The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners.

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching

Literacy to Young Learners

A PAPER

Submitted to the English Education Department of FPBS UPI in a Partial

Fulfillment of Requirements for Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

By:

Dewi Agustin 0802510

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to

Young Learners

Oleh Dewi Agustin

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Dewi Agustin 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

September 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

Skripsi ini tidak boleh diperbanyak seluruhya atau sebagian,

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

A Paper

By

Dewi Agustin 0802510

Approved By

First Supervisor Second Supervisor

Emi Emilia, M.Ed., Ph. D. Ernie D. Ayu Imperiani, M. Ed NIP. 196609161990012001 NIP. 197809222010122001

Head of English Education Department Faculty of Language and Arts Education

Indonesia University of Education

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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ABSTRACT

This paper reports the study on the use of picture books in teaching literacy to young learners, one student of 3rd grade and two students of 5th grade of elementary school in an English private course. It aimed to investigate to what extent picture books can help young learners develop their literacy. The study also aimed to investigate students’ responses to the use of picture books in learning literacy. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from observation, written document analysis and interviews. In addition, the data were analyzed using some theories in terms of reading engagement, comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, fluency, aspects of writing, concepts about prints and phonemic awareness which were adapted from NSW Department of Education and Training Learning Development (2009) and Fisher & Frey (2007). The findings revealed that the students showed some improvements in all aspects investigated. With regard to the students’ reading skills, the students were able to engage in reading engagement, comprehending the story, vocabulary and concepts about prints. Moreover, in writing the students were able to communicate in a written mode, although they still made some mistakes in terms of spelling, grammar, sentence structures and punctuation. Furthermore, regarding to the students’ responses, data from observations and interviews indicated that the students responded positively to the picture books. Based on the findings, the teachers should have strong capability in teaching literacy and in using picture books in the further research. It is also essential for the teachers to identify and understand young learner’s characteristics which aim to maintain their interest during the teaching process.

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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ABSTRAK

Abstrak ini melaporkan sebuah penelitian tentang penggunaan buku cerita bergambar di dalam pembelajaran literasi terhadap siswa anak-anak, yaitu pada seorang siswa kelas 3 SD dan dua siswa kelas 5 SD di sebuah kursus belajar privat Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyeldiki sampai sejauh mana buku cerita bergambar dapat membantu anak-anak dalam mengembangkan literasi mereka. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk meneliti respon apa saja yang muncul pada anak-anak terhadap penggunaan buku cerita bergambar di dalam pembelajaran literasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kualitatif studi kasus. Data diperoleh dari observasi, dokumen tertulis dan interview. Selain itu, data dianalisa dengan menggunakan beberapa teori yang mencakup hal keterlibatan dalam kegiatan membaca, kepahaman, pengetahuan kosa kata, kefasihan membaca, aspek-aspek menulis, konsep tentang cetakan (tulisan dan gambar) dan pengetahuan fonemik yang semuanya diadaptasi dari NSW Department of Education and Training Learning Development (2009) and Fisher & Frey (2007). Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa anak-anak menunjukkan beberapa perbaikan dalam semua aspek yang diteliti. Sehubungan dengan kemampuan membaca siswa, mereka dapat terlibat dalam kegiatan membaca, memahami cerita, kosa kata dan konsep tentang cetakan (tulisan dan gambar). Di samping itu, di dalam menulis siswa mampu untuk berkomunikasi dalam bentuk tulisan, walaupun mereka masih membuat beberapa kesalahan di dalam hal ejaan, gramatika (tata bahasa), struktur kalimat dan tanda baca. Selain itu, sehubungan dengan respon siswa, data dari observasi dan interview menunjukkan bahwa siswa merespon secara positif buku cerita bergambar. Berdasarkan dari hasil temuan, para guru sebaiknya memiliki kemampuan yang kuat dalam mengajar literasi dan di dalam penggunaan buku cerita bergambar di penelitian selanjutnya. Hal ini juga penting bagi para guru untuk mengidentifikasi dan memahami karakteristik siswa anak-anak yang bertujuan untuk mempertahankan ketertarikan mereka dalam proses pembelajaran.

