A Comparative Study Of The Translation Of Similes In The Novel “The Old Man And The Sea” Into Indonesian

121 

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Teks penuh

(1)

commit to user

i

A

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE TRANSLATION OF SIMILES IN

THE NOVEL “THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA” INTO INDONESIAN

THESIS

Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Requirement

for the SarjanaSastra Degree at the English Department

Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University

By:

CHANDRA SETYAWATI K

C0308024

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS

SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY

SURAKARTA

(2)

commit to user

(3)

commit to user

(4)

commit to user

iv

PRONOUNCEMENT

Name : CHANDRA SETYAWATI K NIM : C0308024

This research entitled “A Comparative Study of the Translation of Similes in the Novel “The Old Man and the Sea” into Indonesian” is originally made by

the researcher. It is whole – heartedly stated that this research is neither a plagiarism nor made by others. Things relating to other people works are written in quotations and the sources are listed in bibliography. The researcher is ready to take the responsibility if it is then proved that the researcher cheats.

Surakarta, Juli 2012

(5)

commit to user

v

MOTTO

“When you fall down, God’s hands will always raise you up in time”

“Experience is the best teacher”

“What you think and believe is what will happen in your life”

“Success is one percent inspiration and ninety nine percent perspirations”

(Thomas Alfa Edison)

(6)

commit to user

vi

DEDICATION

This research is whole heartedly dedicated to:

My Beloved Mother and Father who always love me

&

My Love, Honey Bear who makes my life more colorful

(7)

commit to user

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As the author of this thesis, I firstly want to give big thanks to my Lord, Jesus Christ for His love, bless, and guidance including in the process of composing and completing this thesis. However, this thesis will not be completed without any support and encourage from many people. Therefore, I also would like to give special thanks to:

1. The Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts, Drs. Riyadi Santosa, M.Ed, Ph.D for approving this thesis.

2. The Head of English Department, Drs. Agus Hari Wibowo, MA, Ph.D for giving permission to compose this thesis.

3. Prof. Drs. M.R. Nababan, M.Ed, MA, Ph.D. as my thesis supervisor, thank you very much for your patience, guidance, and advice in completing this thesis. 4. All of lectures in English Department who have given me a lot of valuable

knowledge and lessons.

5. Sumardiono, Herianto Nababan, Fenti Kusumastuti, Iwan Hendriko, Ani Aprianti, and Visca Permata Handoko as the raters of this research, thank you for giving time, ideas, and contributions in completing this thesis. Especially for my friend and sister, Visca Permata Handoko, thanks for your support in completing this thesis by sending me a lot of messages.

6. Ikke Dewi Pratama and Udiana Puspa Dewi for giving me a lot of important information relating to this thesis.

(8)

commit to user

viii

8. My friends and sisters in English Department; Ayu Rhema D.P (Nyux) for accompanying me in the same kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, senior high school, university, and even the same consultation room with the same thesis supervisor , Nadia Natalia (Nud) for being my partner in almost all translation assignments and I will always remember the time we have ever done a lot of homework and presentations together, Gia Valina (Gie) for having fun together especially in bullying Rhema Nyux, and Liberty Minggus (Didiet) for giving me a lot of advices related to Holy Bible and encouraging me to go back to church.

9. My big family ED 08, you are my friends and family in English Department. I

will never forget you. Don’t forget to invite me in every reunion of ED 08 and even in your wedding parties.

The Researcher

Chandra Setyawati K

(9)

commit to user

ix

TABLE OF CONTENT

Approval of the Thesis Supervisor……… i

Approval of the Board of Examiners ………... ii

Pronouncement……….. iii A.Definition of Translation……… 8

B.Translation Process………... 9

C.Similes……….. 10

D.Translation Techniques in translating similes………. 12

1. Keeping the image of the simile of the source language………. 14

2. Using other image which is familiar in the target language……… 14

3. Translating the simile by addition………... 16

4. Translating the simile by reduction………. 16

5. Translating the simile without comparison………. 17

6. Changing the simile into a metaphor……….. 18

(10)

commit to user

x

E. Translation Quality Assessment………... 20

F. Previous Studies………20

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A.Research Findings……… 35

1. Translation Techniques……… 35

1. Keeping the image of the simile of the source language……….. 36

2. Using other image which is familiar in the target language…………. 41

3. Translating the simile by addition……… 46

4. Translating the simile by reduction……….. 50

5. Translating the simile without comparison……….. 55

2. Translation Quality……….. 59

1. Accuracy………... 60

2. Acceptability………. 72

3. Readability……… 83

B.Discussion………. 93

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A.Conclusion……….. 105

(11)

commit to user

xi

LIST OF FIGURE AND TABLES

Figure 1………9

Table 1………. 27

Table 2………..28

Table 3………..28

Table 4………..32

Table 5………..35

Table 6………..60

Table 7………..72

Table 8………..83

Table 9………..96

Table 10………99

(12)

commit to user

xii

ABSTRACT

Chandra Setyawati K. A Comparative Study of the Translation of Similes in

the Novel “The Old Man and the Sea” into Indonesian. Thesis: English

Department. Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. Sebelas Maret University.

This research is intended to analyze the translation of similes of Ernest

Hemingway’s novel entitled “The Old Man and the Sea” since there are two different translation versions of the novel conducted by Dian Vita Ellyati and Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat. The objectives of this research are to find out the translation techniques used by the two translators and the effects of the application of the techniques on the translation quality in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability.

It is a descriptive – qualitative research. The data of this research are the similes in English and the two different translation versions in Indonesian. The methods of data collection for this research are document analysis and interview. The document analysis method is applied to analyze the techniques used by the two translators in translating the similes. The interview method is applied to analyze the effects of the application of the techniques on the translation quality in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability. Some questionnaires are also used to help the researcher and the raters in the interview process.

The research findings show that both translators use five types of translation techniques. They are (1) keeping the image of the simile of the source language, (2) using other image which is familiar in the target language, (3) translating the simile by addition, (4) translating the simile by reduction, and (5) translating the simile without comparison. The technique of keeping the image of the simile of the source language seems to be the most dominant technique used by both translators. The interview results show that both translation versions are accurate and acceptable. However, they are less readable.

