THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS' SKILLS IN WRITING A RECOUNT TEXT.

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW STRATEGY TO

IMPROVE STUDENTS' SKILL IN WRITING A RECOUNT

TEXT

A Research Paper

Submitted to the English Education Department Of Faculty Language and Arts Education, Indonesia University of Education as partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

Iranita Sitohang

0706028

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW

STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’

SKILL IN WRITING A RECOUNT TEXT

Oleh Iranita Sitohang

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Iranita Sitohang 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Oktober 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JIGSAW STRATEGY TO

IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SKILLS IN WRITING A RECOUNT

TEXT

By:

Iranita Sitohang

0706028

Approved by

Main Supervisor, Co-Supervisor,

Pupung Purnawarman, M.S.Ed., Ph.D. Budi Hermawan,

S.Pd., M.PC.

NIP. 196810131998031001 NIP.

197308072002121002

Head of Department of English Education,

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The Effectiveness of Jigsaw Strategy To Improve Students' Skills In Writing a Recount Text

This research is intended to find out how Jigsaw can improve students’ skill in writing a recount text. It was conducted at a vocational school in Bandung, involving students of eleventh grade as the participants. The research is a quasi-experimental design. In this study, the data of the study were obtained through questionnaire, pre-test and post-test. Data

obtained from questionnaire were analyzed in order to investigate students’ opinion about the

challenges of writing a recount text. The data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by using independent t-test from SPSS 20.0 program for windows. Based on the findings, the challenges faced by students in writing a recount text is the use of past tense, limited vocabulary, and shematic structure of recount text. The quantitative finding of the study shows that significance value is lower than 0.05 (p = 0.000 < 0.05), which indicates that

Jigsaw can improve students’ writing skill in the class investigated. Jigsaw helps students to

deal with their inability of writing a recount text because each student gives support to their

member in home group in order to gain their group’s achievement. In addition, Jigsaw helps

students to gather more knowledge when sharing the information and knowledge of their part in the expert group.

It is suggested that further researcher investigates the use Jigsaw in writing other texts genre.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.2 Statements of the Problem... 4

1.3 The Purposes of the Study... 4

1.4 The Scope of the Study... 4

1.5 Research Methods... 5

1.5.1 Research Design... 5

1.5.2 Population and Sample... 5

1.5.3 Instruments... 6

1.5.4 Data Collection Procedures... 6

1.5.5 Data Analysis... 6

1.6 Clarification of Terms... 8

1.7 Organization of the Paper... 9

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW... 10

2.1 Writing... 10

2.1.1 The Definition of Writing... 10

2.1.2 Writing as a Product... 11

2.1.3 Writing as a Process... 11

2.1.4 Writing in EFL Context... 14

2.2 Text... 18

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2.2.2.1 The Definition of Recount Text... 19

2.2.2.2 Types of Recount Text... 19

2.2.2.3 The Schematic Structure of Recount Text... 20

2.2.2.4 The Grammatical Features of Recount Text... 21

2.3 Jigsaw... 22

2.3.1 Jigsaw Procedures... 24

2.4 Related Studies... 26

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY... 30

3.1 Research Method... 30

3.1.1 Research Design... 30

3.2 Data Collection... 31

3.2.1 Population and Sample... 31

3.2.2 Research Instruments... 32

3.2.2.1 Questionnaire... 32

3.2.2.2 Pre-test and Post-test... 32

3.3 Research Procedure... 32

3.3.1 Administering Pilot Test... 33

3.3.2 Conducting the Pre-test... 33

3.3.3 Distributing the Questionnaire... 33

3.3.4 Conducting the Jigsaw Strategy to the Experimental Group 33 3.3.5 Teaching the Control Group... 35

3.3.6 Conducting the Post-test... 36

3.4 Data Analysis... 36

3.4.1 Data Analysis on Pilot Test... 36

3.4.1.1 Validity... 37

3.4.1.2 Reliability... 37

3.4.2 The Data Analysis of Questionnaire... 38

3.4.3 Scoring Rubric... 38

3.4.4 Data Analysis on Pre-test and Post-test... 39

3.4.4.1 Normal Distribution Test... 39

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3.4.4.3 The Independent T-test... 40

