the following are the detail explanation of genre of song:

1. Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B and RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.

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basic tunes and chord patterns and, more recently, a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom. (thefreedictionary.com)

3. Pop songs are those which have contemporary lyrics and an upbeat rhythm, basically for the youth culture. The composition of pop songs concentrates more on music technology and recording instead of live performances. Rhythm and effects are two important elements in pop songs.

4. Rock songs are most popular among teenagers and youngsters. They consist of clear pieces of lead guitar, bass guitar, drums, and keyboards as some of the main instruments. When the instruments are played in sync, they sound energetic along with the vocals.

5. In hip-hop or rap songs, the singers recites lyrics in an off-beat manner but with the continuity of the rhythm. These songs primarily include solid rhythmic beats and synth, with a focus on the way lyrics are sung. Hip-hop songs have become popular not only in the USA, but all over the world. The most popular stars in hip-hop music are Eminem, Nelly, Akon, Flo Rida, Jay-Z, 50 Cent, and Kanye West.

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7. Pop rock is a music genre which mixes a catchy pop style and light lyrics in its

(typically) guitar-based rock songs. There are varying definitions of the term,

ranging from a slower and mellower form of rock music to a subgenre of pop

music. The detractors of pop rock often deride it as a slick, commercial product,

less authentic than rock music. (wikipedia.com)

The explanation above described about some kind of music genre in general. People can choose the varoius of the genre in a song based on their soul, feeling, situation or their favourite. In usually, the people listening to song in done after hard working hours because song is the best 'medicine' for our tired brains, as it somewhat helps to eliminate stress and pressure. Maybe that is why song can be played everywhere and everyone, after working and studying, really needs music to refill their power. Hence, we all seem to owe many things to song.

When the people listen a song, it has some positive effect for themsleves. The effect can influence physical, emotional, cognitive and social well-being and improve quality of life. There are some the benefits when listening to song.

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2. Reduces Stress: Stress has been associated with many illnesses, including several mental illnesses that seem to occur only in people with exceedingly high stress levels. In a study conducted, subjects were made listen to a half-hour of soothing music twice daily for two weeks. It showed significantly greater reductions in stress and anxiety levels in the subjects. 3. Cardiovascular benefits: Listening to soothing music also helps reduce

your heart rate and blood pressure. As a result of a lower blood pressure, it also reduces the risk of stroke and other health problems over time. In a new Italian study, researchers found that people with mild hypertension (high blood pressure) who listened to classical, Celtic or Indian (raga) music for just 30 minutes a day for one month had significant reductions in their blood pressure. Good music helps to calm down the cells and tissues that make up the lungs thereby bringing down the patient's breathing and heart rate to normal.

4. Stimulate brains cells: Research has shown that music with a strong beat can stimulate brainwaves to resonate in sync with the beat, with faster beats bringing sharper concentration and more alert thinking. On the other hand, listening to soothing classical music improves ability to focus for longer time and promotes a calm, meditative state. It brings about a sense of well-being and creativity, a change which lasts long after the music has ceased to play.

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feeling of fatigue, exhaustion and boredom are evaded. Music can also act as a stimulant which can increase your performance. Respiration and cardiac rate is increased from music which can help you intensify your workout. According to a study conducted in 2005, listening to music while exercising boosted participants' weight loss and helped exercisers stay consistent.

6. Promote a sound sleep: Listening to music as we drift off to sleep ensures that we get the rest that we need from our sleep. Sleep puts your body in a healthy condition as it takes away the effects of stress, depression and anxiety from a person.

7. Increase optimism: Depression leads to weakness, headache, confusion, and loss of concentration. Music can also be used to bring a more positive state of mind, helping to keep depression at bay. Good music also makes one to remember happy moments or good days. It also increases self-esteem and self-confidence.

8. Helps in Cancer: Research suggests that music may offer a number of benefits for people coping with cancer. It reduces anxiety in patients receiving radiation therapy, as well as eases nausea and vomiting resulting from high-dose chemotherapy.

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10.Helps in spiritual health: There is a unique connection between music and spirituality. Chanting or some kind of music helps people worship in a meaningful way, and makes them feel closer to God.