(13)

commit to user

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.

Research Background

Reading novels is actually one of interesting hobbies for most people and it is shifting to be a new trend recently. Nowadays, a lot of people from different ages, genders, educational backgrounds, and etc enjoy reading various novels produced widely in the market. Everyone in this world has probably ever read a novel at least once in their lives. Therefore, reading novels seems to be a part of

people’s life.

Novels are very popular almost in every country in the world including in Indonesia. Many novels in Indonesia come from foreign countries. The stories of the foreign novels have their own unique characteristics. Their emergence in Indonesia can give a new color for literary work readers. The foreign novels are usually written in English. This condition actually creates a lot of problems for those who are unable to understand English well while they wish to enjoy the foreign novels. Therefore, novel translators are very needed to overcome these problems.

Novel translators are the bridges to link the novels and the people. They translate the foreign novels from the source language to the target language. Through this way, Indonesian people who are unable to understand the novel from its original language, English, turn to encounter no difficulty in enjoying it. It is because they can understand the story by reading the novel in Indonesian version.

(14)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

Translating novels is not only a matter of transferring the messages conveyed in the source language into the target language but also considering the

styles used in the novels. Nida and Taber state that “translating consists in

reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural [equivalence] of the source language message, [firstly] in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of

style” (1974:14). Therefore, it is crucial for the novel translators to pay attention

on the styles used in the novels which they translate. They are demanded to not only transfer the messages conveyed in the novels accurately but also maintain the styles used in the original novels when they compose them into the new versions.

The authors often use figurative expressions in their novels. The figurative expressions can be idioms, metaphors, similes, and etc. They are the styles used in the novels. Novel translators have to find some techniques to translate the figurative expressions because the expressions sometimes have no exact equivalent translation in the target language. However, they can not just abandon the figurative expressions since they are the original styles used by the authors as one of important aspects of the novels.

(15)

commit to user

But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old as erosions in

a fishless desert.

2/SL/10 Tak ada luka baru. Parut luka itu sama tuanya dengan pengikisan di daerah kering tanpa kehidupan.

2/TL/A/4 Tapi tak ada satu pun bekas luka baru. Luka luka itu telah setua kikisan pada gurun yang tak berikan.

2/TL/B/8 From the example above, it can be seen that both of the translators tend to translate the English simile using different Indonesianwords. However, the dictions affect the translation quality. The first translation or Dian’s translation is actually acceptable, readable, but less accurate. Dian replaces the word “desert”

which means “padang gurun / gurun pasir” into “daerah kering”. The translation

daerah kering” refers to some general places or areas. It is not specified. On the

other hand, the second translation or Yuni’s translation sounds better. It is accurate, acceptable, and readable. There is no change in the aspects of simile. Example 2:

I can remember you throwing me into the bow where the wet coiled lines were and feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you

clubbing him like chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell

all over me.

(16)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

Aku ingat Bapak melemparkanku ke dalam haluan tempat bergulung – gulung tali basah diletakkan. Aku merasa seluruh bagian perahu bergetar dan suara berisik terdengar ketika Bapak memukul jatuh ikan itu seperti menumbangkan sebatang pohon, lalu bau amis darah tercium di seluruh badanku.

3/TL/A/7 Aku ingat kau melemparkanku ke haluan tempat gulungan tali - tali basah, terasa seluruh bagian perahu bergetar dan keributan yang kaubuat saat memukul ikan itu terdengar seperti kau menebang

translation is awkward and hard to understand. Example 3:

But these poisonings from agua mala came quickly and struck like

a whiplash. This example can show that both translators are able to translate the simile accurately, acceptably, and readably into Indonesian even though they use some

(17)

commit to user

perception in the readers’ minds. Therefore, the target readers encounter no

difficulty in understanding the meaning of the simile.

Considering the three examples above, it is clear that one novel which is translated by two different translators can bear a lot of different translations with different techniques and effects. Therefore, the researcher is interested to analyze the different translation versions of the novel entitled The Old Man and the Sea as a comparative study to find out the translation techniques used by the translators to translate the similes and the effects of the techniques on the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability.

B.

Research Limitation

This comparative study is limited to analyze similes found in the novel entitled The Old Man and the Sea written by Ernest Hemingway and the

translation conducted by Dian Vita Ellyati’s and Yuni Kristianingsih

Pramudhaningrat. The focus of this analysis includes the translation techniques used by the translators to translate the similes and the effects of the techniques to the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability.

C.

Problem Statements

Considering the research background, the problems are formulated as follows:

(18)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

2. How are the effects of the techniques used on the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy, readability, and acceptability?

D.

Research Objectives

The objectives of this study are as follows:

1. To find out the techniques used by the translators, Dian Vita Ellyati and Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat in translating the similes found in the novel entitled The Old Man and the Sea into Indonesian.

2. To find out the effects of the techniques to the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy, readability, and acceptability.

E.

Research Benefits

It is expected that the study will be beneficial for: 1. Translators

Since translating similes is not such an easy job to do, hopefully, many translators will get additional inputs so that they will pay more attention and be more careful in translating similes.

2. Students

The researcher hopes this analysis can be one of beneficial references to gain more information related to translation study especially in translating similes. 3. Other researchers

(19)

commit to user 4. Lecturers

Frankly, the researcher gets limited knowledge about how to translate similes in the class. Hopefully, there will be a further explanation about how to translate them in the class and this research can be some additional information for the lecturers to teach their students.

F.

Thesis Organization

This thesis is divided into five chapters. The thesis organization is as follows:

The first chapter of this thesis is INTRODUCTION. It consists of Research Background, Research Limitation, Problem Statements, Research Objectives, Research Objectives, and Thesis Organization.

The second chapter of this thesis is LITERATURE REVIEW. It consists of Definition of Translation, Translation Process, Similes, and Translation Techniques in Translating Similes, and Translation Quality.

The third chapter of this thesis is RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. It consists of Research Type and Design, Data and Source of Data, Sampling Technique, Method of Data Collection, Technique of Data Analysis, and Research Procedures.