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION... 41

4.1 Research Findings... 41

4.1.1 The Challenges in Writing A Recount Text... 41

4.1.1.1 The Grammar Challenge... 41

4.1.1.2 The Vocabulary Challenge... 43

4.1.1.3 The Schematic Structure Challenge... 44

4.1.2 The Effectiveness of Jigsaw... 44

4.2 Discussion... 46

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS... 50

5.1 Conclusions... 50

5.2 Suggestions... 50

REFERENCES... 52

APPENDICES... 53

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background

Since World War II, English has become the lingua Franca, every

information and knowledge is written in English (Eldrob, 2010; Kirkpatrick,

2007, p. 3). Year by year, the number of people using English are increasing.

English plays an important part in global world development.

Considered as one of important subjects for Indonesia students, English is

involved as a subject in curriculum. Decree of Minister of Education and Culture

No.0601/U/1993 (Murtinigrum, 2008) stated that English may be taught in

elementary school as a local content and in junior and senior high school as

compulsory subject. It means that English needs to be learnt by every student.

Learning English means learning four basic skills of the language:

speaking, listening, reading and writing. The students should have abilities in

reading and listening to support their speaking and writing. Grabe and Kaplan

(1996, p. 5) stated that writing is particularly the most complex composing skill

valued in the academy which involves training, instruction, practice, experience

and purpose. Eventhough writing is often considered as a more difficult skill than

other language skills, it still can be learned and mastered. In line with this, Langan

(2008, p. 10) says that the more students practice writing, the better they will

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Writing is a way of communication between the writer and the readers.

Langan (2008) pointed out that if the writer wants to effectively communicate

with readers, the writer should provide evidence to support his or her statements.

Writing can help us more to consider our thoughts and analyze our feelings

because it gives us time to do so. Because of writing, we are able to achieve more

understanding to communicate our purposes and expressions clearly with our

partner, which also helps us avoid the miscommunication which often happens in

an oral communication.

In the context of Indonesian school, writing is often directed toward

writing a text. Based on the text structure or overall design, there are two different

written texts: report and recount text (Feez & Joyce, 2000, p. 3). They further

pointed out that recount text is designed to tell a series of events which happened

one after the other. It means that when writing recount text the doer who relates

with the event will be known.

In telling their experiences written in a recount text, students must think

about past tense and the stages of recount: orientation, record of events and

reorientation (Feez & Joyce, 2000, p. 4-5). To stimulate the students’ writing skill,

especially writing recount text, teacher can use several sources such as student

experience, book, magazine, television or movie. Teacher can also use different

teaching technique for example jigsaw.

Jigsaw is one of learning techniques in cooperative learning. Previous

study, for example, the study conducted by Johnson & Johnson (1994) showed

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and social relations particularly if it includes both group goals and individual

accountability. In relation to this Slavin (1987) stated that cooperative learning is

a philosophical and practical approach to changing classroom and school

organization, classroom processes and learning activities in order to offer all

learners more active learning experiences, equal opportunities, access, and a more

social supportive role. Felder and Brent (2001) believe that teachers use

Elliot Aronson developed the Jigsaw in 1978 (Slavin, 2009, p. 14). Jigsaw

is similar with group to group exchange with an important difference: every

student tend to teach. He further suggested that jigsaw prefered use for some

subjects including literature, especially in written form. In the 1990, Phelps

(Slavin, 2009, p. 57) found that there is a significant differences in the student

achievement using jigsaw. Mattingly & Van Sickle in the 1991 (Slavin, 2009, p.