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Page of Approval ... i

Statement of Authorization ... ii

Preface ... iii

Acknowledgement ... iv

Abstract ... vi

Table of Content ... vii

List of Figures ... x

List of Tables ... xi

Chapter I: Introduction ... 1

1.1 Research Background ... 1

1.2 Research Questions ... 3

1.3 Aims of Study ... 3

1.5 Scope of Study ... 3

1.4 Significant of the Study ... 4

1.6 Clarification of Related Terms... 5

1.7 The Organization of Paper ... 5

Chapter II: Theoretical Foundation... 7

2.1 Literacy ... 7

2.1.1 Reading ... 10

2.1.1 Comprehension ... 11

2.1.3 Vocabulary Knowledge ... 12

2.1.4 Aspects of Writing ... 12

2.1.5 Phonemic Awareness ... 14

2.1.6 Concepts about print ... 14

2.2 Picture Books ... 14

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Dewi Agustin, 2013

The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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2.4Young Learners ... 22

2.4.1 Definition of Young Learners ... 22

2.4.2 Young Learners Characteristics in Learning Literacy ... 23

2.5 Previous Studies ... 25

2.6 Concluding Remarks ... 26

Chapter III: Research Method ... 27

3.1 Research Questions ... 27

3.2 Research Design... 27

3.3 Site and Participants of the Study ... 30

3.4 Data Collection Techniques ... 30

3.4.1 Observation ... 31

3.4.2 Written Documents ... 32

3.4.3 Interview ... 32

3.4.4 The Teaching Program ... 34

3.5 Data Analysis ... 39

3.5.1 Analysis of the Observation ... 39

3.5.2 Analysis of Written Documents ... 40

3.5.3 Analysis of the Interview Data ... 40

3.6 Concluding Remarks ... 41

Chapter IV: Findings and Discussion ... 42

4.1 Findings and Discussions from Observation ... 42

4.1.1 To What Extent Picture Books Help Young Learners’ Literacy Development ... 42

4.1.1.1 Reading (Engagement) ... 43

4.1.1.2 Comprehension ... 44

4.1.1.3 Vocabulary Knowledge ... 45

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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4.1.1.5 Reading (Fluency) ... 47

4.1.1.6 Aspects of Writing ... 47

4.1.1.7 Phonemic Awareness... 48

4.1.2 Students’ Responses toward Picture Books ... 49

4.2 Findings and Discussions from Written Document Analysis ... 51

4.2.1 Reading Tasks ... 51

4.2.2 Students’ Texts ... 51

4.3 Findings and Discussions from Interview Data ... 56

4.3.1 To What Extent Picture Books Help Young Learners’ Literacy Development ... 56

4.3.2 Students’ Responses to the Use of Picture Books ... 57

4.3.2.1 Students’ Reading Interest ... 57

4.3.2.2 Students’ Responses to Picture Books ... 57

4.3.2.3 The Effects of Picture Books in Literacy ... 58

4.4 Concluding Remarks ... 59

Chapter V: Conclusions and Suggestions ... 60

5.1 Conclusions ... 60

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.2 The Reading Process

Figure 3.3 The Reading Process Figure 4.2 Student’s Writing Sentences

Figure 4.3 Student’s Writing Paragraph

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Dewi Agustin, 2013

The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 The Literacy Framework

Table 3.1 Teaching Reading Activities

Table 3.2 Lesson Summary

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Dewi Agustin, 2013

The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents introduction to the present research. It consists of research background, research questions, aims of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, clarification of related terms and the organization of the paper.

1.1Research Background

Literacy nowadays is frequently discussed especially in the education system. Basically, literacy is defined as the ability of reading and writing (Oxford University, 2008), which sets the

students up to the further learning process. Meanwhile, Ontario Education (2004) asserts that

literacy is a learning gateway. It is because “literacy is integral to effective learning across all

curriculum areas and across all learning phases” (Department of Education and the Arts,

Queensland Government, 2006; 1).

Furthermore, Sahetapy (2012) argues that literacy as the heart of learning process also needs to be taught as early as possible which aims to make the education better, especially in Indonesia. Regarding the importance of literacy, especially to young learners, teachers as the educators

should be concerned with their students’ literacy skills and provide the way to develop their literacy skills well.

One possible way is through the use of picture books in teaching process, as Paquette (2004;

156) supports that “teacher who shares quality picture books with young children is promoting

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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many skills of literacy include reading, learning vocabulary, comprehension and concepts about prints, as De Malendez & Sanchez (2007) state, and also phonemic awareness, fluency, and

comprehension, as Hibbing & Rankin-Erickson (2003; as cited in Draper, 2010) report.

