TEACHERS’ BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM PROCESS OF TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION.

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TEACHERS’

BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM PROCESS

OF TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION

A THESIS

Submitted to English Applied Linguistics Study Program in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of

Magister Humaniora

By

MARGARETHA DEBORAH SIMANJUNTAK Reg.No: 8136112050

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTICS STUDY PROGRAM

POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

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ABSTRACT

Simanjuntak, Margaretha Deborah. Registration Number: 8136112050. Teachers’ Behavior in the Classroom Process of Teaching Reading Comprehension. Thesis: English Applied Linguistic Program, Postgraduate School, State University of Medan, 2016.

This research deals with the classroom process during teaching reading comprehension. The objective of the research were to describe teachers do during the teaching of reading comprehension and the reason why do they do the way they do. This research conducted qualitative method. The data were obtained from the observation and interview. The data collected were analyzed by applying interactive model of Miles and Huberman. The location of this research was SMA Negeri 1,2,3 and 4 Tebing Tinggi. The result of the data analysis showed that there are 96 verbal behaviors the teacher performed in the classroom process, and these behaviors take place in 26 steps. The verbal behaviors lies not yet focused on enabling the students to be independent or skillful readers. Most of the behaviors are devoted to other aspects than aspects of teaching reading comprehension like text structure, managing class, translation, and pronunciation. And the underlying reason of teachers’ behavior in teaching reading comprehension was due to the five reasons, they are; (1) their belief on the knowledge of genre or the text structure, (2) their belief on the function of translation in teaching reading comprehension, (3) their belief on the indicator of text comprehension, (4) their belief on the function of oral reading text, (5) their belief on the function of classroom management to facilitate their concentration in reading text.All the underlying reasons of the teachers’ behavior in the teaching of reading comprehension cannot develop the students to be independent or skillful readers. It can be concluded that teachers do not really know what to teach and how to teach reading comprehension. So, it is suggested that the teaching of text structure knowledge should not be limited to the two points (master text structure and familiar to the example of text structure) only, but it should also enable students to use the knowledge to make their reading comprehension better. Finally

for the further researcher it wished to point out the students’ comprehension

related to the teacher’s behavior to get deeper findings such as knowing the reality

of teaching reading comprehension in students and teachers sight in order to find out the best strategy and media to develop teaching reading comprehension for the senior high school students.

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ABSTRAK

Simanjuntak, Margaretha Deborah. Registration Number: 8136112050. Perilaku guru dalam proses pengajaran pemahaman membaca. Sebuah Tesis: Linguistik Terapan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Negeri Medan, 2016.

Kajian ini berkaitan dengan proses pengajaran pemahaman membaca. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk adalah untuk menjelaskan apa yang dikerjakan guru selama proses pengajaran pemahaman membaca dan alasan mengapa mereka melakukan cara yang demikian. Kajian ini menggunakan desain penelitian kualitative Data didapatkan dari hasil observasi dan interview. Data yang sudah dikumpulkan dianalisa dengan menggunakan model interaktif oleh Miles dan Huberman. Lokasi penelitian ini dilakukan di SMAN 1,2,3 dan 4 Tebing Tinggi. Subjek dari penelitian ini yaitu guru bahasa inggris yang mengajar di kelas 10 di SMA 3&4 lalu guru yang mengajar kelas 11 di SMA 1&2. Hasil dari kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada 96 perilaku verbal guru yang ditunjukkan didalam pengajaran dikelas dan perilaku ini dilakukan dalam 26 langkah. Perilaku verbal tidak focus pada memampukan siswa menjadi pembaca yang mandiri dan mahir. Sebagian besar perilaku digunakan untuk aspek lain dari pada aspek pengajaran pemahaman membaca seperti susunan teks, menangani kelas, terjemahan dan pengucapan. Dan alasan dari perilaku guru dalam pengajaran pemahaman membaca terdiri dari 5 alasan yaitu (1) kepercayaan mereka pada pengetahuan jenis teks atau susunan teks, (2) kepercayaan mereka pada fungsi dari terjemahan dalam pengajaran pemahaman membaca, (3) kepercayaan mereka pada indikator pemahaman teks, (4) kepercayaan mereka pada fungsi dari membaca teks bersuara, (5) kepercayaan mereka pada fungsi dari penanganan kelas untuk memfasilitas konsentrasi siswa dalam membaca teks. Semua alasan dari perilaku guru dalam mengajar pemahaman membaca tidak dapat mengembangkan siswa untuk menjadi pembaca yang mandiri dan mahir. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa guru – guru tidak benar – benar tahu apa yang diajarkan dan bagaimana mengajarkan pemahaman membaca. Oleh karena itu, disarankan dalam pengajaran ilmu susunan teks seharusnya tidak dibatasi pada 2 poin saja ( menguasai susunan teks dan mengenali contoh dari susunan teks) tapi seharusnya itu juga memapukan siswa untuk menggunakan ilmu itu untuk membuat pemahaman membaca mereka lebih baik. Akhirnya, untuk penelitian selanjutnya diharapakan untuk membahas tentang kemampuan siswa dalam memahami bacaan yang berhubungan dengan perilaku guru untuk mendapatkan penemuan yang lebih mendalam lagi. Seperti mengetahui realita dari pengajaran pemahaman membaca dari sudut pandang guru dan siswa, untuk menemukan strategi yang terbaik dan media untuk mengembangkan pengajaran pemahaman membaca pada siswa SMA.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Praise the Lord Jesus Christ for the mercy, guidance and love which have

