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Presented as a Partial Fulfillment for the Attainment of a Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Education Department

Tika Destiratri Setiawan NIM 10202241074





Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini saya, Nama : Tika Destiratri Setiawan NIM : 10202241074

Prodi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Fakultas : Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta menyatakan bahwa karya ilmiah ini adalah hasil pekerjaan sendiri. Sepanjang pengetahuan saya, karya ilmiah ini tidak berisi material yang ditulis oleh orang lain, kecuali bagian-bagian tertentu yang saya ambil sebagai acuan dengan mengikuti tata cara dan etika penulisan karya ilmiah yang lazim.

Apabila terbukti bahwa pernyataan ini tidak benar, sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung jawab saya.

Yogyakarta, Oktober 2015 Penulis






I dedicate this thesis to:

My treasured Ibuk and Bapak who never tasted a university life but

have a very big passion, endless prayers and countless supports for

their children to achieve our highest dreams.

My lovable baboo, Dek Alfath for the little cute things that an 11




All praise be to God, the Almighty. I also would like to extend my deepest gratitude to:

1) Ibu Nury Supriyanti, M.A. for the guidance and inspirational conversations about gender issues which help me to understand more about life;

2) my family, Ibu Dedes Setyaningrum, Bapak Agus Setiawan and Alfath “Baboo” Destra Setiawan, for being so very patient waiting for my graduation day to come to whom I promise I will make them proud;

3) my best friends in English Debating Society: Pipit, Ayip, Kak Nisa, Rasman, Mas Zyah, Mb Retha, Endah, Astika, etc for the intelligent and idiot debates, for the fights, love, bullies and all the greatest fun during the past few years; 4) my better half, without whom I could have finished my thesis six month

earlier, but I knew it was worth the sheer bliss I never got before;

5) my dear friends in PBI D: Nyunyu, Mas Hars, Dek Dani, Iden, Fie, Tyase, Auk, Anta, Mb Eyin, Dita, Wika, Fian, Pak Soleh, and Isa for always keeping me believe in a delusion that I can finish this thesis in less than a month; 6) all lecturers of English Education Department for the knowledge and

enlightenment which save me from idiocy;

7) my fellow friends in UKM Bahasa Asing SAFEL, Jogja Debating Forum, EDSA and FBS for the best college memories I have ever had.




TITLE ... i




MOTTOS ... v





ABSTRACT ... xiv


A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Identification of the Problem ... 4

C. Limitation of the Problem ... 5

D. Formulation of the Problem ... 6

D. Objectives of the Study ... 6

D. Significance of the Study ... 6


A. Literature Review ... 8

1. Pragmatics ... 8

a. Definition……….8

b. Cooperative Principles……….9

1) Maxim of Quantity………..9

2) Maxim of Quality………9

3) Maxim of Relation………10

4) Maxim of Manner……….11

2. Deixis……….12

a. Person Deixis………12



c. Temporal Deixis ... 13

3. Presupposition ... 14

a. Potential Presupposition ... 14

b. Existential Presupposition ... 14

c. Factive Presupposition ... 14

d. Lexical Presupposition ... 15

e. Structural Presupposition ... 15

f. Non-factive Presupposition ... 15

g. Counter-factive Presupposition ... 15

4. Implicature ... 15

a. Conversational Implicature ... 16

b. Generalized Conversational Implicature ... 16

c. Scalar Implicature... 16

d. Particularized Conversational Implicature ... 17

e. Conventional Implicature ... 17

5. Speech Acts ... 17

a. Definition... 17

b. Classification ... 18

1) Austin’s Classification of Speech Acts ... 18

a) Locutionary Acts ... 18

b) Illocutionary Acts ... 18

c) Perlocutionary Acts ... 18

2) Searle’s Classification of Speech Acts ... 19

a) Declaration ... 19

b) Representative ... 20

c) Commissive ... 20

d) Directive... 21

e) Expressive ... 21

c. Types of Speech Acts in Terms of Directness ... 22

1) Direct Speech Acts... 22



6. Speech ... 23

a. Definition... 23

b. Classical Rhetoric Speech ... 23

1) Invention ... 24

2) Arrangement ... 24

a) Introduction (exordium) ... 24

b) Statement of Facts (narration) ... 25

c) Division (partition) ... 25

d) Proof (confirmation) ... 25

e) Refutation (refutation) ... 25

f) Conclusion (peroration) ... 25

3) Style ... 26

a) Correctness ... 26

b) Clarity ... 26

c) Evidence ... 26

d) Propriety ... 26

e) Ornateness ... 26

4) Memory ... 26

5) Delivery ... 26

7. Context of Situation ... 27

a. Setting and scene (S) ... 27

b. Participants (P) ... 27

c. Ends (E) ... 28

d. Act Sequence (A) ... 28

e. Key (K) ... 28

f. Instrumentalities (I)... 28

g. Norms of Interaction and Interpretation (N) ... 28

h. Genre (G) ... 28

8. United Nations ... 29

a. Description ... 29



c. Membership and Structure ... 30

1) The General Assembly... 31

2) The Security Council ... 31

3) The Economic and Social Council... 31

4) The Trusteeship Council ... 32

5) The International Court of Justice ... 32

6) The Secretariat ... 32

d. Issues ... 32

1) Politics ... 32

2) Economics ... 33

3) Socio-Culture ... 34

4) Education ... 35

5) Gender ... 35

B. Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson ... 36

1. Bibliography ... 36

2. Summary of the Speech ... 37

3. The Audience’s Comments ... 38

C. Review of the Related Studies ... 40

B. Conceptual Framework and Analytical Construct ... 41


A. Research Design ... 44

B. Data Preparation ... 45

1. Object of the Research, Data and Source of Data ... 45

2. Research Instrument ... 46

C. Research Procedure ... 47

1. Data Collection... 47

2. Techniques of Data Analysis ... 49

3. Data Trustworthiness ... 49




1. The Kinds of Speech Acts presented in Emma Watson’s


2. The Arrangements of Classical Rhetoric presented in Emma Watson’s HeForShe ………..54

B. Discussions ... .56

1. The Kinds of Speech Acts presented in Emma Watson’s HeForShe...56

2. The Arrangements of Classical Rhetoric presented in Emma Watson’s HeForShe ……….113 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS…..122