Moreover, studies of picture books have been conducted by many researchers. One of them

was done by Seplocha & Strasser (2007) who revealed that picture books can support children’s literacy by engaging children in activities that encourage the use of expressive language, phonological awareness and high-level thinking which is critical for their development in reading

and writing.

In addition, another study by Bland (2010) discovered that picture books are the best training for literacy. His finding suggests that children are able to interpret the response of the stories in

picture books, form the ideas and construct the meaning of the stories through pictures.

Although picture books have been reported to help literacy to young learners, research on the

use of picture books in Indonesian contextis still rare. Thus, this study attempts to fill the gap in the research area of teaching literacy. Moreover, considering those previous studies and the

importance of literacy in our life, this study is aimed at investigating picture books as one of the supporting ways to develop children’s ability in reading and writing skills and identify students’ responses toward picture books. This study focuses on literacy aspects, such as reading

engagement, comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, concepts about prints, phonemic awareness, fluencyand aspects of writing.

1.2Research Questions

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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a) To what extent can picture books help young learners develop literacy skills?

b) What are the students’ responses toward the use of picture books in developing literacy?

1.3Aims of Study

Based on the research questions above, this study aims to investigate:

a) To what extent picture books can help young learners in developing their literacy.

b) The students’ responses toward the use of picture books in learning literacy.

1.4Scope of Study

This study focuses on investigating the extent to which the use of picture books help young

learners to improve their literacy, especially reading and writing skills and how students respond toward the use of picture books in learning literacy. In addition, the research site was conducted

in the respondent’s house during English private course. The participants in this study were three

young learners: two 5th grade students and one 3rdgrade student of elementary school.

1.5Significance of the Study

The results of this study are expected to be significant theoretically and practically.

Theoretically, the results of the study are expected to enhance literacy development in English to young learners and to provide a beneficial reference for further research on teaching literacy to

young learners.

Meanwhile, practically, the results of the study are expected to provide an alternative technique for the teachers in teaching literacy; reading and writing skills to young learners. The

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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students’ interest toward reading and writing. Furthermore, this study is also expected to give the

students a chance to develop literacy, especially their reading and writing skills.

Finally, the findings of this study are expected to lead to the development ofhuman resources in Indonesia. It is because Indonesian people need some better ways to improve the educational system throughout the development of literacy. This study proposed picture books as one of the

better ways to support young learners in developing their literacy. By letting children love to read and write a book, this nation will move forward in the next days. Therefore, the school can

make a special literacy program which uses picture books in the learning process.

1.6Clarification of Related Terms

In this research there are some terms that need to be clarified further to avoid

misunderstanding and misconception and they are as follows:

a) Picture Books are illustration books which are the verbal (written) and visual (illustrative)

texts collaborate to construct the story. Both of them work together interpedently (Goldstone, 2002).

b) Literacy, is the ability to read and write as well as speak and listen. These skills develop

together (Weigel and Martin, 2008).

c) Young Learners are children in age of 5-12 years old. (Rixon, 1999)

1.7The Organization of Paper

The research paper is presented in five chapters:

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The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to Young Learners

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This chapter consists of background of the study, research questions, aims of the study, scope of the study, significance of study, clarification of related terms and the organization of paper.

Chapter II (Theoretical Foundation)

This chapter presents the theories that are related to the topic of the study. It includes the definition of literacy; the importance of literacy, definitions of picture books, young learners; the

definition of young learners, young learners’ characteristics in learning new language, teaching

literacy through picture books to young learners and some previous studies of the use of picture

books in developing literacy to young learners.

Chapter III (Research Method)

This chapter contains the research method, which includes the research questions,research

design, research site and participants, data collection and data analysis.

Chapter IV (Findings and Discussion)

This chapter presents the findings and discussions of the study.

Chapter V (Conclusions and Suggestions)

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter explains the method of this research including research questions, research design, research site and participants, data collection and data analysis.

3.1Research Questions

This study addressestwo questions which are formulated as follows:

1) To what extent can picture books help young learners develop their literacy?

2) What are the students’ responses to the use of picture books in developing literacy?