57) also found that there is positive effect from Jigsaw strategy in student

achievement. In Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, Mengduo & Xiaoling

(2010) concluded that as far as language learners are concerned, jigsaw strategy is

a useful technique to focus on the language use to accomplish learning tasks such

as listening; reading, retelling, repeating, reciting; and writing in the EFL

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The present research is aimed to find out whether jigsaw strategy is

effective to improve students’ skill of English language in writing a recount text.

1.2Statements of the Problem

This research is carried out to find answers to the following questions:

1. What challenges do students face in writing a recount text?

2. How does Jigsaw improve students’ skill in writing a recount text?

1.3The Purposes of the Study

Specifically, the research will focus on two primary objectives:

1. To find out students challenges in writing a recount text.

2. To find out how Jigsaw strategy can improve students’ skill in writing a

recount text.

1.4The Scope of the Study

The research is limited only to investigate the challenges these students

encounter while they write a recount text and also how the jigsaw could improve

the students’ skill in writing a recount text. Jigsaw is used for the treatment in the

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1.5Research Methods

1.5.1 Research Design

This research is quantitative in nature. The research uses quasi

experimental procedures. The quasi-experimental research are often an impact

evaluation that assigns members to the treatment group and control group by a

method other than random assignment (National Center for Technology

Innovation, 2012).

1.5.2 Population and Sample

The sample in this research is 60 students of a vocational school in

Bandung. The 60 students come from two classes. The 30 students are the

experimental group (EG) and other 30 students are the control group (CG). The

experimental design that is applied in this study is as follows:

Table 1.

Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)

Sample Pre-test Treatment Post-test

Experimental group X1e T X2e

Control Group X1c 0 X2c

X1e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in pre-test

X1c : Students’ writing skill of control group in pre-test

X2e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in post-test

X2c : Students’ writing skill of control group in post-test

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1.5.3 Instruments

The instruments used in this research are questionnaire, pre-test and

post-test in writing a recount text. The questionnaire is administered to find out

students’ challenges toward writing a recount text. Pre-test and post-test are aimed

to obtain the data of students’ writing skill before and after having treatment.

1.5.4 Data Collection Procedures

The data for the study are collected through questionnaire, pre-test and

post-test result. The questionnaire result will come from both experimental and

control group. It is to acquire students challenges in writing a recount text. The

pre-test result is obtained before using the treatment to get preliminary

information on the abilities of those two groups. The post-test result will be

gathered from both groups to obtain the result of treatment.

1.5.5 Data Analysis

The collected data in the form of questionnaire result which are then

transcribed in order to get a description about students challenges in writing a

recount text. The data collected from pre-test and post-test result are analyzed

using t-test formula. In conducting the research the following steps have been

taken:

1. Administering the questionnaire result.

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3. Interpreting the questionnaire result in order to answer the first research

question.

4. Determining the students’ scores of each group in pre-test and post-test using

t-test formula to find out whether or not there is a significant improvement in

students’ scores.

5. Analyzing the significance of the test using computer program of Statistic

Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

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1.6Clarification of Terms

In order to avoid misunderstanding, some terms are clarified as follow:

1. Effectiveness: to different effect which produces better result in students

skill in writing a recount text before and after treatment from the process

of Jigsaw method implementation in teaching writing.

2. Cooperative Learning: learning method consist of the instructional use of

small groups that students work together to maximize their own and each

others’ learning.

3. Jigsaw: learning technique that students work together on an academic

task broken into several subtasks, depending on the number of groups

(Fisher & Frey, 2008, p. 80-81).

4. Writing a recount text: in the context of genre studies, a piece of writing

which talks about a sequence of events from a personal point of view

(Tribble, 1996, p. 160).

5. Teaching method: the plan that teacher realize when teaching while

teaching technique: teacher personal idiosyncratic strategies in order to get

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1.7Organization of the Paper

This research paper will be organized as following:

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION, which discusses background, statements of the

problem, the purposes of the study, the scope of the study, research methods, and

clarification of terms, and organization of the paper.

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW, which concentrate to the relevant

previous research and literature review from experts for investigating the research

problem.