The fourth chapter of this thesis is RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS. It consists of Research Findings and Discussions.

(20)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

8

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A.

Definition of Translation

Translation, according to Newmark (1981:7), is “a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and / or statement in one language by the same message and / or statement in another language.” This definition is also in

line with the definition given by Nababan (1999:18). He states that translation is a process of transferring messages. From the two definitions above, it can be said that translation is focused on the process of transferring messages form one language (source language) to another language (target language).

In addition, Toury in James (2000:1) states “translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions.”

From the additional statement above, it is clear that translation always deals with at least two different languages and cultures. Translators are demanded not only to transfer the messages from the source language text to the target language text accurately but also consider the cultural acceptability of the translation itself.

Other translation experts, Nida and Taber state that “translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural [equivalence] of the source language message, [firstly] in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (1974:14). Considering the statement above, it is crucial for translators to

pay attention to the styles used in the source language text which they translate. They are demanded to be able to transfer the messages conveyed in the source

(21)

commit to user

language text accurately and also maintain the styles used in the original novels when they have to compose them into the new versions.

Despite a lot of various translation definitions stated above, the core of translation still refers to one definition that is the transferring meaning from one language to another language with awareness to maintain the style of the source language text.

B.

Translation Process

Nida states that there are three steps of translation process such as 1) analysis, 2) transferring, and 3) restructuring (1975:80). This is the diagram that can represent the three steps of translation process.

Diagram 1

Three steps of translation process

(22)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

language. Therefore, it is not such an easy job to do because they are demanded to be perfect in all steps. One mistake even in only one step can give big negative impacts that mislead the translation result.

C.

Similes

According to http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/simile, simile is “a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another

thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid”. It is line with the definition stated in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simile that it is “a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words like or as”. This definition is also in line with Kennedy (1991:587) who states that simile is “a comparison of two things, indicated by some connectives,

usually like, as, than, or a verb such as resembles”. Moreover, Pardede (2008:22)

also has the same idea and defines that “a simile is generally the comparison of

two things essentially unlike, on the basis of a resemblance in one aspect. It is a figure in which a similarity between two objects directly expressed”.

Simile and metaphor are similar. However, Holman and Harmon (1995:44) state that simile is different from metaphor. In the website, Holman, and Harmon state that the difference between simile and metaphor is on the existence of connective. Simile usually uses the linking words / connectives LIKE, AS,

SUCH AS, AS IF, and SEEM. Whereas, metaphor uses the auxiliary BE.

For examples:

(23)

commit to user

There are three parts of simile according to Beekman and Callow (1974) as cited in Mayasari (2007). The parts are as follows:

a. Topic is the item / the object which is described by the simile.

b. Image is the item in terms of which the object is described.

c. Point of similarity is the item which shows in what particular aspects the

object and the image are similar. For examples:

Her eyes are blue and calm as the ocean.

Topic : her eyes

Image : the ocean

Point of similarity : blue and calm

Furthermore, there are two types of similes according to Fromilhague (1995) as cited in http://www.academicjournals.org/ijel. They are explicit and implicit similes. In explicit similes, the point of similarity is stated directly. Sentences which contain explicit similes mostly use the connective “as … as”.

Meanwhile, implicit simile is the one of which sense is not stated directly and leaves the onus of interpretation to the reader. Most sentences which contain implicit similes mostly use the connective “like”.

For examples:

1. His body is as cold as an ice → an explicit simile 2. The kid runs like a horse → an implicit simile

(24)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

the image is about the temperature of them. In this case, the temperature “his

body” seems to be as cold as “an ice”. This sentence is called an explicit simile

because the point of similarity is stated directly in it.

On the other hand, the second simile is an implicit one. The topic is “the

kid” which is compared to “a horse” as the image. The point of similarity is about

the running speed of the kid and a horse. In this case, “the kid” can be compared to “a horse” because he may run as fast as a horse. The point of similarity of this

simile is not stated directly in the sentence. Therefore, the second example is called an implicit simile.

English sentences which contain similes are translated into Indonesian using the words seperti, bagai, bagaikan, bak, laksana, seumpama, and so on. For examples:

1. SL: The woman looks as beautiful as a princess. TL: Wanita itu telihat secantik seorang putri. 2. SL: Life is so mysterious like a puzzle.

TL: Hidup itu sangat misterius seperti sebuah teka - teki.

D.

Translation Techniques in Translating Similes

(25)

commit to user For example:

SL: The young boy is charming as a ham.

TL: Pria muda itu menawan bagaikan daging asap.

The example above shows that the translator uses literal translation technique in translating the English simile “the young boy is charming as a ham”.

The original topic and the image of the simile are translated literally. However, the translation becomes inaccurate, unacceptable and unreadable because the point of similarity cannot be conveyed well. It also sounds awkward. “Ham” as the image of the simile means a kind of meat. If the translator uses literal translation technique to translate it, the translation will be “pria muda itu menawan bagaikan

daging asap”. In this case, literal translation technique cannot be applied because the image “daging asap” in Indonesian is not the same as the image “ham” in

English. “Ham” in English has a connotative meaning as someone who becomes

the center of attention.

The translator must change the image “ham” with another image that has the same point of similarity because “daging asap” has no connotative meaning in

Indonesian. It will be better if the simile is translated into “pria muda itu

menawan bagaikan seorang bintang”. The diction “seorang bintang” means

someone who is so charming and becomes the center of attention. Therefore, this translation is more accurate, acceptable and readable in Indonesian.

(26)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

line with what are stated in http://www.bbspanish.com/techniques-to-handle-idioms-similes-and-metaphors-in-spanish-translation.htm. However, the website adds one more technique. Therefore, there are seven techniques that can be composed in this chapter. They are as follows:

1. Keeping the image of the simile of the source language

It is similar to literal translation technique. The topic, image, and point of similarity are translated literally with no changing. The important point is the image of the source language is kept as long as it can convey the sense or the point of similarity of the simile. This technique can be applied if the contexts, the objects, or the concepts of the comparison are permitted and accepted in the target society. (Newmark, Larson, and Blight as cited in Mayasari, 2007:18)

For example:

SL: The boy is like a diamond for his family.