A. Conclusions ... 122

B. Implications ... 124

B. Suggestions ... 124

References ... 128

Triangulations ... 131

Appendices ... 133

1. Appendix of Speech Acts with Hymes’ Context ... 134




Figure 1. Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson…..……….36 Figure 2. Analytical Construct ……….43 Table 1. The Explanation of Speech Acts……….19 Table 2. The Data Sheet of the kinds of Speech Acts presented in Emma

Watson’s HeForShe………...……….46 Table 3. The Data Sheet of the Arrangements of Classical Rhetoric presented on

Emma Watson’s HeForShe……….……….47 Table 4. The Data Findings of the kinds of Speech Acts presented in Emma






Tika Destiratri Setiawan

This study applied a descriptive-qualitative research which comprehensively analyzed a specific language phenomenon. The object of this study was all utterances spoken by Emma Watson in her speech about gender equality in the UN General Assembly meeting in 20 September 2014. The data were in the form of words, phrases, and utterances uttered by Emma in her speech. The speech transcript, and the data sheets were also employed as supporting instruments. The researcher has the role of planning, collecting, analyzing, and reporting the research finding. Watching the video of the speech, finding the transcript, making data sheets, categorizing and analyzing the data were done during the data collection. Furthermore, the credibility, dependability and conformability were used to check the trustwothiness of the data.

The research findings are divided into two parts. The first part is about the kinds of speech acts especially in the form of illocutionary acts. Surprisingly all kinds of illocutionary acts such as declaration, representative, commissive, directive and expressive were seen in the speech. However, representative was the most frequent act with 69 occurrences. It was mostly performed in informing with 49 occurrences. The condition in the UN was very formal and the audience who attended the meeting was highly educated and politically powerful. It is needed for Emma to be careful so that the audience would not feel offended because she addressed the sensitive issue. Therefore, she would rather give bias information in her speech. The total of illocutionary acts was 90 occurrences. It outnumbered the total sentence because one sentence can perform more than one speech acts. This is a proof that the speech was very effective. The second finding was about the types of the arrangement of classical rhetoric. All elements were seen except the division because Emma wanted to make her speech more efficient. Proof came as the most frequent with 25 occurrences which is showing that she put more focus on her logical and emotional explanations so that the audience could accept her arguments. In conclusion, the speech was categorized as the effective speech because of the choice of powerful words, sentence structures and expressions to convey her intended meanings and logically appealing reasoning.



A. Background of the Study

Great speeches make great influences. Therefore, after hearing the speech, the audience or even the society will be influenced to think or to do like what the speaker says. That kind of speech can effectively make the audience feel as if they are being carried forward and encouraged toward the destination of the speaker (Osborn, 1988; Crick, 2014). In the past, great speeches could only be created by great people who had big power in the society like for example a president of a country or a leader of a certain group. In August 1963, for instance, Martin Luther King, Jr. who happened to be a leader of African-American Civil Rights Movement delivered a speech called ”I have a dream.” This speech was great not only because of its content but it was also because the speaker was King, Jr., the leader. Therefore, it could be concluded that if the speaker is powerful, the content of the speech must be important and powerful as well.


delivered. The latest point plays the more important role in making a good speech. No matter who the speaker is, as long as the speaker uses a good strategy, the goal will be well-conveyed then. The researcher decided to analyze how a speech should be delivered in order to make it great and influential for the listeners. In order to know this strategy, the researcher took one of the most well-known and influential speech given in this 21st century. Emma Watson’s speech at the UN General Assembly meeting which was conducted on September 20th, 2014 was chosen as the object of the study.


audience’s responses. The great responses were not only coming from the audience in the big hall but also from the international society who happened to see the video as well as the media which portrayed, spread and criticized the video. Many societies from different backgrounds started to have public discourses about the gender equality. With the 13-minutes speech, she could successfully achieve her goal to create a wake-up call for gender equality fighters. Therefore, it was very interesting to analyze the combination of a great speech and amazing public speaking skill in this speech.

It is very important for the students of English Education Department to learn the effective way to communicate in English because they learn the language. This study brings one real example of the effective use of English which is Emma Watson’s use of English in her speech

entitled HeForShe. The factors that influence how Emma’s speech is effective are analyzed here. Thus this research is important to reveal what factors that contribute in making a great speech.

B. Identification of The Problem


solutions to overcome this problem is by giving them the examples of a good speech. However, in understanding a speech, students, especially the non-native ones, often create various interpretations upon the speeches. It is not only because of the communication barriers (such as but not limited to grammar, vocabularies, spelling etc.) but it is also because of the complex language pattern of language variety.

The problem mentioned above showed that the students of English Education Department had low English mastery because they could not construct the language in the effective way. It was proven by the fact that many of the students still could not clearly convey the idea of their speech. They tended to be rambling and could not speak to the point. They also could not perfectly perceive the idea that was tried to be delivered by a speaker. Sometimes, students totally did not know what the speaker was trying to say and sometimes they had wrong interpretations.


expression indicates that the students have yet to fully understand the meaning of the language and how to properly use it. Having a good communication skills means to know and understand the meaning and the proper use of the language.

When students analyzed a speech, sometimes they could not get the full meaning because they forgot to link the utterances with the context of the speech. It is also needed to know the context of where the speech is delivered because different context creates different influences as well. Studying the context of the speech, like the culture and habit (e.g. their language use, their wisdoms, their social lives, and so forth) is important in order to analyze the speech comprehensibly. Therefore, it is very needed to have this research because it analyzed a speech based on the language pattern, expression and context of the speech.

C. Limitation of The Problem

The problems mentioned above could be narrowed down into the lack of examples showing how people can create an effective speech. This is very fundamental since it gives the students a clear picture of how a speech can be effective. This study presents Emma Watson’s speech to be used as the example of a good speech. Emma’s speech is then analyzed to find out the factors which make this speech great.


rhetoric power in affecting the society. This research analyzed the complexity of language use in illocutionary force in order to know how to maximize the intended meaning on their speech acts, locutionary acts in order to know how to create well-structured utterances, and also perlocutionary acts in order to know the impact of the utterances.