(lifemojo.com)

Unconsiously, listening a song is not usual activity. It has some advantages for listener. All the time, maybe they just know some the advantages of listening a song and they felt that listening a song brought a relaxation after they do the activity. Based on the explanation above, the statement describe many kind of benefits of listening a song that can bring a good influence for listener.

2.4Concept of Song as Media

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try to find the media from traditional media ones up to modern ones that can facilitated the teaching and learning process.

Nowdays, we are sorrounded by songs because it has a big part in our daily life and it is impossible to escape from the song. Therefore, song is one of media, the teacher can use it to support their teaching and learning activity because it has to

be very creative in ways to keep learner’s interests and the best ways to make

learning English fun. Harmer (2000: 242) who state that music is a powerful stimulus for student engagement precisely because it speaks directly to our emotions while still allowing us to use our brains to analyze it and its effects if we so wish. Song is a natural way because it is not only for entertaining when we are bored, but also it is a new way in language learning.

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Based on the explanation above, it can be said that song is one of media which can use the teacher as a media to teach their students in learning process. Futonge (2005) states that song is also a great language package that bundles culture,

vocabulary, listening, grammar and a host of other language skills in just a few

rhymes. Songs can also provide a relaxed lesson. They can also form the basis for

many lessons. Orlova (2003) states that it is possible to suggest that among the

methodological purposes with songs used in class, it is possible to rank the

following: Practicing the rhythm, stress and the intonation patterns of the English

language. Teaching vocabulary and grammar. Developing listening

comprehension, writing skills, and speaking. For this last purpose, songs and

mainly their lyrics are employed as a stimulus for class discussion.

According to Brown (2006), procedure of any listening activity can be done by

activating prior knowledge, helping students organize their learning by thinking

about their purposes for listening, and if speaking is also a goal of the classroom,

using well-structured speaking tasks informed by research. There are many ways

of using song in teaching and learning activity, it can be developed based on the

creativity of the teacher. According to Arevalo in The Use of Song as a Tool to

Work on Listening and Culture in EFL Classes (2010, p 15), there are many steps

to focus on a listening practice:

a. Activating prior-knowledge

Prior knowledge is organized in schemata: abstract, generalized mental

representations of our experience that are available to help us understand

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model of language processing. That model says that when people listen or

read, they process the information they hear both top-down and bottom-up.

Top-down means using our prior knowledge and experiences. Bottom-up

processing means using the information people have about sounds, word

meanings, and discourse markers like first, then and after that to assemble

their understanding of what they read or hear one step at a time.

b. While-listening

Having a purpose for listening helps us listen more effectively. In the

listening activities, teachers should explain students which the purpose of

the activity is. Students could listen for the main idea, for details, and for

making inferences. Therefore, students develop a sense of why they listen

and which skill to use to listen better. Teachers can build skills by asking

students to focus on their reason for listening each time they listen. This is a

form of strategy training.

c. Post-listening

Teachers can use post-listening activities to check comprehension, evaluate

listening skills and use of listening strategies, and extend the knowledge

gained to other contexts. A post-listening activity may relate to a

pre-listening activity, such as predicting; may expand on the topic or the

language of the listening text; or may transfer what has been learned to

reading, speaking, or writing activities.

Using a song has a positive contributions to language learning, “Song will help

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spoken or sung also helps memorization. Again, this will enable learners to

remember chunks of language which they can use in conversations or in writing.

Mol (2009) states that “As language teachers, we can use songs to practice

listening, speaking, reading and writing”. There are some benefit of song for

students in lerning process:

1. Enhance language skills

Language skills are increased when vocabulary, grammar and syntax are learned through song. In the same way that children all over the world implement simple songs to learn the alphabet, days of the week and numbers or colors, songs can be used to help ESL students memorize phrases and words set to a melody.

2. Language in Context

The language used in simple songs is in context, enabling quicker comprehension. This makes the words and phrases more meaningful to the students, and gives them a frame of reference that is easy to retain. They absorb knowledge subconsciously during fun activities and can draw on that knowledge later.