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, which discusses the steps and

procedure of the research, the instrument of the research and the reason for

choosing its procedure.

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION, which elaborates the findings of

the study and analyzes those findings in discussion.

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS, which contains

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method

3.1.1 Research Design

The design for this research is the quasi-experimental design. Quasi

experimental design uses experimental and control groups, but no random

assignment of subjects (Creswell, 2003, p. 167). Marczyk, DeMatteo, and

Festinger (2005) view quasi experimental design as one of the best research

approaches since it allows researcher to begin to examine the real-world

phenomena and begin to establish casual inferences.

Using this design, two classes are investigated. One class is made as the

experimental group which is taught the material with Jigsaw strategy as treatment.

While the other class is a control group which receives three phases framework

treatment.

Since there are several categories in quasi experimental design, pre-test

and post-test group design is used in this research. The pre-test and post-test are

administered to both groups with the following formula:

Table 3.

Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)

Sample Pre-test Treatment Post-test

Experimental group X1e T X2e

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X1e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in pre-test X1c : Students’ writing skill of control group in pre-test X2e : Students’ writing skill of experimental group in post-test X2c : Students’ writing skill of control group in post-test T : Treatment using Jigsaw strategy

3.2 Data Collection

The data for the study are collected from the sample through

questionnaire, pre-test and post-test results. The questionnaire is distributed to

find out the challenges that students encounter while writing a recount text. The

pre-test and post-test result is used to find out the effectiveness of Jigsaw in

improving students’ skill in writing a recount text.

3.2.1 Population and Sample

Population is a group of interest whom would like to generalize the result

of the study (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006, p. 93). Whilst, sample is the group of

participants in a study which the researcher generalizes to the target population.

The population of this research was the eleventh grade students of vocational

school in Bandung since recount text is taught in this grade.

For the purpose of the research, two classes have been chosen as the

sample. The classes are divided into experimental group and control group. Both

experimental and control groups consist of 30 students and. They are selected

based on the selection made by the school. Therefore, the total number of sample

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3.2.2 Research Instruments

This study uses questionnaire, pre-test and post-test as the instruments to

collect data.

3.2.2.1 Questionnaire

Questionnaire is a form of data collection in survey research that

participants in a study complete and return to the researcher. Ruddell (2005) states

that questionnaires are intended to give an overview of how students view their

own literacy abilities and the kind of reading and writing activities they do

independently and of their own choice. Questionnaire in this study involves 10

questions. It is intended to obtain information about students’ opinion towards the

challenges in writing a recount text. The questionnaire used in this research can be

seen in Appendix A.

3.2.2.2 Pre-test and Post-test

According to Jackson (2009, p. 63) achievement tests are intended to

measure an individual knowledge or skill in an area. Since the research uses quasi

experimental design, pre-test and post-test is used in this research. Pre-test is

administered to capture the initial differences between the groups on the other

hand, post-test served to find out the improvement of their writing achievement.

The pre-test and post-test questions can be seen in Appendix B.

3.3 Research Procedure

In the research, Jigsaw strategy is used as treatment for the experimental

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3.3.1 Administering Pilot test

Before conducting the pre-test and post-test, the pilot test is given to find

out the students level of knowledge before actually starting the experiment (Leary,

2012, p. 187). In this research, the pilot test is given to the students who have the

same grade with experimental and control group students and already learned

recount text. In this test, the students are asked to write a recount text and the

topic is about “holiday”.

3.3.2 Conducting the Pre-test

Pre-test is carried out to find out the students’ skill in writing. In the pre-test, the students are assigned to write a recount text. The writing test that is used

in the pre-test is formulated based on the book Effective Communication

(Widyantoro, Pratiwi, & Prihatini, 2008).

3.3.3 Distributing the Questionnaire

After the pre-test, questionnaires are distributed to find out the challenges

students encounter in writing recount text.