The context of situation is also employed in order to know the relation between the phychological and physical situation of the speech. Not to mention the analysis on the types of the arrangement of classical rhetoric is also used in order to discover the available means of persuasion in the speech. Thus, the employment of the concepts above is effective to analyze the strength of the speech which then is utilized in this research.

D. Formulation of The Problems

Based on the previous explanation, the problems are formulated into two: 1. what are the kinds of speech acts that can be observed in Emma

Watson’s HeForShe?

2. what are the kinds of the arrangement of classical rhetoric speech in the delivery of Emma Watson’s HeForShe?

E. Objectives of The Study

Based on the formulation of the problems, the objectives of this study are: 1. to identify and analyze the kinds of speech acts employed in Emma

Watson’s HeForShe and;


F. Significance of The Study

Theoretically, it is expected that the final result is useful for:

1. enriching the study in the field of linguistics especially pragmatics, and; 2. creating a bibliography variation to the readers in the relation to the

classification of speech acts, and social and political condition. Practically this research is expected to be useful for:

1. those who study English in dealing with adding their English speaking materials especially those which deal with the speaking skill such as the example of an effective speech;

2. those who study linguistics especially pragmatics in dealing with the way a speech is effective;




A. Literature Review 1. Pragmatics

a. Definition

Leech (1991) defined pragmatics as the study of how utterances have meanings in any situations. In addition, Yule (1996) explained that pragmatics is the study of speakers’ meaning, contextual meaning, how more gets communicated than is said, and the expression of relative distance. Therefore, based on these two definitions, it can be concluded that pragmatics is the study on speakers’ meaning which is influenced by the context situation.

However, the listeners (or readers) and the speakers (or writers) should share the same knowledge of the context to achieve the better understanding. So, the communication that is created between the speaker and listener can be effectively gained and resulted into something that both actors expected from the conversations. b. Cooperative Principles


illustrated by H.P. Grice (Leech, 1991: 8) which are elaborated in four sub-principles called maxims. The maxims in the cooperative principles are elaborated below.

1) Maxim of Quantity

It is about giving the right amount of information such as making your contribution as informative as required which should not be too less and too much. The examples are presented below.

(a) You can see me at 09.30 a.m. at my office.

(b) You can see me at 09.30 a.m. at my office. However, if you don’t mind, we can just go outside and have lunch together discussing our new project. I’m extremely hungry.

(Yule, 1996: 37)

The context of situation in the examples above is that the speaker intends to make an appointment with the speaker’s


speakers which is to have a working meeting only. Thus the utterance in (b) flouts the maxim.

2) Maxim of Quality

It is about trying to make your contribution that is true such as not saying something you believe to be false and lack of evidences. The examples are presented below.

(a) I will be there at 10 o’clock sharp. Prepare what we’ve been discussing.

(b) Emm, I will be there at about 10 o’clock if I’m not mistaken. You have to prepare what we’ve been discussing, right?


3) Maxim of Relation

It is about making your contribution relevant such as saying something which is in line with the topic or the direction of the speaker that you try to engage with. The examples are presented below.

(a) *Someone is knocking the door* Gale : I’m in the bath, Prime. (b) *Someone is knocking the door*

Gale : I don’t really know if this is important, Prime, but what time is it?

The context of situation in two examples above is different. In conversation (a), the context is that there is someone calling on the phone. Gale expects Prime to understand that his reason is relevant to Prime’s assertion that even if there is someone knocking the door, Gale cannot go and see who it is because Gale is in the bath. However, at utterance (b), it is assumed that the context is actually in a first date. There is a possibility for the speaker to have a non-relevant material because he wants to stop the dating for some reasons, so as to say getting bored with the situation or getting too late to go home. So, the speaker also seemingly likes to use expressions like ‘anyway’, ‘well’, ‘I don’t know if this is important’, ‘oh, by the way’, and so on. In that


4) Maxim of Manner

It is about making your contribution perspicuous such as be brief and orderly. It can also be done by avoiding any obscurity of expression and ambiguity. The examples are presented below.

(a) When I was 13, I vividly remembered the way I fell down from the tree. I was hospitalized for three days after that. I never want to climb a tree anymore since then.

(b) This may be a bit confusing to me, but I remembered being in stairs’ accident.

The context situation in the examples above is clearly described that there is a person who tries to tell how he felt down from the stairs when he was a kid. However, the utterance (a) is the only one that fulfils the maxim of manner. In utterance (b), he tries to remember the event but it becomes more awkward since he could not actually remember what happened to him when he was a kid.


2. Deixis

According to Yule (1996: 9) deixis means pointing via language. The language form that is used is the deictic expression which can also be called as indexicals. There are three kinds of deixis which are as follows.

a. Person Deixis

It operates on a basic three-part division which are defined with pronouns as first person (‘I’), second person (‘You’) and third

person (‘She’, ‘He’, ‘It’). This deixis categories are elaborated with their relative social status such as whether the addressee has a higher status or not (honorifics). The use of person deixis will be influenced by the relationship status of the speaker and addressee.

The speaker tends to use different pointing when they talk to the people based on their age and economic status. For example, in French there is a different word to address “you” which are “tu” for the addressee who is considered as having the same age or social position or even considered as familiar, and “vous” for the addressee who is considered as having the different age, social position or non-familiar.

b. Spatial Deixis


and “there” are used to point the faraway place or things. However, sometimes the use of this deixis can be different based on the speaker’s intention due to the existence of the deictic projection.

This means that the speaker can project some location in which she is not there. For instance in the recorder of telephone machine. When someone calls and the speaker is not there, the machine will automatically answer “I’m not here, please leave a message.” It means that the speaker projects her presence to be in

the required location.

