THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW STRATEGY TO
IMPROVE STUDENTS' SKILL IN WRITING A RECOUNT
A Research Paper
Submitted to the English Education Department Of Faculty Language and Arts Education, Indonesia University of Education as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW
STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’
SKILL IN WRITING A RECOUNT TEXT
Oleh Iranita Sitohang
Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni
© Iranita Sitohang 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.
PAGE OF APPROVAL
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW STRATEGY TO
IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SKILLS IN WRITING A RECOUNT
Main Supervisor, Co-Supervisor,
Pupung Purnawarman, M.S.Ed., Ph.D. Budi Hermawan,
NIP. 196810131998031001 NIP.
Head of Department of English Education,
The Effectiveness of Jigsaw Strategy To Improve Students' Skills In Writing a Recount Text
This research is intended to find out how Jigsaw can improve students’ skill in writing a recount text. It was conducted at a vocational school in Bandung, involving students of eleventh grade as the participants. The research is a quasi-experimental design. In this study, the data of the study were obtained through questionnaire, pre-test and post-test. Data
obtained from questionnaire were analyzed in order to investigate students’ opinion about the
challenges of writing a recount text. The data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by using independent t-test from SPSS 20.0 program for windows. Based on the findings, the challenges faced by students in writing a recount text is the use of past tense, limited vocabulary, and shematic structure of recount text. The quantitative finding of the study shows that significance value is lower than 0.05 (p = 0.000 < 0.05), which indicates that
Jigsaw can improve students’ writing skill in the class investigated. Jigsaw helps students to
deal with their inability of writing a recount text because each student gives support to their
member in home group in order to gain their group’s achievement. In addition, Jigsaw helps
students to gather more knowledge when sharing the information and knowledge of their part in the expert group.
It is suggested that further researcher investigates the use Jigsaw in writing other texts genre.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statements of the Problem... 4
1.3 The Purposes of the Study... 4
1.4 The Scope of the Study... 4
1.5 Research Methods... 5
1.5.1 Research Design... 5
1.5.2 Population and Sample... 5
1.5.3 Instruments... 6
1.5.4 Data Collection Procedures... 6
1.5.5 Data Analysis... 6
1.6 Clarification of Terms... 8
1.7 Organization of the Paper... 9
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW... 10
2.1 Writing... 10
2.1.1 The Definition of Writing... 10
2.1.2 Writing as a Product... 11
2.1.3 Writing as a Process... 11
2.1.4 Writing in EFL Context... 14
2.2 Text... 18
22.214.171.124 The Definition of Recount Text... 19
126.96.36.199 Types of Recount Text... 19
188.8.131.52 The Schematic Structure of Recount Text... 20
184.108.40.206 The Grammatical Features of Recount Text... 21
2.3 Jigsaw... 22
2.3.1 Jigsaw Procedures... 24
2.4 Related Studies... 26
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY... 30
3.1 Research Method... 30
3.1.1 Research Design... 30
3.2 Data Collection... 31
3.2.1 Population and Sample... 31
3.2.2 Research Instruments... 32
220.127.116.11 Questionnaire... 32
18.104.22.168 Pre-test and Post-test... 32
3.3 Research Procedure... 32
3.3.1 Administering Pilot Test... 33
3.3.2 Conducting the Pre-test... 33
3.3.3 Distributing the Questionnaire... 33
3.3.4 Conducting the Jigsaw Strategy to the Experimental Group 33 3.3.5 Teaching the Control Group... 35
3.3.6 Conducting the Post-test... 36
3.4 Data Analysis... 36
3.4.1 Data Analysis on Pilot Test... 36
22.214.171.124 Validity... 37
126.96.36.199 Reliability... 37
3.4.2 The Data Analysis of Questionnaire... 38
3.4.3 Scoring Rubric... 38
3.4.4 Data Analysis on Pre-test and Post-test... 39
188.8.131.52 Normal Distribution Test... 39
184.108.40.206 The Independent T-test... 40
CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION... 41
4.1 Research Findings... 41
4.1.1 The Challenges in Writing A Recount Text... 41
220.127.116.11 The Grammar Challenge... 41
18.104.22.168 The Vocabulary Challenge... 43
22.214.171.124 The Schematic Structure Challenge... 44
4.1.2 The Effectiveness of Jigsaw... 44
4.2 Discussion... 46
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS... 50
5.1 Conclusions... 50
5.2 Suggestions... 50
Since World War II, English has become the lingua Franca, every
information and knowledge is written in English (Eldrob, 2010; Kirkpatrick,
2007, p. 3). Year by year, the number of people using English are increasing.