been given to the writer so this thesis could be completed. This thesis is a

scientific writing that to be completed in order to fulfill one of the academic

requirements for the degree of Magister Humaniora at English Applied

Linguistics Program: Postgraduate School, State University of Medan.

Foremost, the writer would like to express her sincere gratitude who have

given valuable guidance, suggestions and useful influences on the writing of this

thesis. The writer would like to deliver her grateful appreciation to her first

advisor Prof. Dr. Berlin Sibarani, M. Pd. and her second advisor Dr. Didik

Santoso, M.Pd. Moreover, the writer would like to express to her examiners, Prof.

Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S., Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed. , and Dr. Siti Aisyah

Ginting, M.Pd. Besides, the writer would also like to thanks to all the lectures of

English Applied Linguistics Program who have given much encouragement and

knowledge during taking the college.

Her gratefulness also goes to the Head of English Applied Linguistics

Program, Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed. and Prof. Dr. Bornok Sinaga, M. Pd as the

Director of Postgraduate School at State University of Medan

The writer would also like to deliver his gratefulness to the head of SMA

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Johanes Manik, S.Pd, M.Hum as the English teacher for giving chance to do

research in this school.

Special thanks are also for her parents Alm Ef Simanjuntak and R Purba

and her siblings T Marbun/ Marista Simanjuntak, R Haloho/Merry Simanjuntak,

Martha Simanjuntak and Maruli Simanjuntak and also my dear and cute

nephew/niece (Sanggam,Lola,Jona,Tiara and Joe) for their encouragement, care

and love during doing this thesis. The best thanks also goes to her friends in LTBI

B-3 2013 especially Reza, Nora, Kresna,Iin, Bu Suri, Intan, Nurlaili, Marni,

Miranda and friends are not able to write and also the best friend in the same

adviser Elvi, Erika, Putri, Kak Masri, Rizky, Vista who helped her doing the

thesis. And at last for the dearest one Samuel Nainggolan, SE. who supported for

writing this thesis.

Finally, the writer hopes this thesis will be useful and can be the references

for the next research and enhance our knowledge. God bless us.

Medan, September 5th 2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ... i

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... iii

TABLE OF CONTENT ... v

LIST OF FIGURES ... viii

LIST OF TABLE ... ix

LIST OF APPENDIX ... x

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of the Study ... 1

1.2 The Problems of the Study ... 5

1.3 The Scope of the Study ... 5

1.4 The Objectives of the Study ... 6

1.5 The Significance of the Study ... 6

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Theoretical Framework ... 7

2.1 Teacher’s behavior in the process of Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 7

2.2 Teaching Reading Comprehension in Classroom Process ... 10

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2.2.2 The Purpose Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 19

2.2.3 The Object of Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 21

2.2.4 Technique of Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 23

2.2.5 Evaluation of teaching reading comprehension ... 25

B. Relevant Studies ... 28

C. Conceptual Framework ... 30

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design ... 32

3.2 The Procedure of the Research ... 32

3.3 Data and Source of the Data ... 33

3.4 Technique of Data Collection ... 34

3.5 The Technique of Data Analysis ... 35

3.6 The Trustworthiness of the Study ... 37

CHAPTER IV : DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 Teacher’s Behavior in Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 40