3. Repetition without the drudgery

While memory by rote is a time-honored form of teaching language, adding songs to the mix allows a break from mere repetition and gets children involved on an interactive level. The songs used can be catchy and recyclable – many songs can be adapted easily to personalize them to a particular lesson, child or group.

4. Fluency and natural English

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it. They present the rhythms of language in a way that encourages fluency; when performed by a native speaker, the natural stresses and rhythms are clearly audible, helping students achieve not only the correct pronunciation but a natural flow of speech.

5. Multiple Intelligences

Auditory learners will find songs to be the perfect learning tool. Actions can be easily integrated into singing time for kinesthetic and tactile learners, and visual learners can also benefit from watching the group using actions or by the

implementation of flashcards.

6. Enjoyment is always motivating

Motivation is a wonderful reason to starting using English songs for children in your ESL classroom. Most children love music and singing, and this portion of classroom time can be used as a reward for a harder section of class being completed, or as a break when the class becomes bored or frustrated.

7. ESL songs are non-threatening and confidence building

Songs also can build the self esteem of the group as well as each individual student. They provide a non-threatening way for students to join in at their own comfort level without being singled out. Each can learn at their own pace, becoming more and more comfortable with the song with each repetition. Children allowed to learn at their own speed build confidence along the way.

In addition, according to Lynch cited in Vanessa (2011), there are nine reasons

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1. Song contains authentic and natural language

2. Song can introduce variety of new vocabularies

3. Song is easily obtainable

4. Song can suit the needs and interests of the students

5. Song can introduce grammar and cultural aspects

6. Time length of the song can be easily controlled

7. Students can experience a wide range of accents

8. Song lyrics can be used in relating to situations of the world around us

9. Song is fun and flexible

In summary, using a song as media in teaching and learning activity has some

good effects for students. The use of song as media is very important in teaching

and learning to help the students learn English language. Based on the type of listening that explained in concept of listening before, when the students listening a song, they can listen the sound or the pronunciation, they can comprehend the meaning or message of the song and they can respon by given their opinion. According to Mol (2009), more difficult songs often contain interesting

vocabulary and idioms. Thus, through a song students can learn about the culture,

history, and they can learn a new vocabulary.

2.5Concept of Vocabulary

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writing. Mastering vocabulary is the ability to get or receive a lot of words. It is a crucial aspects because the students will know the meaning of vocabulary to avoid making mistakes in understanding of the context. Hatch and Brown (1995) states that vocabulary is a set of words with their meaning as a fundamental and useful tool for communication and acquiring knowledge in language.

According to Nation (1994; 3) the basis of frequency of vocabulary can be devided into two kinds; there are high frequency vocabulary and low frequency vocabulary.

- High frequency vocabulary consists of words that are very often in normal language, use in all four skills and accross the full range of situation of use. It is consists of 2000 word families, which are about 87% of the running words in formal written text and more than 95% of the words in informal spoken texts.

- The low frequency vocabulary on the other hand, covers only small proportion of the running words of a continous text, it means that low frequency vocabulary is rarely, used in common activity of English language. This group includes well over 10.000 word families.

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the learner can use the correct form of a word for the meaning intended with the appropriate context.

Vocabulary is needed to help the students to make the sentence. The sentence divided according to the functions of each word, the function is classified as a different part of speech. They are as follows:

1. Noun

It is a crucial part of speech because it is the arrangement with the verb as the sentence core which is essential to complete the sentence. It could be the name of person, thing or place.

Example :

- It is a newspaper

- This hotel is very fomous

2. Verb

It is the word which expresses an action or help to make statement. Generally, verb devided into transitive and intransitve:

a. Transitive verb

This verb is a verb which needs an object, for example; concern, need, discuss, give, see and etc.

b. Intransitive verb

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3. Adjective

An adjective is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.

- My student is very diligent - My mother is extraordinary

4. Adverb

adverb is a modifying part of speech. It describes verbs, other adverbs, adjectives, and phrases. They are used to describe how, where, when, how often and why something happens. Here are a few examples:

- Verb- The cat climbed quickly up the tree. (quickly describes how the cat climbed)

- Adverb- Mike worked very carefully on his paper. (very shows how carefully he worked)

- Adjective- She is nearly ready to go. (nearly tells to what extent she is ready)

a. Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in a sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning. Some commonly used adverbs of manner include; carefully, correctly, eagerly, easily, fast, loudly, patiently, quickly, quietly and well.