English plays an important part in global world development.
Considered as one of important subjects for Indonesia students, English is
involved as a subject in curriculum. Decree of Minister of Education and Culture
No.0601/U/1993 (Murtinigrum, 2008) stated that English may be taught in
elementary school as a local content and in junior and senior high school as
compulsory subject. It means that English needs to be learnt by every student.
Learning English means learning four basic skills of the language:
speaking, listening, reading and writing. The students should have abilities in
reading and listening to support their speaking and writing. Grabe and Kaplan
(1996, p. 5) stated that writing is particularly the most complex composing skill
valued in the academy which involves training, instruction, practice, experience
and purpose. Eventhough writing is often considered as a more difficult skill than
other language skills, it still can be learned and mastered. In line with this, Langan
(2008, p. 10) says that the more students practice writing, the better they will
Writing is a way of communication between the writer and the readers.
Langan (2008) pointed out that if the writer wants to effectively communicate
with readers, the writer should provide evidence to support his or her statements.
Writing can help us more to consider our thoughts and analyze our feelings
because it gives us time to do so. Because of writing, we are able to achieve more
understanding to communicate our purposes and expressions clearly with our
partner, which also helps us avoid the miscommunication which often happens in
an oral communication.
In the context of Indonesian school, writing is often directed toward
writing a text. Based on the text structure or overall design, there are two different
written texts: report and recount text (Feez & Joyce, 2000, p. 3). They further
pointed out that recount text is designed to tell a series of events which happened
one after the other. It means that when writing recount text the doer who relates
with the event will be known.
In telling their experiences written in a recount text, students must think
about past tense and the stages of recount: orientation, record of events and
reorientation (Feez & Joyce, 2000, p. 4-5). To stimulate the students’ writing skill,
especially writing recount text, teacher can use several sources such as student
experience, book, magazine, television or movie. Teacher can also use different
teaching technique for example jigsaw.
Jigsaw is one of learning techniques in cooperative learning. Previous
study, for example, the study conducted by Johnson & Johnson (1994) showed
and social relations particularly if it includes both group goals and individual
accountability. In relation to this Slavin (1987) stated that cooperative learning is
a philosophical and practical approach to changing classroom and school
organization, classroom processes and learning activities in order to offer all
learners more active learning experiences, equal opportunities, access, and a more
social supportive role. Felder and Brent (2001) believe that teachers use
Elliot Aronson developed the Jigsaw in 1978 (Slavin, 2009, p. 14). Jigsaw
is similar with group to group exchange with an important difference: every
student tend to teach. He further suggested that jigsaw prefered use for some
subjects including literature, especially in written form. In the 1990, Phelps
(Slavin, 2009, p. 57) found that there is a significant differences in the student
achievement using jigsaw. Mattingly & Van Sickle in the 1991 (Slavin, 2009, p.
57) also found that there is positive effect from Jigsaw strategy in student
achievement. In Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, Mengduo & Xiaoling
(2010) concluded that as far as language learners are concerned, jigsaw strategy is
a useful technique to focus on the language use to accomplish learning tasks such
as listening; reading, retelling, repeating, reciting; and writing in the EFL
The present research is aimed to find out whether jigsaw strategy is
effective to improve students’ skill of English language in writing a recount text.
1.2Statements of the Problem
This research is carried out to find answers to the following questions:
1. What challenges do students face in writing a recount text?
2. How does Jigsaw improve students’ skill in writing a recount text?
1.3The Purposes of the Study
Specifically, the research will focus on two primary objectives:
1. To find out students challenges in writing a recount text.
2. To find out how Jigsaw strategy can improve students’ skill in writing a
1.4The Scope of the Study
The research is limited only to investigate the challenges these students
encounter while they write a recount text and also how the jigsaw could improve
the students’ skill in writing a recount text. Jigsaw is used for the treatment in the
1.5.1 Research Design
This research is quantitative in nature. The research uses quasi
experimental procedures. The quasi-experimental research are often an impact
evaluation that assigns members to the treatment group and control group by a
method other than random assignment (National Center for Technology
1.5.2 Population and Sample
The sample in this research is 60 students of a vocational school in
Bandung. The 60 students come from two classes. The 30 students are the
experimental group (EG) and other 30 students are the control group (CG). The
experimental design that is applied in this study is as follows:
Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)
Sample Pre-test Treatment Post-test
Experimental group X1e T X2e
Control Group X1c 0 X2c
X1e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in pre-test
X1c : Students’ writing skill of control group in pre-test
X2e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in post-test
X2c : Students’ writing skill of control group in post-test
The instruments used in this research are questionnaire, pre-test and
post-test in writing a recount text. The questionnaire is administered to find out
students’ challenges toward writing a recount text. Pre-test and post-test are aimed
to obtain the data of students’ writing skill before and after having treatment.