4.2 The Underlying Reasons of the Teacher’s Behavior in teaching Reading Comprehension ... 98

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion ... 117

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LIST OF APPENDIX

Appendix A The Transcripts of Observation ... 123

Appendix B The Teacher Behavior in Classroom Process of Teaching

Reading Comprehension ... 154

Appendix C Observation 1 & 2 Identification of Teacher’s doing during

the Teaching of Reading Comprehension ... 213

Appendix D Steps of Teacher in Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 219

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1The Background of the Study

There are four skills that should be achieved by the student when they

learn English namely reading, speaking, listening, and writing. Brown (2000 :

185) states that reading is arguably the most essential skill for success in all

educational contents and remains a skill of paramount importance as one creates

assessment of language ability. It means that reading is an essential skill for all

levels and it has a large portion in teaching and learning language. Furthermore,

reading also as one of the ways of gaining large information about the world and

comprehending it from the written word.

And the comprehension itself is the skill of essential goal of reading,

because without good comprehension, reading does not provide the readers with

any information and without comprehension, reading is nothing more than

tracking symbols on a page with your eyes and sounding them out. Imagine being

handed down a story written in English with no understanding of its meaning.

You may appreciate the words aesthetically and even be able to draw some small

bits of meaning from the page, but you are not truly reading text, the words on the

page have no meaning. It means even though the students read for many reasons

but understanding is always a part of their purposes.

Furthermore, in comprehending the text involves multiple skills. The

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mental processes, such as memory, thought, imagination, organization,

implementation, and troubleshooting. They are gathered in comprehending text

related one another. By joining multiple skills are hoped to be able to comprehend

text correctly. In terms of teaching reading comprehension, students are hoped not

only to comprehend text but also to make the student become independent reader

where they can comprehend all the text without teacher’s helping or expert. As

Klinger and Vaughn (2007) described that the purpose of teaching reading

comprehension to make students become a good reader where good reader is able

to monitor their understanding and use all available information while attempting

to make sense of text and also understanding the text without base on expert’s

knowledge of what the good reader do to comprehend the text. But it is not easy

to make the students become the good or independent reader moreover they do not

know how to read well. The reality happened that many students failed in reading

because they are not taught reading well. More teachers focus on teaching

“reading” not “understanding” as the consequence and also more teachers just

help the students to comprehend the certain text and help them to answer the

question from the text. As the result, the students tend to have poor reading skill

and habits or in other word the students cannot be an independent reader. So if the

students are given other text, they cannot comprehend the text without their

teacher.

The fact shows that the result of teaching reading comprehension is still

low. It can be shown from the persistent underachievement of Indonesian students

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profile reports. The data that has been observed and showed in International

Student Achievement in Reading; the reading score of Indonesian students as

reported by PIRL (Progress in international reading literacy, 2006) is very low.

Indonesia got the fourth lowest rank from 45 countries. Furthermore, the worse

result is also shown in the research which was done by PISA (Program for

International Assessment, 2013); the reading score of Indonesian students was the

second lowest rank. Indonesia was ranked at 64 from 65 countries. The average

scores for Indonesian students for reading are 396.

This reality is contrary to Curriculum 2013 that the teaching of reading

comprehension as one of the language competency in English is considered being

important as through reading, the students will be easier to add and get the new

information from any kind of text. The reading comprehension activity is also

expected to make reading as the students’ habit and make the students able to

understand the text meaning and represent what they have read in their own

language through creative and innovative teacher in the teaching reading

comprehension process. But in fact as explained before that students tend to have

poor reading skill and habits. This indicates that the teaching of reading

comprehension should be improved.