TL: Anak lelaki itu seperti berlian bagi keluarganya.

In Indonesian society, it is fine if a son or a daughter is compared to a diamond. It is because most Indonesian people think that a child is everything and very valuable for his / her parents. The image “a diamond” can be kept into

berlian” because it can convey the sense or the point of similarity of the simile correctly. Therefore the simile “the boy is like a diamond” can be directly

translated literally into “anak lelaki itu seperti berlian” in Indonesian.

2. Using other image which is familiar in the target language

(27)

commit to user

one of the techniques which can be applied to translate simile from one language into another language. However, translators must be selective to choose the new image. It must be able to represent the same point of similarity as appropriately as the original image. In other words, the new image is supposed to be as similar as the original one. (Newmark, Larson, and Blight as cited in Mayasari, 2007:19) For example:

SL: When you have a dinner in the new restaurant, you will feel a unique

atmosphere whichis like a Halloween party.

TL: Saat Anda menikmati santap malam di rumah makan baru itu, Anda akan merasakan suasana unik seperti berada di sebuah pesta kostum.

The term “Halloween”, according to http://www.halloweenhistory.org/, is

a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. There some traditional activities on the day such as trick-or-treating, bonfires, costume parties, visiting "haunted houses", and carving jack-o-lanterns. While “pesta kostum” in Indonesian culture is only a costume party which can be held anytime like a birthday party, a farewell party, a graduation party, and so on.

Even though “Halloween party” and “pesta kostum” have different basic

concepts, they have a similarity about dressing or costume party however. Both of them deal with a party which obligates people to wear certain costumes. Therefore, translators can change “Halloween party” as the original image of the simile into “pesta kostum” as the new image. The image “pesta kostum” can

represent the same point of similarity as “Halloween party”. It is intended to make

(28)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

3. Translating the simile by addition

It is the technique to retain the simile with the same meaning / idea from the source language into the target language plus some additional words or phrases. The additions attached can be an explanation for purposes of comparison or others which can make the translation of the simile easier to understand. This technique can also be applied if the context, the objects, or the concept of the comparison is permitted and accepted in the target society. (Newmark, Larson, and Blight as cited in Mayasari, 2007: 20)

For example:

SL: He runs like a horse.

TL: Dia berlari sangat cepat seperti seekor kuda.

The simile “he runs like a horse” in the source language can be just

translated into the simile “dia berlari seperti seekor kuda” in the target language. However, it can bear some ambiguities about what is exactly like a horse, whether the speed of his running or the voice produced by his feet when he runs. Therefore, the translation “dia berlari sangat cepat seperti seekor kuda” is better

because the explanation using additional words “sangat cepat” can make the

readers understand that the speed when he runs is the similar to the speed of a running horse.

4. Translating the simile by reduction

(29)

commit to user

be called deletion technique. (Newmark, Larson, and Blight as cited in Mayasari, 2007:20)

For example:

SL: His body is very stiff as a rigor corpse.

TL: Tubuhnya sangat kaku bagaikan mayat.

For this example, it can be seen that the image “a rigor corpse” is not fully

translated into “mayat yang kaku”. It is reduced and translated only into “mayat”. The reduction is probably intended to make the translation more efficient with no repetition word “kaku”. However, this technique sometimes makes the translation

moves farther and farther from the original not only in terms of the meaning but also the style. In this case, the reduction has no problem because the translation can still convey the point of similarity of the simile. In some cases, too many reductions or deletions can make the sentence lose its original figurative style. Therefore, translators are supposed to avoid using this reduction / deletion technique too frequently in translating similes.

5. Translating the simile without comparison

(30)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user For example:

SL: No man is like an island.

TL: Tak ada manusia yang diasingkan dari orang lain. (Mayasari, 2007:21)

From the example above, we can see that the simile “no man is like an

island” is translated into “tak ada manusia yang diasingkan dari orang lain”. The

comparison between “man” and “an island” is not literally translated. If it is literally translated into “tak ada manusia yang seperti pulau”, the target readers

will find it so difficult to understand it because this simile expression is not familiar for them.

6. Changing the simile into a metaphor

This technique means translators change the simile into metaphor. It is not very difficult because the difference between simile and metaphor is about the existence of connectives such as LIKE, AS, SUCH AS, AS IF, SEEM, etc. Therefore, changing the simile into a metaphor can be done by deleting the linking words / the connectives. (Newmark, Larson, and Blight as cited in Mayasari, 2007:22)

For example:

SL: The boy is like a diamond for his family.

TL: Anak lelaki itu adalah berlian bagi keluarganya.

As what has been explained in the first technique, it is no problem to compare a child as a diamond. Therefore, changing the simile “the boy is like a

(31)

commit to user

in the target language can also be another alternative technique to translate it. This technique can be chosen in order to avoid using too many connectives words such as “seperti”, “bagaikan”, “seumpama”, or “laksana”, and so on as the translation

of the words “like’ or “as” , etc in simile. It is because those connectives are not

needed in forming a metaphor.

7. Selecting a different simile altogether in the target language

This technique can be applied when the original simile in the source language is not familiar in the target language. It may be better than translating the simile without comparison because the beauty of the figurative expression contained in the comparison of the source sentence can be conveyed well although it is in the form of different simile altogether in the target language. (http://www.bbspanish.com/techniques-to-handle-idioms-similes-and-metaphors-in-spanish-translation.htm)

For example:

SL: The whore was as a big wet hen.

TL: Wanita itu seperti kebakaran jenggot.

The meaning of “the whore was as a big wet hen” is actually about a

prostitute who got very angry. However, if the simile is translated literally into “pelacur itu seperti seekor ayam betina besar yang basah”, the readers of the

target society will not understand the meaning conveyed in the simile and it sounds very rude and taboo. It is because someone who is very angry cannot be compared to “a big wet hen” in Indonesian societywhile the term “whore” sounds

(32)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

unreadable for Indonesian people. On the other hand, the translation “wanita itu

seperti kebakaran jenggot” is more accurate, acceptable, and readable for

Indonesian people because “kebakaran jenggot” is commonly used to describe

and represent someone who is very angry in Indonesian society. Besides, the diction “wanita itu” also sounds more acceptable than “pelacur itu” in Indonesian.