Another example is when the speaker tells a story and in the story she said “here”. It means the speaker tries to project the

location in the story not in the place where she is now. Therefore, it is clear that spatial deixis is really close to phychological distance where physically close objects will tend to be treated by the speaker as phychological close and vice versa. However, sometimes the speaker can also treat physical close as physical distance for example “I don’t like that.” The word “that” in this sentence does not merely have the semantic meaning but a meaning based on the speaker’s context.

c. Temporal Deixis


time. For example when a speaker says “I’m in my uncle’s house now.” The hearer should also hear or read this sentence at exact time as the speaker’s. Another temporal deixis expression are “yesterday”, “last night”, “today”, “tonight”, “tomorrow”, “next week”, “this week” and so forth. This type of deixis also requires the

same time possessed by the speaker and the hearer so that they won’t

misunderstand the message. In English the choice of these expression will also determine the verb tense of the sentence or utterance they use. This distal form can not only be used to show the distance from current time to the past or present time but also from reality or facts to imagination in the past or future. For example: 1) I live here now.  proximal form

2) I lived there then.  distal form

3) I could live in London now if I had a lot of money.  distal form from the speaker’s reality

3. Presupposition

Presupposition means a thing that the speaker assumes to be the prior case to make an utterance (Yule: 1996: 25). For example the utterance: Emma’s brother got three turtles. The assumption will be (1) we know


According to Yule (1996: 27-29) there are seven types of presupposition which are:

a. Potential Presupposition

It means the linguistics forms such as words, phrases and structures are used as an indicator which can only become correct presupposition in contexts with the speakers.

b. Existential Presupposition

It means the utterance is not assumed to be only present in the possessive construction but rather in any definite noun phrase. c. Factive Presupposition

It means the hearer does not only assume but she can assure that what she hears is a fact. It is shown by the words such as know, realize, aware and so forth.

d. Lexical Presupposition

It means the use of one form is conventionally interpreted with the presupposition of another meaning. For example when you hear someone says “she managed to do something”, it means that she

succeed at some level. Meanwhile when you hear someone says “she didn’t manage it”, it means that she didn’t succeed.

e. Structural Presupposition


“When did she leave?” The following structure which is true is that

you have known she left. f. Non-factive Presupposition

It means the context that is assumed to be not true such as the words dream, imagine, pretend and so forth. For example when you hear someone says “I pretend to be ill.” The facts is that I am not ill at all.

g. Counter-factive Presupposition

It means the presupposition is not only false but even it is contradictory with the fact itself. For example the utterance like “If you were my boyfriend, you would have helped me.” It means that

the presupposition is you are not my friend which is very opposed with the utterance.

4. Implicature


a. Conversational Implicature

It means the speaker conveyed meaning more than what is one said. The example is presented in the conversation below. Anna : I hope you brought the paper and the glue. Fia : Ah, I brought the paper.

Even if Fia does not mention anything about the glue, but it can be concluded that she only brings the paper but not the glue. So, the meaning of Fia’s utterance is conveying more meaning than

what is she said.

b. Generalized Conversational Implicature

It means that the condition where there is no required special knowledge in the context to calculate the additional conveyed meaning. The use of it in English is how the speaker uses an article “a/an X”. Therefore, it means that the X is not the speaker’s belonging.

c. Scalar Implicature


the word “some” whichmeans “not all”. Then the scale will be “few, some, many, most, all”.

d. Particularized Conversational Implicature

It means the implicatures can be calculated with the very specific context. The example is presented in the conversation below. Ian : Hey, coming to the wild party tonight?

Tom : My parents are visiting

In this conversation, Ian has to get an assumed knowledge when Tom will be spending the evening with his parents in which the condition is usually quiet. Therefore, Tom’s utterance means that he cannot go to the party.

e. Conventional Implicature

It means that in creating the interpretation, the utterance by itself does not depend on any special context. It associates with specific words such as “but”, “and”, “yet”, and “even” which

result in additional conveyed meanings when those words are used. For example “Danni put onhis clothes and left the house.”

In this utterance, the word “and” means “in addition” or “plus”.


5. Speech Acts a. Definition

Speech acts is actions performed via utterances (Yule, 1996: 47). In English it is given more specific labels such as apology, compliment, complaint, promise, request and so forth.

b. Classification of Speech Acts

According to Austin (Yule, 1996: 48-49) the action performed by producing an utterance will consist of three related acts. The explanations are provided below.

1) Austin’s Classification of Speech Acts

a) Locutionary Acts

Locutionary acts is the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expression. It is about the words used and the structured created to make a well-formed utterances. b) Illocutionary Acts


c) Perlocutionary Acts

Perlocutionary acts is the intending effect of the utterance towards the listeners. It is about what is done or what is resulted by uttering the words. The effect is expected since at the very first time the speaker utters the words. Therefore, to make it easy to differ those three speech acts, Austin’s in

Leech (1991: 199) explains in the simplest way as follows. Table 1: The Explanation of Speech Acts

Speech Acts

Explanation Example Locution Performing the act of

saying something

s says to h that X

Illocution Performing the act in saying something

in saying X, s asserts that P Perlocution Performing the act by

saying something

By saying X, s convinces h that P

2) Searle’s Classification of Speech Acts

Searle (1969) creates one general classification which lists fives types of general functions performed by speech acts which are presented below.

a) Declaration

Declaration is a kind of speech act that change the world via their utterance (Yule, 1996: 53). The further explanation is given through the examples.


(3) Jury Foreman: We find the defendant guilty.

In example (1) the context situation is that there is a Christian couple who want to get married. The priest’s words change the legal status of these two people from single into a married status. Meanwhile, in example (2) the context situation is that there is a football match. Due to some conditions, the referee then punishes the player and prohibits him to play in the field during the match. The last example is example (3) which context situation is about the justice trial. The Jury Foreman’s words change the defendant status

from innocent into guilty. Therefore, he deserves the punishment.

b) Representative

Representive is a kind of speech acts which states what the speaker believes to be the case or not (Yule, 1996: 53). The further explanation is given through the examples below. (1) The earth is flat.

(2) Chomsky didn’t write about peanuts. (3) It was a warm sunny day.