3.3.4 Conducting the Jigsaw Strategy to the Experimental Group

During the experiment, researcher meets experimental group twice a week.

The experimental group is given treatment in the period of four meetings, while

the control group is taught by conventional method. Both of the groups are given

the same pre-test and post-test in order to find out whether or not the experimental

group has made progress in their writing skill after the implementation of the

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In applying Jigsaw strategy in the classroom, researcher sequences the

class activity based on the procedures are as follows:

Table 4.

Jigsaw Strategy Treatment

No. Procedures in Jigsaw Treatment

1. Pre-Activity

a. Teacher (T) opens the lesson

b. T checks Students (Ss) attendance

c. T asks Ss about what do they know about recount text that will be given

2. Main Activity

a. T applies jigsaw strategy:

 Ss are grouped into groups of 4 called “home groups”.

 A student from each group is chosen to be a leader.

 T divides the material into 4 parts.

 Every student in a group is given a different part of material so a

group makes a complete text.

 Ss are given time to read and find out the generic structure and

language features of their own part.

 Ss are re-grouped into “expert groups” which have the same part.

These groups are assigned to share their understanding and

identify whether their part is orientation, record of events,

re-orientation or conclusion.

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 Ss make presentation on their segment of the text to their home

group’s members

b. T observes the process and gives interventions if needed

c. T asks Ss to make a recount text individually

3. Post Activity

a. T and Ss conclude the material which has been learnt

b. Ss are given opportunities to ask about their difficulties during learning

process

The lesson plan using Jigsaw strategy can be seen in Appendix C.

3.3.5 Teaching the Control Group

The method to teach the control group is presented below:

Table 5.

Three Phases Framework Control Group

No Teaching Activity

1. Pre-Activity

a. T opens the lesson

b. T checks Ss attendance

c. T asks about students’ knowledge of recount text that will be given

2. Main Activity

a. Ss are given explanation about the purpose, focus, types, generic

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b. T distributes sample text of recount to Ss

c. Ss are asked to make a list of the purpose, focus, types, generic

structure, and language features of the text

d. T asks Ss to make a recount text

3. Post Activity

a. T and Ss conclude the material which has been learned

b. Ss are given opportunities to ask about their difficulties during

learning process

The lesson plan of control group can be seen in Appendix D.

3.3.6 Conducting the Post-test

Post-test is carried out to find out students’ skill in writing a recount text after being taught using Jigsaw as the learning strategy. The writing test that is

used in the pre-test is formulated based on Effective Communication book

(Widyantoro, Pratiwi, & Prihatini, 2008).

3.4 Data Analysis

In this research, two kinds of analyses are carried out, they are

questionnaire data analysis and pre-test and post-test data analysis.

3.4.1 Data Analysis on Pilot test

The pilot test is conducted to another class on the same grade. The pilot

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before doing the pre-test. If the respondents are able to write the given instruction,

it could be concluded that the instrument could be used for pre-test and post-test.

3.4.1.1 Validity

Validity refers to a measurement procedure actually measures what it is

intended to measure rather than measuring something else or nothing at all (Leary,

2012, p. 61). In this research, SPSS 20.00 program is applied to reveal the validity

of instrument. The correlations of a certain value are associated with a certain

nominal degree of relationship in validity test such that:

Table 6.

The Correlations of Certain Value of Validity (Salkind, 2012)

Correlations between Are said to be

.8 and 1.0 Very strong

.6 and .8 Strong

.4 and .6 Moderate

.2 and .4 Weak

.0 and .2 Very weak

3.4.1.2 Reliability

“Reliability refers to the consistency or dependability of a measuring

technique” (Leary, 2012, p. 53). In this research, SPSS 20.00 program is applied to reveal the reliability of instrument. To interpret the coefficient of realibility, the

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Table 7.