Example in the sentence:

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- She quickly decided to write her paper. (her decision was quick) - She decided to write her paper quickly. (her writing was quick) b. Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of

place are also used as prepositions. Some commonly used examples include the following; abroad, anywhere, downstairs, here, home, in, nowhere, out, outside, somewhere, there, underground, upstairs. Example in the sentece:

- I wanted to go upstairs.

- She has lived in the city since June.

c. Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens. The following adverbs are commonly used in this way; always, every, never, often, rarely, seldom, sometimes and usually.

Example in the sentence :

- Shinta often gets a gift from her brother. - The fish usually swims near the top of its tank.

d. Adverbs of time describe when something happens. These examples are commonly used; after, already, during, finally, just, last, later, next, now, recently, soon, then,, tomorrow, when, while and yesterday. Example in the sentence

- He came home before dark.

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In summary, when the students learn vocabulary, they can know a word from the meaning and they can use the word in appropriate context. Thus, the teacher should help the students to achieve the vocabulary with strategy or technique to make a good result in vocabulary learning.

When the teacher teaching of vocabulary for the students, they should provide the material to help students in two broad areas: first, they need to be presented and practiced in natural contexts; the vocabulary that is frequent, current and

appropriate to students’ needs. Second, material should help students become

better learners of vocabulary by teaching different techniques and strategies they can use to continue learning outside the classroom (McCarten, 2007: 18).

Based on Cross, 1991; Nation 1990 as cited in Öztürk 2008: 22), There are three

group strategies in teaching vocabulary;

1. Presentation Startegies

Presentation strategies introduce the target vocabulary for first time. These will involve either presentation of the meaning or the form. Among the meaning strategies are; visual strategies like the use of picture, body actions, real object or video, verbal presentation strategies like definition, translation, or exemplification an audio strategies like imitation of sound or having learners listen to a tape-recording. It focuses on the pronunciation or spelling of the word and includes strategies like the

teachers’ modelling of the target word, chorus repitation, or the what-is-it

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2. Practice Strategies

It involves classroom review of the previously introduced vocabulary as well as homework (e.g. classroom tests, games, semantic maps, written repitition).

3. Strategy Training Strategies

This strategygroup includes strategies for strategy training. The purpose of strategy training is to teach learner strategies for independent vocabulary learning like guessing from context, word-bulding, dictionary use and keeping vocabularies notes.

In this discussion, it can be infered that vocabulary plays an important role in expressing the ideas and thoughts. Learning vocabulary is expected to increase their vocabulary, they can understand the meaning and can use appropriate vocabulary related to the context. In teaching process, the strategies is one of aspect which should have the teacher to help them in teaching activity. It can make easy for teacher to deliver the knowledge of vocabulary, thus the students can achive it. Lewis(1992) holds the idea that vocabulary acquisition is the main task of second language acquisition and the language skills as listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating all can not go without vocabulary.

2.6Listening to Song and Vocabulary Achievement

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a language because many aspects of song which can be used to help students in language acquition. Using a song can introduce a new English word to the students to improve their vocabulary.

According to Smahillah in (2011), Songs and lyrics are provided as a tool to predict the sentence so that the students can glean the meaning of particular sentence with their own interpretation. By using this technique the teacher just becomes the facilitator of the students because the teacher lets the students read and comprehend the lyrics as the text consisting of new words. Murphey (1992) cited in Millington (2011: 134) says that songs can also be useful tools in the learning of vocabulary, sentence structures, and sentence patterns, not to mention their reflectivity of mother tongue culture

Moreover, Milillington (2011: 135) points out that songs can provide the opportunity for vocabulary practice. They are usually based around a theme or topic that can provide the context for vocabulary learning.

Šišková(2008, p. 14) states that the words used in the lyrics remain in the active

store as long as students listen to the particular song and since the aim of this work is to use students’favourite songs, the period of time when pupils listen to the song for is long.