In example (1) the speaker believes that “the earth is flat”


more important. In the last example, the speaker believes that the day was warm and sunny. It was not hot, cold or else. The speaker also believes that what she feels about the weather is true.

c) Commissive

Commissive is a kind of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to do something in the future. Commissive is like giving promises, threats, refusals, pledges and so forth (Yule, 1996: 53). The further explanation is given through the examples below.

(1) I’ll be back.

(2) I’m going to get it right next time (3) We will not do that.

In example (1) the speaker is going to somewhere and promising to be back again. Meanwhile, in example (2) the speaker promises to not doing something.

d) Directive

Directive is a kind of speech that speakers use to get someone else to do something. Directive is like commands, orders, and suggestions (Yule, 1996: 53). The further explanation is given through the examples below.


(2) Could you lend me a pen, please? (3) Don’t touch that!

In example (1) the speaker commands the hearer to make a cup of coffee without pouring any milk. Meanwhile, in example (2) the speaker asks the hearer to permit her to use the pen. In example (3) the speaker prohibits the hearer to touch the stuff.

e) Expressive

Expressive is a kind of speech acts that states what the speakers believe. (Yule, 1996: 53). The further explanation is given through the examples below.

(1) I’m really sorry. (2) Congratulations.

(3) Oh, yes, great, mmmm, ssahh!

In example (1) the speaker feels sorry and sincerely apologizes upon something she does wrong. Meanwhile, in example (2) the speaker feels happy for some achievements that the hearer got. In example (3) the speaker feels great for something.

c. Types of Speech Acts in Terms of Directness


declarative, interrogative, and imperative. There are also three general communicative functions such as statement, question, and command/request. The difference between direct and indirect speech acts is put on the relations between the structural forms and general communicative functions.

1) Direct Speech Acts

It is where there is a direct relationship between the structure and the function. Therefore, a declarative used to make a statement is considered as a direct speech acts. It is the same as the imperative structure. The examples are presented below. a) It is cold outside.

b) I hereby tell you about the weather.

In example a) the utterance is directive. If this utterance is used to make a statement, the form will be changed into the example b).

2) Indirect Speech Acts

It is where there is an indirect relationship between the structure and the function. Therefore, a declarative which is used to make a request is considered as an indirect speech acts. The examples are given below.

a) It is cold outside.


In example a) the utterance is in the declarative form. If it is used to make a command or request, the form of the utterance will be changed into the example b).

6. Speech a. Definition

Speech is the learned skill that exists freely without writing (but still applies the cohesive and coherent sentences) and delivered through spoken language (Gordon, 1961; Burton, 1976; Osborn, 1988; Eggins, 2004). The structure of a speech is just like the structure in any other writing products; introduction, body and conclusion. The language that is used in the speech should be clear, lively or colourful, concrete, and comprehensible, so that it can prevent the miss-conception from the audience.


b. Classical Rhetoric Speech

Rhetorical speech is the art of addressing the speaker’s thought which is conducted through employing deliberate persuasive strategies at a specific occasion to achieve some effects through its imaginary and narrative voices (Porter, 2001; Crick, 2014). In other words, as one of the persuasive strategies rhetoric also involves the cultural, political and social assumptions that are inherent with the topic being spoken. Furthermore, Crick (2014) also mentions “Rhetoric is ultimately about how people act as agents of social change, using whatever symbolic power they can harness to move people from this place to that place.” Therefore, it can be concluded that rhetoric speech is a speech that is made by people in order to transform the way a society or community thinks, feels, and behaves by using the available means of persuasion.

1) Invention


2) Arrangement

It means that it is about the making of the context situation into a logical sequence and unity. It can also be conducted through organizing the various materials which are gathered together into a coherent speech structure. The structure should consist of a beginning, middle, and end which are broken down into points as follows.

a) Introduction (exordium)

Its function is to state the speech’s purpose and establish credibility to persuade the listeners whether the speech is worth to listen or not.

b) Statement of Facts (narratio)

Its function is to provide an overview of the situation to provide enough information for the audience to understand the context of the speaker’s arguments.

c) Division (partitio)


d) Proof (confirmatio)

Its function is to present logical arguments and supporting facts, so that the audience can understand and follow. e) Refutation (refutatio)

Its function is to refute counterargument by showing the weakness of the speaker’s argument. It is very useful to

create a pre-emptive argument, so that the speaker can answer the audience doubts about the argument. It also creates trust since the speaker shows the intellectual modesty.

f) Conclusion (peroratio)

Its function is to sum up claims and reinforce them with the emotional appeal. Injecting some emotions into the conclusion is really needed to touch the heart of the listeners, so that they will not only remember the content of the speech but also are persuaded to follow the speaker’s direction.

3) Style

It is about the choice and combination of words into clauses, periods, and figures.

a) Correctness


shows that she is well educated and paying attention to the language nuance and details.

b) Clarity

It means that the speaker needs to be clear and straightforward.

c) Evidence

It means that the speaker provides the evidence to support the claims. In order to make the evidence easy to be understood, therefore, the speaker needs to explain it with vivid descriptions.

d) Propriety

It is about saying the right thing at the right time in the right place.

e) Ornateness

It means that the speaker makes the speech interesting by using figures of speech and manipulating the sound and rhythm of the words.

4) Memory


5) Delivery

It is about the oral expression and gesture in order to make the persuasion.

7. Context of Situation

In understanding the intended meaning of the speaker, it is really needed to know the context of situation that happens at the time when the speaker delivers the speech. This is very important to see the link between what she said and the interpretations that may come as the result of analyzing the speaker’s meaning.