E.

Quality Assessment

Translation quality assessment touches three aspects. They are accuracy, acceptability, and readability.

Accuracy assessment is the assessment aspect whether the messages conveyed in the source language text can be transferred accurately in the target language or not.

Acceptability assessment is the aspect to asses whether the translators can create a natural atmosphere into their translation. In this point, the translators must consider the differences of cultures between the source language society and the target language society.

Readability assessment is about the difficulty level for the target readers in understanding the translation. The easier the readers understand it, the more readable the translation is. However, Nababan declares not only the ability of the translators and the readers but also the appearance and content of the text influence the readability level of the translation itself (1999: 64-78).

F.

Previous Studies

(33)

commit to user

Indonesian in Arthur golden’s novel entitled memoirs of a geisha. In her study, she uses an English novel which is translated into Indonesian. She limits her research in analyzing similes contained in the novel and their translations. The objectives of her research are to find out the techniques used by the translator in translating the simile and analyze the effects of the techniques used on the translation quality in terms of accuracy and readability.

(34)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

22

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A.

Research Type and Design

This study is a qualitative research. Creswell (1998: 15) defines a qualitative research as a research of an inquiry process conducted to solve a social or human problem by analyzing words as the data of the research and reporting detailed views of the contained information. He also states that the researchers are not allowed to establish any prediction or generalization of findings in qualitative researches. Therefore, the researcher does not generalize the result of this research.

Bogdan and Biklen (1982:28) state that one feature of qualitative research is that it is descriptive. Therefore, in this research, the researcher applies a descriptive method. In addition, Rakhmad (1984:24) states that a descriptive research only describes situations or events. In line with the definition above, Bogdan and Biklen (as cited in Creswell, 1994: 171) define descriptive method is a method to collect the qualitative data, analyze them, and then write the result of the analysis. In other words, the researcher only describes a phenomenon by collecting, classifying, analyzing, and drawing a conclusion based on the condition or the characteristic of the data. Even though it is a qualitative research, the researcher uses some numbers in order to be able to the measure of the quality the simile translation easily.

(35)

commit to user

B.

Data and Source of Data

This research has two kinds of sources of data. They are the documents and informants.

1. Document

Document is a written source of data. It is in the form of a list of the similes written in English and their translation in Indonesian. The similes are taken from the English novel entitled “The Old Man and the Sea” written by

Ernest Hemingway. The novel itself has been translated by two different translators, Dian Vita Ellyati’s and Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat.

Therefore, one simile has two different translation versions. 2. Informants

In this research, informants or raters are considered as one of sources of data due to their important role as information providers that take part and give some significant contributions to this research. There are three raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy and acceptability and three more raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of readability. The raters chosen to assess the readability of the similes translations do not have to fulfill some specific criteria since the novel which is actually addressed for teenagers can be also read by commoners. However, the raters chosen to assess the accuracy and acceptability of the simile translations have to fulfill some criteria below:

(36)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

c. Having practical experiences in translating texts. d. Having good willingness to take part in this research.

These are the three raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy and acceptability and the three raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of readability:

a. Three raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of accuracy and acceptability:

RATER 1

Name : Sumardiono

Education : S1 Majoring in Translation Study S2 Majoring in Translation

Occupation : A teacher and a translator in Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta

RATER 2

Name : Herianto Nababan

Education : S1 Majoring in Translation Study S2 Majoring in Translation

Occupation : A teacher and a translator in Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta

RATER 3

Name : Fenti Kusumastuti

(37)

commit to user

Occupation : A teacher in Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta

b. Three raters assessing the quality of the translation in terms of readability: RATER 1

Name : Iwan Hendriko

Occupation : A student of S1 Visual Communication Design Study Program of Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta RATER 2

Name : Ani Aprianti

Occupation : A student of S1 Agriculture Faculty of Sebelas Maret University (UNS) Surakarta

RATER 3

Name : Visca Permata Handoko

Occupation : A student of D3 St. Pignatelli Foreign Language Academy (ABA) Surakarta

(38)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

researcher composed the analysis on the techniques used by the translators, Dian Vita Ellyati and Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat, in translating the similes found in the novel into Indonesian and the effects of the techniques used on the accuracy, acceptability, and readability of the translation.

C.

Sampling Technique

Sutopo (2002: 36) says that the researcher has to select source of data (documents and informants) that can give important information about the problems of the research. In this research, the researcher used the total sampling technique. The technique is used to collect the data of all similes found in the novel entitled “The Old Man and the Sea” and their different translation versions

conducted by two different translators, Dian Vita Ellyati and Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat. Besides, the researcher also collected the other data given by the rates in forms of scores and comments.

D.

Method of Data Collection

The researcher employs two methods in collecting the data such as: 1. Document analysis

(39)

commit to user 2. Interview

The researcher used the method of interview in composing the analysis of the translation quality of the similes. The interview process was helped by some questionnaires. Firstly, the researcher composed the list of the similes as the questionnaires to help her in doing this research. The questionnaires were composed into two different formats, the closed and open formats. The closed format was in the form of scaled questionnaire while the open format was in the form of columns for the raters’ comments. The questionnaires were then distributed to the raters. After the questionnaires had been assessed by the raters, the researcher collected them and had an interview with the raters to discuss about the assessment results. The interview process was intended to discuss and gain more information about the reasons the raters assess so.

In doing this research, the researcher also composed some scales to assess the quality the quality of the simile translations in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability. The scales are adapted from Nababan’s theory of

the quality assessment in his paper (2010). They are as follows:

Table 1

The Scale to Asses the Accuracy of the Simile Translations

Scale Level Description

(40)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

2 Less

Accurate

Sentences which contain similes are mostly translated accurately in the target language. However there are some distortions, ambiguities of their meanings or some deleted words or phrases which can mislead their real meanings. 1 Inaccurate Sentences which contain similes are not translated

accurately in the target language or deleted.