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is “the use of new vocabulary, idioms and expressions. Students need to address the new material offered in each song. This includes grammar, vocabulary and

usage”. Hence, the vocabulary is an important role in language acquitition. One way of developing students’ vocabulary is by listening a song. The frequency of listening English song activity can help the students to develop their vocabulary. By this research, the writer investigate the frequency of listening to English song and vocabulary achivement.

2.7 Hypothesis

Based on theoritical assumption above, the writer states the hypothesis “there is a

significant correlation betwen the students’ frequency of listening to English song

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III. RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter concerns with the methodology of the research. It covers research design, participants, data collection and data analysis.

3.1 Research Design

This research is correlational study, the researcher investigated “The Frequency of Listening to English Song and vocabulary achievement”. Thus, two variable employed in this research; participants’ listening frequency and their vocabulary achivement. The design is visualized as follows:

X Y

(Hatch and Farhady, 1982) X : Listening frequency as independent variable

Y : Vocabulary achievement as dependent variable

The design above apply to find the correlation between those variables.

3.2 Population and sample

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3.3 Research instruments

In this research, there are two kinds of the instruments will use; questionnaire and participants’ vocabulary score.

3.3.1 Questionnaire

A questionnaire is needed to all participants to get information of their frequency of listening to English song and other information. It consists of three types of questions which have relation with this research; close question, open question and mixed-question. There are around thirty questions. To make the participants can understand the question which were written in Bahasa Indonesia.

The first type of question is close question, in this type proposed to identify partcipants’ frequency of listening to English song in a day, the

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Table 3.1

Spesification of Frequency Listening

No Spesification Item Numbers Percentage of Items 1. Listening to English song 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 14 23.33 %

2. Type of music genre 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 23.33% 3. Vocabulary 15, 16, 18, 19,24, 25,

26

23.33%

4. Interpret the meaning 17, 20, 23, 27 13.34% 5. Impression 21, 22, 28, 29, 30 16.67%

Total 30 100%

3.3.2 Vocabulary test

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Table 3.2

The Vocabulary’s Spesification of the Real Test

No Parts of Vocabulary Item numbers Percentage of items 1. Noun 7, 12, 13, 15, 17, 26, 27, 28,

29, 30

33.3%

2. Verb 2, 4, 6, 11, 19, 20, 21, 25 26.7%

3. Adjective 8, 9, 16, 22, 23, 24 20%

4. Adverb 1, 3, 5, 10, 14, 18 20%

Total 30 100%

3.4 Try Out of the Instruments 3.4.1 Try Out of Questionnaire

In this research was not administered the try out of the questionnaire. The researcher just administered try out of vocabulary test.

3.4.2 Try Out of the Vocabulary test

The try out test was conducted on february 14th, 2013. In the try out test, there were 30 students of VII G class and there were 50 test items of vocabulary test. Based on the analysis, there were 20 items were not valid (appendix 5). These items 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 38, 41, 43, 44, 48, 50 were dropped. There were 30 questions that administered to measuring the students’ vocabulary. the reliability analysis of the test was 0.66 (appendix 3),

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3.5 Validity and Reliability 3.5.1 Validity of The Test

The validity of a test shows how far the test measures what supposed to be measured (setiyadi, 2006), in order to measure whether instruments have a good validity or not, the researcher analyze the instruments from content validity and construct validity.

- Content validity is the extent to which a test measures a representative sample of the content (Hatch and Farhady, 1982). In the content validity, the material of the test is appropriate with the curriculum of second grade students and the test has a purpose to measure students’ achivement in vocabulary.

- In this research, construct validity use to measure the items of the test in students’ vocabulary achievement. Setiyadi (2006), it concerns with the the test, whether the test is actually in line with the theory focuses that is used to measure the ability and it is used to the research which has many indicators ’ vocabulary achievement.

3.5.2 Reliability

Figur

Table 3.1

Table 3.1

p.55
Table 3.2

Table 3.2

p.56
Table 3.3 Correlation Coefficient Interpretation

Table 3.3

Correlation Coefficient Interpretation p.64

Referensi

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