In regard to this need, Hymes (1974) in Wardhaugh (2006: 232-234) proposed an ethnography framework which describes all factors that are relevant in understanding how a particular communicative event can achieve its goals. Hymes names this ethnography as SPEAKING which is explained as follows.

a. Setting and scene (S)


changes the conversation from formal to informal, from serious to joyful and so forth.

b. Participants (P)

Participants refer to the people involved in the utterance which can be defined as the speaker-listener, addressor-addressee, or sender-receiver. Participants will identify who plays as the speaker-listener, addressor-addressee or sender-receiver for example in the political speech. The addressor is the leader while the addressee is the audience.

c. Ends (E)

Ends refers to the goals or outcome which is expected to be achieved by the participants. The goals may be varied. For example in the courtroom, there are the judge, jury, prosecution, defense and so forth.

d. Act sequence (A)

Act sequence refers to the actual form and content of what is said such as the precise words used, how the words are used, and the relationship of what is said to the actual topic. For example to join parties, if the participants want to mingle with others, they need to follow the system of language used and things talked within. e. Key (K)


f. Instrumentalities (I)

Instrumentalities refer to the choice of channel of how the utterance is created such as oral, written or telegraphic and how the actual forms of utterance employed such as the language, dialect, and so forth.

g. Norms of interaction and interpretation (N)

Norms of interaction and interpretation refers to the specific behaviours and properties attached to the utterance for example loudness, silence, gaze return, and so forth.

h. Genre (G)

Genre refers to the types of the utterance such as poems, proverbs, riddles, sermons, prayers, lectures and so forth.

This SPEAKING formula is very important to show that talk is a very complex activity and that any particular talk is actually a piece of “skilled work”. Skilled work means that the speaker must be aware and sensitive toward each of these eight factors above. Neglecting to fulfil these factors may result into the poorer speaker.

8. United Nations (UN)


articulating and standing up for universal values such as freedom, human rights and democratic accountability.

a. Description

UN, which stands for United Nations, is the biggest and highest international organization in the world. Before using the term United Nations as its name, the League of Nations was applied to name this organization. The League of Nations was built in 1919, during the First World War. The aim is to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security. However, the League of Nations failed to prevent the Second World War. Therefore, there was a more urgent demand for the peaceful resolution such as international collaborations and dialogues.


b. Purposes and Principles

The purposes of the United Nations as written in the chapter are as follows.

1) to maintain international peace and security;

2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; 3) to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural

and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

4) to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.

In turn, the United Nations acts in accordance with the following principles.

1) It is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.

2) All members are to fulfil in good faith their Charter obligations. 3) They are to settle their international disputes by peaceful means

and without endangering international peace and security and justice.

4) They are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state.

c. Membership and Structure


wants to become members should get the recommendation from the Security Council to be admitted by the General Assembly. The official languages are Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Arabic. The UN consists of six principal organs which are explained below.

1) The General Assembly

The General Assembly is the organ of the UN which consists of representatives of all member states, each of which has one vote. Some of their jobs are to consider and to make recommendations on the principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and additional members of the Trusteeship Council (when necessary) and to elect, together with the Security Council, the judges of the ICJ and lastly, on the recommendation of the Security Council, to appoint the Secretary General. 2) The Security Council


which enables them to object to any resolutions made under the UNSC.

Meanwhile, the 10 non-permanent members are elected by General Assembly for a two-year term only and do not possess the veto right. The main job of the UNSC is to create and maintain the peace and security. One of the ways is to create approaches to the conflicted parties which may create the insecure circumstances.

3) The Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) consists of 54 members. They are placed based on the geographical areas which are 14 for African states, 11 to Asian states, 6 to Eastern European states, 10 to Latin American and Caribbean states, and 13 to Western European and other states. The members are only serving for three-year terms. Its main job is to discuss, make and formulate any economic policy recommendation addressed for the UN member and the UN system itself.

4) The Trusteeship Council


5) The International Court of Justice

It is the principal judicial organ of the UN which is located at The Hague (The Netherlands). This court is charged with legal disputes between states. It is not open for private people, entities and other international organization.

6) The Secretariat

The UN Secretariat consists of staff members representing all nationalities working under UN. Its function is to service the other principal organs of the UN and administer the programmes and policies created by them. The Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the UNSC, acts as the head of the Secretariat for a renewable five-year term.

d. Issues 1) Politics


into a damage and chaotic country. This resulted into how there are many citizens choose to seek for the asylum from the neighbourhood countries.

Another ongoing war still happens between Israel and Palestine. Luckily even if the resolution has been voted by the US for many times, Palestine’s flag can finally be put in the UN office

in 2015. It shows that Palestine has been acknowledged by the UN as an official country and official member of the UN. Thus the UN can give any measures to help the conflicting parties in the war in which this is considered as a good move from the UN in creating and maintaining the peace in the world.

2) Economy

The world is facing the economic problem such as poverty, gap of prosperity, unsustainable development, unfair trade and the increasing of immobilizing foreign debt. In finding the resolution for that problems, the UN urges the adoption of macroeconomic policies that address current imbalances between the North and South.


economic growth especially in the developing countries. It also provides the development and sustainability loan through World Bank and its sub-organizations such as the IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), the IDA (The International Development Association), the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and so forth.

3) Socio-Culture

The world is facing the new change of civilization right now. It is not only proven with numbers of authoritarian countries which have changed into a democratic countries but also proven with the existence of the pop-culture. This pop-culture is the culture of citizens who are considered as modern citizens. The development of the technology and life style causes the change in the people’s

ideology and behaviour. For instance people now choose to be more active in talking through social media than in the direct face-to-face conversations. The new culture like free sex, hook-up, and ignorance as the new life style has been becoming the culture of our youths.


executes one of the values of the pop-culture, it does not necessarily mean that they break the values that are believed by the conventional people. However, people’s responses are random and uncontrollable. At the extreme case this intolerance can bring them into a conflict and disintegration.

4) Education

Education is currently becoming the main problem in some countries in the world. This is where poverty comes from. Therefore, the UN programmes have shown some progress in enrolling the children in the primary schools. Based on UN Facts 2012, in 2008 primary school enrolment had increased to 89 per cent in the developing world. The progress was also reported in Southern Asia and Northern Africa, where enrolment increased by 11 and 8 percentage points, respectively, over the last decade. 5) Gender


women are given the same freedom as men in expressing themselves, in executing the full self-determination, and in achieving whatever they want to achieve even if it is perceived as the man-stuff.

B. Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson 1. Bibliography

Figure 1: Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson

Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson was born on April 15, 1990, in Paris. Her parents are both British lawyers. Sadly her parents divorced when she was 5 years old. After the divorce her mother brought Emma and her brother to Oxfordshire in England. Hermione Granger, Harry Potter's smart, bossy best friend and voice of reason in the Harry Potter film franchise was her first debut in acting. She becomes a popular adult model and actress since then.


in Oxford, England in 2001. From 2001-2006, she attended the equally prestigious Headington School for girls.

Not only did she attend top schools, but Emma also earned top marks in her schools. She consistently achieved grades in the A category, and has done quite well on her exams too. She received two A marks on her GCSEs, which are a series of tests English students to gain entrance to institutions of higher education. She attended Brown University and graduated with cum laude title.

Sports activities such as field hockey, netball, and tennis are her favourite. She enjoys recreational skiing and dancing, and competes regularly in dance competitions. This activities help her to have an athletic body. Her youngest fans see Emma as a role model because she is considered quite approachable, friendly and easy to relate to. Therefore, it is not surprising that Emma easily gets many friends around her. Meanwhile, her adults fans see her as a person with a strong determination because she finally can make the cut for top-earning, sexiest, and most popular celebrities in Forbes and Empire magazines.

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, the Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women, (The Reuters, ep 23 September 2014) believed that the engagement of young people is critical for the advancement of gender equality in the 21st century, and she was convinced that Emma’s intellect and passion will enable UN Women’s


Therefore, Emma Watson is pointed as the UN Women Goodwill Ambassador in 2014.

2. Summary of The Speech

This speech was delivered in UN General Assembly Meeting in New York, United States of America on September 20th, 2014. The audience in the hall was the members and staffs of the General Assembly delegates. However, the speech was streamed through the official UN Youtube site, so that the international people outside the hall can also

witness the speech directly.

She said that the world is not enough in treating genders equally. She believed women should also have rights to determine themselves including to be aggressive and strong. In other words, men will also get the rights to be submissive and vulnerable. She added that feminism is about addressing the power imbalances which limit people’s

opportunities to live their lives to the fullest. Furthermore, saying that the world needs men to uphold women’s right strengthened the message that men are considered as having the higher power than women in the society. This condition brings benefits for men because they have more authority to change the stereotypes that have been widely spread for years in the society.

Lastly, she informed the good news about how this world has got the HeForShe uniting movement. This is an urge for people who believe in


speech she asked everybody to step forward to be seen to speak of and to be “he” for “she for the greater good in the future.

3. The Audience’s Comments

Emma Watson’s UN speech on gender equality was applauded by actors, musicians, politicians and almost all people in every spectrum of society in the world. After receiving a standing ovation, her speech had successfully made waves on social media and blogs. There were more

than 100,000 men worldwide who shared the #HeForShe hashtag (Rachel Jones, The Telegraph Post, ep September 28th, 2014). On September 23rd, 2014, more than 70,000 men and boys had signed online pledges, according to the HeForShe online active map on the campaign's website (The Reuters, ep September 23rd, 2014).There were many people who gave comments toward Emma’s Speech. Some of the comments showed that they disagree with her but most of them showed that they were amazed with the speech. Here are some of the audience comments which were taken from different sites.

“I love that Emma Watson has bravely put herself on the line as a proud feminist. It is wonderful that she may be instrumental in inspiring millions more to consider these issues. Bravo to her.”

Clementine Ford, The Freelance Writer The Sydney Morning Herad, September 26th, 2014


to read the transcript of her talk and watch the videos of her delivering in.” Bart Egnal, The Leadership Communication Coach

The Huffington Post, October 17th, 2014

“I was so very proud of Emma Watson’s speech at the UN. It was brilliant, such an incredible use of her airspace, and really passionate.” Cate Blanchet, The Australian actor The Guardian, November 28th, 2014

“We are all very humbled by the numbers. I have to point out that Emma has been a very instrumental part.. her speech was so powerful.” Elizabeth Nyamayaro, Senior Advisor to UN Women’s Executive

director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka Glamour Magazine, September 29th, 2014


stars who are supporting Emma’s HeForShe campaign in one of the famous UK magazines, Glamour Magazine.

“@emwatson is an inspiration for taking a stand + sparking a worthy debate. #HeForShe – RT for #kindness #equality #love #moms #sisters #daughters #friends.” Jared Leto posted on Instagram on September 2014

“And speaking of #Feminism, @EmWatson is doing a great project called #HeForShe. Go check it out http://HeForShe.org” Joseph Gordon-Levitt tweeted on September 22nd, 2014

“A beautiful speech @EmWatson http://youtu.be/p-iFl4qhBsE Inspired. #HeForShe” Ellie Goulding tweeted on September 23rd, 2014

“@EmWatson you are impeccable & extraordinary. I stand with you. I believe in gender equality. #HeForShe” Tom Hiddleston tweeted on September 24th, 2014

“I'm supporting @UN_Women and @EmWatson in #HeForShe As should you..” Harry Styles tweeted on September 25th, 2014

C. Review of The Related Studies

There are many studies in analyzing speech through pragmatics. One of them is the research conducted by Annisa Laura Maretha, a Sarjana Pendidikan degree student of English Education Department of State


President William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton’s Apology Speeches I Misled And I Have Sinned”. She used Searle’s theory of Speech Acts as the basis of the analysis of the study. She analyzed the types of speech acts and classical rhetoric in the speeches. The study revealed the second speech was more effective and convincing rather than the first speech which was still full of emotion of embarrassment and anger.