Table 2

The Scale to Asses the Acceptability of the Simile Translations

Scale Level Description

3 Acceptable Sentences which contain similes sound natural. They are also translated using familiar dictions and follow the using rules of the target language.

2 Less

Acceptable

Generally, sentences which contain similes sound natural. However, there are some grammatical mistakes, some unfamiliar dictions, or troubles in some technical terms.

1 Unacceptable Sentences which contain similes sound unnatural. There are inappropriate or unfamiliar dictions which disobey the using rules of the target language.

Table 3

The Scale to Asses the Readability of the Simile Translations

(41)

commit to user

E.

Technique of Data Analysis

The researcher took some steps in analyzing the data. They are as follows: 1. Analyzing the translation techniques

The researcher analyzed the techniques applied by each translator in translating the similes found in the novel.

2. Distributing questionnaires to the raters

The researcher distributed questionnaires to the chosen raters. The raters were asked to asses the quality of the simile translations through the questionnaires based on the provided scales. Besides, the raters were also asked to give comments about the reasons they assess so.

3. Interviewing the raters

After the researcher recollected the assessed questionnaires, she had an interview with the raters to discuss about the assessment results. The intervie process is intended to discuss and gain more information about the reasons the raters assess so.

4. Determining the final assessment

Since the questionnaires were only tools to help the researcher in doing her research, the results of raters’ assessments cannot be just directly followed. The

(42)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

argument. Meanwhile, the final assessments of the readability of the simile translations are taken from the average of the raters’ assessments.

5. Analyzing the quality of the simile translations

The researcher analyzed the quality of simile translations in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and readability based on the final assessments which had been determined previously.

6. Drawing conclusions and composing recommendations

The researcher drew some conclusions based on the results of the analysis. Besides, the researcher also composed some recommendations for translators, students, other researchers, and lectures.

F.

Research Procedures

The researcher also applied some procedural steps: 1. Determining the novel

The researcher determined an appropriate novel. For instance, it should contain some similes as the topic of this research. It also must have at least two different translation versions in Indonesian because the researcher wanted to conduct a comparative study. Therefore, the researcher decided to choose the novel “The Old Man and the Sea” written by Ernest Hemingway which has two

(43)

commit to user 2. Reading the novel

After determining and finding the appropriate novel, the researcher read it to understand its plot. The researcher also read the two different translation versions.

3. Collecting the data of the similes

After reading the novel and its translation versions, the researcher collected the data of the simile translations. The data are in the forms of English sentences which contain similes and their translations in Indonesian.

4. Encoding the data

Each datum was given number and code so that it could be easily analyzed. The data codifications were done as follows:

But these poisonings from agua mala came quickly and struck like

a whiplash.

13/SL/39-40 a. “13” refers to the number of the datum

b. “SL” shows that the datum is taken from the source language / the novel written in English

c. “39-40” refers to the page where the datum can be found

Tapi racun dari agua mala ini muncul dengan cepat, menyambar seperti lecutan cemeti.

13/TL/A/33 a. “13” refers to the number of the datum

b. “TL” shows that the datum is taken from the target language / the novel written in Indonesian

(44)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

d. “33” refers to the page where the datum can be found

Namun, racun agua mala ini datang sangat cepat dan menyambar pedih seperti cambuk.

13/TL/B/40 a. “13” refers to the number of the datum

b. “TL” shows that the datum is taken from the target language / the novel written in Indonesian

c. “B” refers to the code for the second translator (Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat)

d. “40” refers to the page where the datum can be found 5. Making the list of the data

The researcher made the list of the data in the form of a comparative table. This is the example of the list of the data:

Table 4

The Example of the List of the Data

(45)

commit to user

The researcher looked for a native speaker who speaks English as his / her mother tongue. The researcher asked the native speaker to help her in validating the data before the researcher made the questionnaires of the data.

7. Analyzing the techniques used to translate the similes

The researcher analyzed the techniques used by the two translators in translating the similes found in the novel.

8. Giving the questionnaires to the raters

The researcher gave questionnaires to the raters to asses the accuracy, acceptability, and readability of the translation of the similes and also to give some comments for each data

9. Interviewing the raters

(46)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user 10. Determining the final assessment

The researcher determined the final assessments on every datum of simile translations in terms of accuracy and acceptability. It had to be done as the raters’ assessments written in the questionnaires could not be just directly followed. However, in terms of readability, the raters’ assessments are originally followed.

11. Analyzing the effects of the techniques on the quality of the translations The researcher also found out the effects of the translation techniques on the quality of the translation in terms of the accuracy, acceptability, and readability.

(47)

commit to user

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A.

Research Findings

1. Translation Techniques

After doing the research, the researcher finds out that both translators use some of the seven techniques which are mentioned in chapter II to translate the similes of the novel. However, there are some similarities and differences in applying the techniques for each datum. These are the techniques to translate similes which are applied by each translator:

Table 5

The Comparative Table of Translation Techniques Used by the Translators

NO Translation

Techniques

Dian Vita Ellyati Yuni Kristianingsih

Pramudhaningrat

Total Percentage Total Percentage

(48)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

1. Keeping the image of the simile of the source language

Dian Vita Ellyati uses this technique to translate most similes which are found in the novel. There are 33 similes which are translated using this technique. In this technique, she keeps the image of the similes of the source language into the target language. These are three examples of the data which are translated using this technique:

Example 1:

I can remember you throwing me into the bow where the wet coiled lines were and feeling the whole boat shiver and the noise of you

clubbing him like chopping a tree down and the sweet blood smell

all over me.

03/SL/13 Aku ingat Bapak melemparkanku ke dalam haluan tempat bergulung – gulung tali basah diletakkan. Aku merasa seluruh bagian perahu bergetar dan suara berisik terdengar ketika Bapak memukul jatuh ikan itu seperti menumbangkan sebatang pohon, lalu bau amis darah tercium di seluruh badanku.

03/TL/A/7

The context of situation of the sentence is when the boy tries to recall his unforgettable experience with Santiago, the old man (the main character of the novel). The experience is about catching a very big and heavy fish. The simile above is the figurative style to compare the noise of clubbing a big fish and the noise of chopping a tree down.