1.5.4 Data Collection Procedures
The data for the study are collected through questionnaire, pre-test and
post-test result. The questionnaire result will come from both experimental and
control group. It is to acquire students challenges in writing a recount text. The
pre-test result is obtained before using the treatment to get preliminary
information on the abilities of those two groups. The post-test result will be
gathered from both groups to obtain the result of treatment.
1.5.5 Data Analysis
The collected data in the form of questionnaire result which are then
transcribed in order to get a description about students challenges in writing a
recount text. The data collected from pre-test and post-test result are analyzed
using t-test formula. In conducting the research the following steps have been
1. Administering the questionnaire result.
3. Interpreting the questionnaire result in order to answer the first research
4. Determining the students’ scores of each group in pre-test and post-test using
t-test formula to find out whether or not there is a significant improvement in
5. Analyzing the significance of the test using computer program of Statistic
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
1.6Clarification of Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding, some terms are clarified as follow:
1. Effectiveness: to different effect which produces better result in students
skill in writing a recount text before and after treatment from the process
of Jigsaw method implementation in teaching writing.
2. Cooperative Learning: learning method consist of the instructional use of
small groups that students work together to maximize their own and each
3. Jigsaw: learning technique that students work together on an academic
task broken into several subtasks, depending on the number of groups
(Fisher & Frey, 2008, p. 80-81).
4. Writing a recount text: in the context of genre studies, a piece of writing
which talks about a sequence of events from a personal point of view
(Tribble, 1996, p. 160).
5. Teaching method: the plan that teacher realize when teaching while
teaching technique: teacher personal idiosyncratic strategies in order to get
1.7Organization of the Paper
This research paper will be organized as following:
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION, which discusses background, statements of the
problem, the purposes of the study, the scope of the study, research methods, and
clarification of terms, and organization of the paper.
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW, which concentrate to the relevant
previous research and literature review from experts for investigating the research
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, which discusses the steps and
procedure of the research, the instrument of the research and the reason for
choosing its procedure.
CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION, which elaborates the findings of
the study and analyzes those findings in discussion.
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS, which contains
3.1 Research Method
3.1.1 Research Design
The design for this research is the quasi-experimental design. Quasi
experimental design uses experimental and control groups, but no random
assignment of subjects (Creswell, 2003, p. 167). Marczyk, DeMatteo, and
Festinger (2005) view quasi experimental design as one of the best research
approaches since it allows researcher to begin to examine the real-world
phenomena and begin to establish casual inferences.
Using this design, two classes are investigated. One class is made as the
experimental group which is taught the material with Jigsaw strategy as treatment.
While the other class is a control group which receives three phases framework
Since there are several categories in quasi experimental design, pre-test
and post-test group design is used in this research. The pre-test and post-test are
administered to both groups with the following formula:
Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)
Sample Pre-test Treatment Post-test
Experimental group X1e T X2e
X1e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in pre-test X1c : Students’ writing skill of control group in pre-test X2e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in post-test X2c : Students’ writing skill of control group in post-test T : Treatment using Jigsaw strategy
3.2 Data Collection
The data for the study are collected from the sample through
questionnaire, pre-test and post-test results. The questionnaire is distributed to
find out the challenges that students encounter while writing a recount text. The
pre-test and post-test result is used to find out the effectiveness of Jigsaw in
improving students’ skill in writing a recount text.
3.2.1 Population and Sample
Population is a group of interest whom would like to generalize the result
of the study (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006, p. 93). Whilst, sample is the group of
participants in a study which the researcher generalizes to the target population.
The population of this research was the eleventh grade students of vocational
school in Bandung since recount text is taught in this grade.