There are many factors affecting reading comprehension, and according to

Gage (2009) the success of teaching any subject is affected by (1) presage,(2)

context and (3) process variable. The process variable is the last determinant of

the success of teaching. Teacher’s behavior is one of the aspects the process

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implemented in teaching reading comprehension or in other word the attribute that

the teacher posses or teacher’s planning (knowledge, experience, training, lesson

plan) can be observable in teacher’s behavior in real classroom. As Fung and

Chow’s (2002) review on pedagogy and classroom practices revealed that the

teacher-centered and student-centered teaching methods are basic to most

theoretical and teaching propositions. It is believed that much of the success in

teaching in classrooms lies in the teachers’ hands because they are responsible in

stimulating students’ interest and in gearing the mood and flow of the class. This

is the final phase where the outcome of what and how teachers have performed in

classrooms are shown. This outcome depends largely on the nature of the

teacher’s instruction and on the students’ reception. It is the observable changes

that come about in students as a result of their involvement in classroom activities

with their teachers and other students.

There are many researchers had researched about teacher’s behavior, one

of them a journal which title “Impact of Teacher’s Behavior on the Academic

Achievement of University Students” Shah, (2009). In this journal the researcher

found there was highly positive significant correlation between the behaviors of

teachers with the academic achievements of students and this journal is

quantitative research which is used questionnaire to get the data. This journal is

about the teacher’s behavior in general teaching. But in this research she

investigated the realization of the teacher’s behavior in teaching reading

comprehension. This research is not about the realization between teacher’s

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between the teacher’s behavior and students’ response and also the teacher’s

response. So this research is different to other previous researches. Where the

previous research in that journal just give questionnaire to the teachers and

students but in this research the researcher observed the process of teaching

reading comprehension than interview the teacher to know why they do the act in

the classroom. Based on the explanation above, this study aims to investigate

realization of the teacher’s behavior in the process of teaching reading

comprehension.

1.2The Problems of the Study

In line with the background of the study, the problems of the study were

formulated as follow:

1. What are the teachers doing during the teaching of reading

comprehension?

2. Why do they do the way they do?

1.3The Scope of the Study

There are many factors influencing the result of teaching reading

comprehension namely internal and external factor, including students’ reading

comprehension and teacher’s behavior. And in this study the researcher focused

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limited to the interaction between teacher and students that was watched, observed

or listened to while the teaching of reading comprehension process done.

1.4The Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study were:

1. To describe teachers do during the teaching of reading comprehension.

2. To describe the reason why do they do the way they do.

1.5The Significance of the Study

The findings of this study are expected to be useful theoretically and

practically. Theoretically, the findings of this study can give additional

information to theories related to teacher’s behavior in teaching reading

comprehension and Practically, the findings of this study are expected to be useful

for English teachers at schools and at university in teaching reading

comprehension and assist the teachers in their professional development by

connecting the presage and context variable to teaching reading comprehension

process. The study will expose to the teachers of English that the teachers’

behavior is very important for the teaching success so that teachers can teach

students to comprehend texts effectively through the attribute that the teachers

posses. Furthermore, it can be applied for conducting more depth in a study on the

teaching reading comprehension process in order to the teaching process runs

effectively and efficiently, and also for the next researcher in teaching reading

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118 CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

Based on research findings, it can be concluded that:

1. There are 96 verbal behaviors the teacher performed in the classroom

process, and these behaviors take place in 26 steps. The verbal behaviors

lies not yet focused on enabling the students to be independent or skillful

readers. Most of the behaviors are devoted to aspects other than aspects of

teaching reading comprehension like text structure, managing class,

translation, and pronunciation.

2. The underlying reason of teachers’ behavior in teaching reading

comprehension was due to the five reasons, they are; Teachers’ belief that

(1) knowing genre of text or the structure of the text can make students

comprehend the text, (2) translating text can assist students to comprehend

the text, (3) asking the content of text indicate to comprehend the text, (4)

reading text can assist students to comprehend the text and make students

read well, (5) managing students can assist students to comprehend the

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5.2 Suggestion

Based on the above conclusions, the following suggestions are given as

follows;

1. Since the research finding said the teaching of text structure (Genre) in

teaching reading comprehension intends to enable the students to master the

text structure itself and to let them familiar with the example of the structure,

it is suggested that the teaching of text structure knowledge should not be

limited to the two points only, but it should also enable students to use the

knowledge to make their reading comprehension better.

2. Based on the findings, this study is focused on teachers’ behavior in teaching

reading comprehension, it is suggested to the further researcher to point out

the students’ comprehension related to the teacher’s behavior to get deeper

findings such as knowing the reality of teaching reading comprehension in

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