In this case, it can be seen that Dian keeps the image of the simile. The

image “chopping a tree down” which is translated into “menumbangkan sebuah

(49)

commit to user

simile of the source language. If the readers read the simile, they will probably be able to understand or imagine that the noise when the old man clubbed the fish is similar to the noise of chopping a tree down. Therefore, the readers can automatically guess that the caught fish must be very big and heavy.

Example 2:

The clouds over the land now rose like mountains and the coast

was only a long green line with the gray blue hills behind it.

11/SL/38 Awan di atas daratan sekarang, muncul seperti gunung, dan pantai nampak hanya sebagai garis panjang berwarna hijau dengan bukit – bukit berwarna biru kelabu di latar belakangnya.

11/TL/A/31 The context of situation of the sentence above is when Santiago, the old man, enjoys the panorama of the sky on the first day of his long journey. The author wants to compare the beauty of the clouds on the day with the beauty of mountains. The topic of the simile is “the clouds” and the image is “mountains”.

This image can be kept because there is no problem with the contents of the simile in the target language. It is okay if the clouds are compared to mountains. Therefore, Dian chooses to keep the original image of the simile. It can be seen

that the image “mountains” is directly translated into “gunung” with no change or

addition or reduction.

Even though the word “mountains” is only translated into a singular word

gunung” not “gunung - gunung”, it does not belong to reduction technique. It is

because in Indonesian, plural words are not needed to form plural nouns or phrases. For instance, the noun phrase “two yellow cars” must be translated into

(50)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

mobil – mobil kuning”. It can occur because the grammatical rules between

English and Indonesian are different. Example 3:

Now that he had seen him once, he could picture the fish swimming in the water with his purple pectoral fins set wide as wings and the great erect tail slicing through the dark.

26/SL/74 Sekarang setelah melihatnya satu kali, ia dapat membayangkan ikan itu berenang di dalam air dengan sirip dadanya yang berwarna ungu mengembang lebar laksana sayap dan ekor tajamnya mengiris kegelapan air.

26/TL/A/67 The context of situation of the sentence above is when Santiago, the old man, can see his mysterious caught fish once. Because the old man sails alone at that moment, he is too weak to remove the mysterious and extremely big fish which he has caught from the water into his boat. From this example, it can be seen that the translator also uses the technique of keeping the image of the simile of the source language into the target language. The topic of the simile above is “his purple pectoral fins” which is compared to “wings”. The image “wings” can

be directly translated into “sayap” because it is familiar for the target readers.

Similar to the previous example, the plural word “wings” can be only

translated into a singular form “sayap”. This change is not a reduction because it

must be done due to the different grammatical rules between the source and target language.

(51)

commit to user

the similes of the source language into the target language. These are three examples of the data which are translated using this technique:

Example 1:

His shirt had been patched so many times that it was like the sail

and the patches were faded to many different shades by the sun. 04/SL/20 Baju terlalu sering ditambal sebagaimana layar perahunya dan tambalan – tambalan itu telah memudar dengan beragam bentuk yang berbeda akibat pengaruh terpaan sinar matahari.

04/TL/B/19 The sentence above is the description of the old man’s clothes appearance.

The simile of the sentence is intended to compare the old man’s clothes appearance to his sail. Therefore, the topic of the simile is the old man’s shirt and

the image is his sail. The point of similarity between “his shirt” and “the sail” is

that both of them have been patched a lot of times.

Yuni uses the technique of keeping the image of the simile of the source

language. She translates the image “the sail” into “layar perahunya” originally

was only a long green line with the gray blue hills behind it.

11/SL/38 Awan yang menaungi daratan kini muncul seperti gunung gunung, dan pantai hanya terlihat berupa garis hijau panjang dengan bukit – bukit berwarna kelabu kebiruan di belakangnya.

(52)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

As what has been explained before, the context of situation of the sentence above is when the old man enjoys the panorama of the sky on the first day of his long journey. The simile of the sentence compares the beauty of the clouds on the day to the beauty of mountains. Therefore, the topic of the simile is “the clouds” and the image is “mountains”.

Similar to Dian, Yuni also keeps the original image of the simile. She

translates the image “mountains” into “gunung - gunung”. The image can be kept

because it has no problem in the target language. It is okay if the clouds are compared to mountains. However, Yuni makes a little difference in translating the image of the simile. She keeps the plural form of the image. The plural image

“mountains” is translated into “gunung - gunung” which is also plural in

Indonesian. On the other hand, Dian translates the plural image into a singular image in the target language. It can be seen that the image “mountains” is

translated into “gunung” which is singular in the target language.

Example 3:

I am as clear as the stars that are my brothers.

28/SL/ 85 Aku sejernih bintang bintang yang merupakan saudaraku.

28/TL/B/85 The context of situation of the sentence above is in the middle of the old man’s long journey. At that time, he feels very tired. He needs to take a rest.

(53)

commit to user

night. Therefore, the topic of the simile is “I” which refers to the old man and the

image is “the starsthat are my brothers”.

Yuni uses the technique of keeping the image of the simile of the source language in translating the simile. She keeps and translates it originally into “bintang – bintang yang merupakan saudaraku”. Besides, all contents in the

simile are also translated originally with no addition or reduction. The change is only about the plural form of the phrase “my brothers” which is translated into a

singular form “saudaraku” in the target language. Still it does not belong to the

reduction technique.

2. Using other image which is familiar in the target language

Dian Vita Ellyati uses this technique to translate 7 similes found in the novel. In this technique, she changes the original images of the similes into the other images which are considered more familiar or appropriate to convey the meaning of the similes in the target language. These are three examples of the data which are translated using this technique:

Example 1:

The sail was patched with flour sacks and, furled; it looked like the

flag of permanent defeat.

01/SL/9 Layar itu ditambal dengan karung tepung, dan dalam keadaan tergulung nampak seperti bendera kalah perang.