For the purpose of the research, two classes have been chosen as the
sample. The classes are divided into experimental group and control group. Both
experimental and control groups consist of 30 students and. They are selected
based on the selection made by the school. Therefore, the total number of sample
3.2.2 Research Instruments
This study uses questionnaire, pre-test and post-test as the instruments to
Questionnaire is a form of data collection in survey research that
participants in a study complete and return to the researcher. Ruddell (2005) states
that questionnaires are intended to give an overview of how students view their
own literacy abilities and the kind of reading and writing activities they do
independently and of their own choice. Questionnaire in this study involves 10
questions. It is intended to obtain information about students’ opinion towards the
challenges in writing a recount text. The questionnaire used in this research can be
seen in Appendix A.
126.96.36.199 Pre-test and Post-test
According to Jackson (2009, p. 63) achievement tests are intended to
measure an individual knowledge or skill in an area. Since the research uses quasi
experimental design, pre-test and post-test is used in this research. Pre-test is
administered to capture the initial differences between the groups on the other
hand, post-test served to find out the improvement of their writing achievement.
The pre-test and post-test questions can be seen in Appendix B.
3.3 Research Procedure
In the research, Jigsaw strategy is used as treatment for the experimental
3.3.1 Administering Pilot test
Before conducting the pre-test and post-test, the pilot test is given to find
out the students level of knowledge before actually starting the experiment (Leary,
2012, p. 187). In this research, the pilot test is given to the students who have the
same grade with experimental and control group students and already learned
recount text. In this test, the students are asked to write a recount text and the
topic is about “holiday”.
3.3.2 Conducting the Pre-test
Pre-test is carried out to find out the students’ skill in writing. In the pre-test, the students are assigned to write a recount text. The writing test that is used
in the pre-test is formulated based on the book Effective Communication
(Widyantoro, Pratiwi, & Prihatini, 2008).
3.3.3 Distributing the Questionnaire
After the pre-test, questionnaires are distributed to find out the challenges
students encounter in writing recount text.
3.3.4 Conducting the Jigsaw Strategy to the Experimental Group
During the experiment, researcher meets experimental group twice a week.
The experimental group is given treatment in the period of four meetings, while
the control group is taught by conventional method. Both of the groups are given
the same pre-test and post-test in order to find out whether or not the experimental
group has made progress in their writing skill after the implementation of the
In applying Jigsaw strategy in the classroom, researcher sequences the
class activity based on the procedures are as follows:
Jigsaw Strategy Treatment
No. Procedures in Jigsaw Treatment
a. Teacher (T) opens the lesson
b. T checks Students (Ss) attendance
c. T asks Ss about what do they know about recount text that will be given
2. Main Activity
a. T applies jigsaw strategy:
Ss are grouped into groups of 4 called “home groups”.
A student from each group is chosen to be a leader.
T divides the material into 4 parts.
Every student in a group is given a different part of material so a
group makes a complete text.
Ss are given time to read and find out the generic structure and
language features of their own part.
Ss are re-grouped into “expert groups” which have the same part.
These groups are assigned to share their understanding and
identify whether their part is orientation, record of events,
re-orientation or conclusion.
Ss make presentation on their segment of the text to their home
b. T observes the process and gives interventions if needed
c. T asks Ss to make a recount text individually
3. Post Activity
a. T and Ss conclude the material which has been learnt
b. Ss are given opportunities to ask about their difficulties during learning
The lesson plan using Jigsaw strategy can be seen in Appendix C.
3.3.5 Teaching the Control Group
The method to teach the control group is presented below:
Three Phases Framework Control Group
No Teaching Activity
a. T opens the lesson
b. T checks Ss attendance
c. T asks about students’ knowledge of recount text that will be given
2. Main Activity
a. Ss are given explanation about the purpose, focus, types, generic
b. T distributes sample text of recount to Ss
c. Ss are asked to make a list of the purpose, focus, types, generic
structure, and language features of the text
d. T asks Ss to make a recount text
3. Post Activity
a. T and Ss conclude the material which has been learned
b. Ss are given opportunities to ask about their difficulties during
The lesson plan of control group can be seen in Appendix D.
3.3.6 Conducting the Post-test
Post-test is carried out to find out students’ skill in writing a recount text after being taught using Jigsaw as the learning strategy. The writing test that is
used in the pre-test is formulated based on Effective Communication book
(Widyantoro, Pratiwi, & Prihatini, 2008).
3.4 Data Analysis
In this research, two kinds of analyses are carried out, they are
questionnaire data analysis and pre-test and post-test data analysis.