Coefficient Reliability (Salkind, 2012)

Coefficient Reliability Interpretation

0.00 – 0.19 Very Poor

0.20 – 0.39 Poor

0.40 – 0.59 Moderate

0.60 – 0.79 Good

0.80 – 1.0 Excellent

3.4.2 The Data Analysis of Questionnaire

The analysis of questionnaire is drawn from the frequency of students’ answers. The formula of percentage of this analysis described as follows:

P = percentage

F = frequency

N = response

100% = constant

The criteria of percentage category are:

1% - 25% = a small number of students

26% - 49% = nearly a half of students

50% = half of students

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100% = all of students

language use. The scoring rubric can be seen in Appendix E.

3.4.4 Data Analysis on Pre-test and Post-test

The collected data through pre-test and post-test are computed using IBM

SPSS program. Coolidge (2000) stated that before performing the independent

t-test, the output data of the pre-test should fulfilled the criteria underlying t-test as

follows:

1. The data should have a normal distribution

2. The variance of the two groups must be homogenous

3. The participant must be different in each group

For the reason, normal distribution test, homogeneity of variances test, and

independent t-test are performed before calculating the data using t-test formula.

3.4.4.1 Normal Distribution Test

The normal distribution is used in this study to find out whether or not the

distribution of pre-test and post-test scores are normal. This test is calculated

before t-test. Kolmogorov-Smirnov formula is used in this study by using SPSS

program. The output data is simply concluded as: if Asymp. Sig>0.05, the null

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3.4.4.2 Homogeneity of Variance Test

In an experimental research, one of requirements that should be fulfilled is

the variances of experimental and control group are approximately the same

(Corder & Foreman, 2009, p. 14). To analyze that, Levene’s test is used by using SPSS 20.00 program.

If Asymp. Sig<0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected, it infers that the two

groups are not equal. On the contrary, if Asymp. Sig>0.05, the null hypothesis is

accepted, it infers that the variance data of the two groups are equal; the data are

homogenous.

3.4.4.3 The Independent T-test

Independent t-test is used to analyze a causative relationship between two

groups’ means. The independent test is calculated by computation of SPSS

program.

Therefore, the result of this test is analyzed by comparing the significance

value with the level of significance to test the hypothesis. If , or if the

degree of probability (p) < 0.05, the null hypothesis is accepted. If the null

hypothesis is rejected, then move to the alternative hypothesis to figure out which

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions

Based on the findings, the conclusion can be drawn as:

1. Jigsaw is effective to improve students skill in writing a recount text. It

succeeded in making the good result. It is because students in the home group

give support and share their knowledge to their member in order to get the

higher score. It can be concluded that teaching recount text by using Jigsaw is

an effective way to solve the challenges faced by students in term of building

and developing their knowledge of writing a recount text.

2. Jigsaw is effective to increase students’ knowledge of recount text schematic

structure. Students help one to another by sharing and getting detail

information about their part in the expert group, so that each student gets the

lesson specifically during the writing class.

5.2 Suggestions

There are some suggestions in implementing Jigsaw in the class. These

suggestions are directed to English teachers and future researchers.

1. Jigsaw gives students opportunities to involve in teaching-learning process

actively. Every student has time to brainstorm ideas, discuss and solve

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Therefore, English teachers are suggested to use Jigsaw as a learning strategy

to improve students’ skill in writing a recount text.

2. Future researchers are suggested to conduct the research on the use of Jigsaw

in teaching writing in other kinds of text genre. In addition, researcher is

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Figur

Table 1. Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)

Table 1.

Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169) p.12
Table 3. Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169)

Table 3.

Quasi Experimental Study (Creswell, 2003, p. 169) p.17
Table 4.  Jigsaw Strategy Treatment

Table 4.

Jigsaw Strategy Treatment p.21
Table 5.  Three Phases Framework Control Group

Table 5.

Three Phases Framework Control Group p.22
Table 6.  The Correlations of Certain Value of Validity (Salkind, 2012)

Table 6.

The Correlations of Certain Value of Validity (Salkind, 2012) p.24
Table 7.

Table 7.

p.25

Referensi

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