01/TL/A/3 The context of situation of the sentence above is the description of the appearance of the old man’s boat. Specifically, the sentence is about the

(54)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

“the flag of permanent defeat”. The author wants to make the readers imagine that

the sail has the same bad and poor appearance or condition as a flag of permanent defeat. However, Dian changes the image “the flag of permanent defeat” into a

different image that is “bendera kalah perang”. It is different from the original

image that must be translated into “bendera kekalahan abadi” because “bendera

kalah perang” in English is “the flag of war defeat”. Therefore, it can be seen that

Dian uses the technique of using other image which is familiar in the target language to translate this simile.

Example 2:

But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old as erosions in

a fishless desert.

02/SL/10 Tak ada luka baru. Parut luka itu sama tuanya dengan pengikisan di daerah kering tanpa kehidupan.

02/TL/A/4 In this simile, the author wants to compare the old man’s scars to the

atmosphere of erosions in a fishless desert. Therefore, the topic of the simile is

“they” which refers to “these scars” or “the old man’s scars” and the image of the

simile is “erosions in a fishless desert”. The context of situation of the sentence is

when the old man has spent a very long period of time without succeeding to catch a fish at all. The scars were actually made during the old man’s golden

(55)

commit to user

Dian uses the technique of using other image which is familiar in the target language because she changes the original image that is “erosions in a fishless

desert” into “pengikisan di daerah kering tanpa kehidupan”. The phrase “a

fishless desert” is changed into “daerah kering tanpa kehidupan”. The new image

is different from the original image because in English, it means a dry area with no life.

Example 3:

He was very fond of flying fish as they were his principal friends

on the ocean.

06/SL/32 Ia sangat menyukai ikan terbang bagaikan sahabat sejatinya di laut.

06/TL/A/24 The context of situation of the sentence above is when the old man hears the trembling sounds of flying fish passing the sea water near his boat at the dawn. When he hears the noise, he is interested to look at the flying fish. He thinks that he really likes flying fish and loves them as his own friends. The point of similarity of the simile is the way the old man admires flying fish. Besides, the image of the simile is he thinks and considers the flying fish as his principal friends in the ocean.

The simile above should be translated into “ia sangat menyukai ikan terbang bagaikan sahabat utamanya di laut” in the target language. However,

Dian makes some changes so that it is translated into “ia sangat menyukai ikan

(56)

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id

commit to user

“his principal friends” is changed into “his true friends” or “sahabat sejatinya” in

the target language.

On the other hand, Yuni Kristianingsih Pramudhaningrat uses this technique to translate only 2 similes found in the novel. The similes are contained in datum 5 and datum 12. In this technique, she changes the original images of the similes into the other images which are considered more familiar or appropriate to convey the meaning of the similes in the target language. These are the two data which are translated using this technique:

Example 1:

He only dreamed of places now and of the lions on the beach. They

played like young cats in the dusk and he loved them as he loved

the boy.

05/SL/27 Sekarang dia hanya bermimpi mengenai tempat – tempat dan singa - singa di pantai. Hewan hewan itu bermain seperti kucing kucing kecil di pasir dan dia mencintai mereka seperti dia mencintai anak lelaki itu.

05/TL/B/26 The context of situation of the sentence above is when the old man sleeps before he goes to do his long journey alone in the sea. At the night, he dreams about places and the lions on the beach. The simile of the sentence is intended to compare the playing lions to young cats in the dusk. Therefore, the topic of the simile is “the lions” and the image is “young cats in the dusk”.

In translating the simile, Yuni changes the original image of the simile.

The image “young cats in the dusk” should be translated into “kucing – kucing

kecil di senja hari”. However, Yuni translates it into “kucing – kucing kecil di

(57)

commit to user

changed into an adverb of place “di pasir”. Therefore, the translation of this simile

is categorized into the simile which is translated using the technique of using other image which is familiar in the target language. It is because there is a change in the image of the simile in the target language.

Example 2:

From where he swung lightly against his oars he looked down into the water and saw the tiny fish that were coloured like the trailing

filaments and swam between them and under the small shade the

bubble made as it drifted.

12/SL/39 Dari tempat dia mengayuhkan dayungnya dengan lembut, dia memandang ke dalam air dan melihat ikan ikan kecil berwarna seperti serabut yang mengejarnya, berenang di antara serabut dan di bawah ubur – ubur yang mengapung hanyut.

12/TL/B/39 The context of situation of the sentence above is when the old man sails in his long journey with his boat. At that time, he sees a lot of beautiful colorful tiny fish. They swim near his boat. The simile compares the color of the fish which looks like trailing filaments. Therefore, the topic of the simile is “the tiny fish”, the image is “the trailing filaments”, and the point of similarity is about their

similar color.

In translating this simile, Yuni makes a change. She uses another image which is considered more familiar in the target language. The image “the trailing

filaments” should be translated into “jejak kawat berpijar”. However, she changes

it into “serabut yang mengejarnya” in the target language. It is different from

Figur

figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing
figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing . View in document p.22
Table 1
Table 1 . View in document p.39
Table 3
Table 3 . View in document p.40
Table 4 The Example of the List of the Data

Table 4.

The Example of the List of the Data . View in document p.44
Table 5 The Comparative Table of Translation Techniques Used by the Translators

Table 5.

The Comparative Table of Translation Techniques Used by the Translators . View in document p.47
Table 6 The Comparative Table of the Scores of Accuracy Level

Table 6.

The Comparative Table of the Scores of Accuracy Level . View in document p.72
Table 7 The Comparative Table of the Scores of Acceptability Level

Table 7.

The Comparative Table of the Scores of Acceptability Level . View in document p.84
  Table 8
Table 8 . View in document p.95
Table 9 The Comparative Table of the Effects of the Techniques Applied on the

Table 9.

The Comparative Table of the Effects of the Techniques Applied on the . View in document p.108
  Table 10
Table 10 . View in document p.111
Table 10 above can clearly show the effects of the techniques applied by
Table 10 above can clearly show the effects of the techniques applied by . View in document p.112
Table 11 above can clearly describe the effects of the techniques applied
Table 11 above can clearly describe the effects of the techniques applied . View in document p.115

Referensi

Memperbarui...