Another similar research is the research conducted by Retno Rahma Safitri, a Sarjana Pendidikan degree student of English Education Department of State University of Yogyakarta, in 2014 entitled “Pragmatics Analysis on Speech Acts and The Arrangements of Classical Rhetoric in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Pearl Harbor“. She analyzed the types of speech acts and the arrangements of classical rhetoric in the speech. The study revealed the speech which lasted only for 7 minutes was very effective. This speech was even effective to trigger the World War II.


any political actions. However, her speech can trigger many influences. One of them was creating the wake-up calls from the international society. D. Conceptual Framework and Analytical Construct


Speaker Meaning Context

Context of Situation

Context of Socio-Cultural

Language – Classical Rhetoric Pragmatic Analysis

Deixis Cooperative Principles

Perlocutionary acts

Speech Acts Implicature Presupposition

Locutionary acts Illocutionary acts

Searle Classification

Representatives Directives Comissives Expressives Declarations


Arrangement Memory

Style Delivery

Statements of facts Division

Proof Refutation





A. Research Design

This study is a descriptive-qualitative research. This type of research demands the researcher to engage in deep analysis of the subjective experience in conducting the research and analyzing the data (Johnson, 2008; Lodico, 2010; Litosseliti, 2010). It also demands to collect and summarize the data mostly with narratives or verbal methods such as observations, interviews, and document analysis. A qualitative research also considerably means as a type of research which analyses some phenomena. However, it is believed that the full understanding of phenomena is dependent on the context situation, so that it demands the deeper analysis in doing the research.

Meanwhile, a descriptive research is a method that deals with the possibilities to solve an actual problem by collecting, classifying, analyzing, and interpreting data. In interpreting the data, the researcher used theories to analyze the patterns observed. Certain theories were utilized as the basic foundation of analyzing the research. In conclusion, this type of research seeks to describe or explain why a phenomenon happens by doing the data collection, classification, analysis, and interpretation of the phenomenon. It does not deal with numeric data or variable and its relationship.


As it has been mentioned that natural setting has become one of the characteristics of a qualitative research. This research also took a natural setting which means it naturally happened without any intervention from the researcher.

The last thing about this research is how this research was conducted. The scientific approach was employed in order to do this research. It was conducted from February 2015 until October 2015.

The video of Emma Watson’s HeForShe and its transcript were used as the main object to be analyzed. The background knowledge of the speaker, the topic, the place, and the occasion as well as its atmosphere which were deployed as the context, were also employed in this research to obtain the deep analysis.

This study focused on finding the types of speech acts based on Searle’s classification, finding the context situation which was influential in the speech and explaining the types of the arrangement of the classical rhetoric in Emma Watson’s HeForShe.

B. Data Preparation

1. Object of The Research, Data and Source of Data


speech was retrieved from

http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2014/9/emma-watson-gender-equality-is-your-issue-too#sthash.jn3LIdg2.dpuf The researcher

also collected some data from other sources as well. 2. Research Instrument

The primary instrument of this research was the researcher. It became one of the strengths of qualitative approach because it allowed her to see and document the qualities of the interaction. As the first instrument, the researcher has the role of planning, collecting, analyzing, and reporting the research finding. The speech, the speech transcript, and the data sheets were also employed as supporting instruments. The form of data sheets can be seen as follows.

Table 2: The Data Sheet of The Kinds of Speech Acts Presented in

Emma Watson’s HeForShe

No Code Data Context







Illocutionary Pe







Notes :

SP : Speech COM : Commissive


DIR : Directive

Table 3: The Data Sheet of The Arrangements of Classical

Rhetoric Presented in Emma Watson’s HeForShe


AR : Arrangements IRI : International Relation Issues 00:01-00:23: minute PI: Political Issues

IN : Introduction SCI : Socio-Culture Issues SF : Statement of Facts EI : Economic Issues

DV : Division GI : Gender Issues PR : Proof RF : Refutation

C. Research Procedure 1. Data Collection

Based on Lodico (2010: 11) basically this type of research uses inductive approaches for its data collection because the hypotheses are

No Data

The Arrangement of

Classical Rhetoric Speech

The UN issues in 21st Century






hypotheses, they are examined by further data collection and used for a given setting or context. The researcher undertook some steps during the data collection such as watching the videos of the speech, finding the transcript, making data sheets, and categorizing the data in the data sheets.

The collection of the data was conducted through the document analysis. It was not possible for the researcher to conduct an interview since the speaker was the Hollywood artist. It was very difficult to meet personally and to undergo the extra distance which all of these points, even if they were possible, it would charge a very big amount of money. Nonetheless, the researcher got the benefit from the advance of technology nowadays which supported the researcher in analyzing the data. Therefore, the information which was needed in this research can still be gained through the media easily.

Other documents which support this research were also collected in order to have a deep learning process and interpretations. This technique of collecting data was a non-interactive technique because it did not involve the researcher interacting with subjects who were being studied. The steps that are taken while collecting the data collection were

a. retrieving the video of the speech which will be the source of the data form;

b. retrieving the speech transcript form;


interview with a support of the transcript; e. recording the data into the data sheet; and f. analyzing the data.

2. Techniques of Data Analysis

The data analysis of this research was divided into some steps as follows:

a. identifying the speech and selecting it as data after watching and rewatching the video comprehensively;

b. classifying the data into raw data that further it was categorised based on the data sheets provided;

c. classifying the kinds of speech acts in the speech video;

d. analyzing context situations involved and explaining the arrangements of classical rhetoric in Emma Watson’s HeForShe; and

e. drawing conclusions after making the written report of the analysis. 3. Data Trustworthiness


to measure whether the data findings and its interpretation were truly based on the obtained data.


Table 1: The Explanation of Speech Acts

Table 1:

The Explanation of Speech Acts p.36
Figure 1: Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson

Figure 1:

Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson p.57
Figure 2. The Analytical Construct of The Analysis in Emma Watson’s HeForShe

Figure 2.

The Analytical Construct of The Analysis in Emma Watson’s HeForShe p.65
Table 2: The Data Sheet of The Kinds of Speech Acts Presented in

Table 2:

The Data Sheet of The Kinds of Speech Acts Presented in p.68
Table 3: The Data Sheet of The Arrangements of Classical

Table 3:

The Data Sheet of The Arrangements of Classical p.69
Table 4: The Data Findings of The Kinds of Speech Acts Presented in

Table 4:

The Data Findings of The Kinds of Speech Acts Presented in p.74
Table 5. The Data Findings of  The Arrangements of  Classical

Table 5.

The Data Findings of The Arrangements of Classical p.77


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