3.2Research Design

This study used a case study because this study attempted to gain deep a understanding of the use of picture books to young learners in the process of learning literacy. This is in line with Sturrman (1994, as cited in Bassey, 1999), who defines the case study as a study which intends

to understand a case, to clarify the reasons why things happen and to simplify something through a depth investigation.

Since the case study is one of the qualitative methods which specifies in investigating a contextualized contemporary event within particular limitations; a program, an event, a person, a

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learning process. Moreover, in conducting the study, the researcher was also the observer who engaged in the activities which were set out to observe (Cohen, 2005).

Meanwhile, in planning the research, the study used four main stages as proposed by Morrison, 1993; Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2005; which are:

1) Orienting Decisions

Before conducting the study, the researcher made decisions by setting the border line or focus of the study. The researcher focused on teaching method for children by using attractive media and it was entitled “The Use of Picture Books in Teaching Literacy to

Young Learners”. After that, the researcher determined the general aims and purposes of the

study which were to investigate the use of picture books as media in teaching process and to

reveal the students’ responses about that. Next, the researcher generated the research

questions based on aims and purposes of the study. Meanwhile, the researcher needed to read

and learn some literatures related to the study through journals, books, articles and research papers of picture books, literacy and young learners. By reading many related theories, it

would support the researcher in conducting the study. After having clear purposes, research questions and related theories, the researcher made decision on what kind of suitable research design for the study.

2) Designing Research Method

After case study as the research design had been chosen, the researcher decided the

research instruments used in this study. Since the research design was a case study, triangulation from multiple data instruments such as observation, written document analysis and interview, was required to ensure and enhance the accuracy of data. Then, the researcher

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contact the children who wanted to be the respondents. In addition, the researcher also planned the learning activities which were based on the aims of the research. Afterward, the

studywas conducted by using picture books in learning literacy, and then administered reading comprehension and writing tests and administered the interview.

3) Analyzing Data

After the data were collected, they were categorized and analyzed according to the literacy framework as theoretical background of the study. Then, the researcher evaluated the

validity and reliability of the data by connecting the triangulation data (observation, written document analysis and interview) which aimed to get the actual result of the study.

4) Presenting and Reporting the Results

Finally, the researcher reported and wrote the result of the data analysis. In presenting and reporting the results, the researcher kept the report shortly, clearly and completely as

possible.

3.3Research Site and Participants

The site of the present study was conducted in an English private course. The course took

place in the respondents’ house in Bandung. The respondents were three students which

consisted of two 5th grade and one 3rd grade of elementary students.

3.4Data Collection Techniques

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and conducting the study (the teaching stages). Before conducting the study, researcher chose four picture books which would be read in the learning process. After that, the researcher

arranged the learning schedule, time allocation, students’ condition and the availability of the facility. In addition, this study employed multiple data collections such as observation, interview, and written document analysis, as has been suggested by Creswell (1994)that the

triangulations of those multiple data enhance the validity of the study.

The first data collection technique was observation. It was used to identify towhat extent the

use of picture bookshelp young learners learn literacy and to investigate how the children respond the picture books. Then, the second data collection technique was written document analysis (students’ written document: reading comprehension and writing tests). It aimed to

evaluate young learners’ literacy skill. The last was interview, which aimed to gain deep information on the use of picture books in teaching literacy and the responses of young learners

toward picture books.

The detailed explanation of each data collection can be seen below:

3.4.1 Observation

In this study, observation was conducted in eight meetings, starting on 9thto 19th February 2013. The type of observation of this study was participant observation, because the researcher

took a part as the teacher which can have the opportunity to engage and observe the students in the learning process. To follow Cohen(2005) describes that the researcher acted as the teacher

and took notes about ongoing behavior which occurred and related to the context during the recording of the activities and playing a role as the teacher in that situation.

The observation took 60 minutes of every meeting. The observer used an observation sheet

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notes immediately after the observation.The field notes included six literacy aspects which were adapted from Frey & Fisher (2007) and NSW Department of Education and Training Learning

Development (2009).

The researcher observed the activities such as reading the picture book, practicing reading aloud, reading and writing tests. Meanwhile, the observer investigated the students in learning

literacy through four picture books. The picture books were used in each four meetings and the rest of four meetings were used to test their reading comprehension of the story, read aloud the

story, identify some vocabularies and write sentences and a paragraph.