3.4.1 Data Analysis on Pilot test
The pilot test is conducted to another class on the same grade. The pilot
before doing the pre-test. If the respondents are able to write the given instruction,
it could be concluded that the instrument could be used for pre-test and post-test.
Validity refers to a measurement procedure actually measures what it is
intended to measure rather than measuring something else or nothing at all (Leary,
2012, p. 61). In this research, SPSS 20.00 program is applied to reveal the validity
of instrument. The correlations of a certain value are associated with a certain
nominal degree of relationship in validity test such that:
The Correlations of Certain Value of Validity (Salkind, 2012)
Correlations between Are said to be
.8 and 1.0 Very strong
.6 and .8 Strong
.4 and .6 Moderate
.2 and .4 Weak
.0 and .2 Very weak
“Reliability refers to the consistency or dependability of a measuring
technique” (Leary, 2012, p. 53). In this research, SPSS 20.00 program is applied to reveal the reliability of instrument. To interpret the coefficient of realibility, the
Coefficient Reliability (Salkind, 2012)
Coefficient Reliability Interpretation
0.00 – 0.19 Very Poor
0.20 – 0.39 Poor
0.40 – 0.59 Moderate
0.60 – 0.79 Good
0.80 – 1.0 Excellent
3.4.2 The Data Analysis of Questionnaire
The analysis of questionnaire is drawn from the frequency of students’ answers. The formula of percentage of this analysis described as follows:
P = percentage
F = frequency
N = response
100% = constant
The criteria of percentage category are:
1% - 25% = a small number of students
26% - 49% = nearly a half of students
50% = half of students
100% = all of students
language use. The scoring rubric can be seen in Appendix E.
3.4.4 Data Analysis on Pre-test and Post-test
The collected data through pre-test and post-test are computed using IBM
SPSS program. Coolidge (2000) stated that before performing the independent
t-test, the output data of the pre-test should fulfilled the criteria underlying t-test as
1. The data should have a normal distribution
2. The variance of the two groups must be homogenous
3. The participant must be different in each group
For the reason, normal distribution test, homogeneity of variances test, and
independent t-test are performed before calculating the data using t-test formula.
188.8.131.52 Normal Distribution Test
The normal distribution is used in this study to find out whether or not the
distribution of pre-test and post-test scores are normal. This test is calculated
before t-test. Kolmogorov-Smirnov formula is used in this study by using SPSS
program. The output data is simply concluded as: if Asymp. Sig>0.05, the null
184.108.40.206 Homogeneity of Variance Test
In an experimental research, one of requirements that should be fulfilled is
the variances of experimental and control group are approximately the same
(Corder & Foreman, 2009, p. 14). To analyze that, Levene’s test is used by using SPSS 20.00 program.
If Asymp. Sig<0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected, it infers that the two
groups are not equal. On the contrary, if Asymp. Sig>0.05, the null hypothesis is
accepted, it infers that the variance data of the two groups are equal; the data are
220.127.116.11 The Independent T-test
Independent t-test is used to analyze a causative relationship between two
groups’ means. The independent test is calculated by computation of SPSS
Therefore, the result of this test is analyzed by comparing the significance
value with the level of significance to test the hypothesis. If , or if the
degree of probability (p) < 0.05, the null hypothesis is accepted. If the null
hypothesis is rejected, then move to the alternative hypothesis to figure out which
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Based on the findings, the conclusion can be drawn as:
1. Jigsaw is effective to improve students skill in writing a recount text. It
succeeded in making the good result. It is because students in the home group
give support and share their knowledge to their member in order to get the
higher score. It can be concluded that teaching recount text by using Jigsaw is
an effective way to solve the challenges faced by students in term of building
and developing their knowledge of writing a recount text.
2. Jigsaw is effective to increase students’ knowledge of recount text schematic
structure. Students help one to another by sharing and getting detail
information about their part in the expert group, so that each student gets the
lesson specifically during the writing class.
There are some suggestions in implementing Jigsaw in the class. These
suggestions are directed to English teachers and future researchers.
1. Jigsaw gives students opportunities to involve in teaching-learning process
actively. Every student has time to brainstorm ideas, discuss and solve
Therefore, English teachers are suggested to use Jigsaw as a learning strategy
to improve students’ skill in writing a recount text.
2. Future researchers are suggested to conduct the research on the use of Jigsaw
in teaching writing in other kinds of text genre. In addition, researcher is
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