3.4.2 Written Documents

Since this study aimed to investigate students’ literacy skill through picture books, it

required written documents as useful information, to corroborate evidence gathered from other resources(Tellis, 1997). The analysis of written documents in this study was conducted after

reading sessions. The students were asked to write the answers of some questions which related to the story. Then, they write another story text with their own words based on the pictures in the

book. Both reading and writing tests were conducted in every two meetings (on 11th, 13th, 16th and 19th February 2013). These reading and writing tests were aimed at checking students’ understanding of the story in picture books through writing.

3.4.3 Interview

Third step in collecting the data was interview. In this study, the interview was conducted by

doing a semi structured interview, open-ended questions; which is principally useful for getting the story behind students’ experiences as the participants. The interviewer can getdeep

information around the topic and investigate the participants’ responses by using semi-structured

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students’ responses about the use picture books in learning literacy through asking some

questions in the interview.

In conducting the interview, this study used five stages proposed by Woods (2011):

a. Beginning process: the researcher introduced herself and asked the participant’s details

information (name, class, school).

b. Introducing the research: the researcher explained the purpose of the interview, the reasons of the participant has been chosen and length of the interview. The researcher also

asked the readiness of the participant to start the interview.

c. During the interview: the researcher asked gradually, unhurried, relaxing while giving open-ended questions. The list of questions were based on three themes which included the student’s reading interest, student’s responses toward picture books and the effects of

picture books in literacy. The researcher asked the students as flow as naturally and as well

as the order of the questions.

d. Keeping focused: the researcher focused on asking open-ended questions, not

close-ended to the students. In addition, the researcher asked factual questions before an opinion question by using probing questions as needed (e.g. can you give an example? , would you explain further?)

e. Closing the interview: The researcher finished on time as well as possible, but attempted to make sure that the questions everything has been covered sufficiently and gave a thank

the participant for giving the valuable time.

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3.4.4The Teaching Program

The study was conducted eight times, started on 9thto 19th February 2013. The teacher

focused on teaching literacy which included six essential literacy aspects: reading, comprehension, vocabulary, knowledge, concepts about print, phonemic awareness and writing. Every meeting took for approximately 20 minutes of reading picture books, 10 minutes of

reading aloud, 10 minutes of vocabulary knowledge and 20 minutes of reading and writing practices. During teaching processes, the teacher encouraged the children to participate actively.

In addition, the four picture books which were used in this study, such as Never Lonely Again (Hans Wilhelm, 1988), Flik the Inventor (Victoria Saxon, 1998), Picking Apples and Pumpkins: Clifford the Big Red Dog (Liz Mills & Tom LaPadula, 2007) and Bad, Bad Bunny Trouble (Hans

Wilhelm, 1994).

The researcher arranged the research schedule which intended to facilitate the teaching

stages. The first stage of the teaching process of the study waspre activity which included identifying and predicting the story through the cover illustration and the title and seeing the

pictures in the picture book without reading the text. These two activities aimed to stimulate the

students’ prior knowledge of the story through the pictures and title on the cover. The teacher

showed the cover of the picture book to the students. They identified the cover illustration and

the title and then they predicted the story. Afterward, they opened the picture book page by page which purposed only to see the picture without any reading the text. In this process, their ideas

were stimulated about the story. They imagined what the story would be.

The second stage was the main activity. The activities were reading the story, mind mapping the vocabulary and reading aloud. During reading the story, the teacher gave the students many

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comprehension and phonemic awareness. The students also engaged to take a part in reading the direct speech of the story. They practiced their phonemic awareness and reading fluency includes

the expression and accuracy of reading ability. In addition, in the middle of reading, the teacher might ask some questions about the story and the vocabulary.

Afterward, the teacher stopped reading when the story finished and the students were

examined whether they understand or not about the story orally. They sometimes a bit confused what the story was about. Then, the teacher reread once again. While the teacher reread the story,

the students also participated by reading aloud the story. It took 3-5 minutes for each child to read the story with proper pronunciation and expression. As stated by Blochowicz & Ogle (2008), reading aloud is aimed to give a chance to read aloud and think aloud what the text is

about.

Moreover, as mentioned in Chapter II, the study applied the steps of reading picture books

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Table 3.1

Teaching Reading Activities

Reading

Phases The Teacher The Students Notes

Before of the story that can make the students remember the It also built their confidence.

(Adapted from Manteo, 2011 & McCreary, 2012)

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the story by using their own language can be seen. In addition, there are some figures in the activities of reading picture books:

The Reading Process

Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3

Furthermore, the last stage was post activity which involved assessing children’s reading and

writing skills. The students were usually given reading and writing tasks which aimed to assess the students’ understanding through reading and writing skills. The students were asked some questions about the story and the teacher would know their students’ understanding through their

answers. Those previous teaching stages were usually used in every meeting.

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Table 3.2 Lesson Summary

Picture Books Meeting Lesson Objective

“Never Lonely

b) To develop vocabulary knowledge related words of the story through writing a mind mapping

c) To write sentences based on the picture in the book; practiced the aspects of writing (spelling, sentence structure, grammar and punctuation)

b) To write the sentence by their own words; practiced the aspects of writing (spelling, sentence structure, grammar and punctuation)

c) To evaluate reading comprehension through five questions of multiple-choice vocabulary item)

b) To develop vocabulary knowledge related words of the story through writing a mind mapping

c) To write sentences based on the picture in the book; practiced the aspects of writing (spelling, sentence structure, grammar and punctuation).

6 (Feb 16, 2013) a) To read aloud a story; practiced the students’ reading fluency (accuracy, speed and expression).

b) To evaluate reading comprehension by giving oral quiz.

“Bad, Bad Bunny Trouble” by Hans

Wilhelm.

7 (Feb 18, 2013) a) To read a story

b) To develop vocabulary knowledge related words of the story through writing a mind mapping

c) To write sentences based on the picture in the book; practiced the aspects of writing (spelling, sentence structure, grammar and punctuation).

8 (Feb 19, 2013) a) To evaluate reading comprehension through multiple choice test

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3.5 Data Analysis

After the data were collected, they were examined to reveal the answer of the research

questions. In addition, the data were categorized and analyzed based on the aspects of literacy as theoretical background of the study which have been mentioned in Chapter II.

3.5.1Analysis of the Observation Data

Observation in this study was aimed at understanding the context of the program, to see things that might unconsciously disappear, to move beyond perception-based data, and to access

personal knowledge (Cohen, 2005: 305). The first was to see what happened in the field. Then, the data were interpreted into some categories which used the theory of literacy aspects from Frey & Fisher (2007) and NSW Department of Education and Training Learning Development

(2009).

The researcher took part as the participant observer. Each study took 60 minutes per meeting.

During the observation, the researcher focused on the literacy aspects include reading; fluency and comprehension,vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, concept of print, and aspects of writing which adapted from Frey & Fisher (2007) and NSW Department of Education and

Training Learning Development (2009).

Moreover, the data from observation showed that the students’ literacy skills gradually

increasing, however, there were some aspects which did not develop well. For instance, the

students were good at reading especially in comprehending the text through pictures. On the

contrary, the students were not good at writing skills: spelling, grammar, sentence structure and

punctuation. For more detail information of the data of the observation will be discussed in the

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3.5.2Analysis of Written Document

Written documents in this study were reading tasks and students’ texts which involved

writing sentences and one paragraph. The data were analyzed based on the writing aspects which have been mentioned in chapter II; accurate spelling, punctuation, sentence structure and

grammar.

3.5.3Analysis of the Interview Data

The interview wasadministered to gain more information from the students about the use of

picture books in teaching literacy and the students’ responses to picture books. In general, data from interview aim to support data from observation and written documents. The interview

wasrecorded by using a tape recorder.

Moreover, to analyze the data, the researcher used some steps such as transcribing, interpreting, and linking to the related theories. First, the data from interview were transcribed,

and then interpreted them into the major concern of the research questions: to what extent of the use of picture books in teaching literacy and students’ responses to picture books. Finally, the

data were linked to the related theories which are presented in Chapter IV.

3.6Concluding Remarks

This chapter elaborated the methodology of the study to investigate the two main issued in

this study: to what extent picture books do picture books help young learners develop literacy skills and students' responses to the use of picture books in developing literacy. It also described

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter describes the conclusions of the study and suggestions for further study. The first section discusses the conclusions of the study based on the two research questions that have

been presented in chapter I while the suggestions for future study on teaching literacy are presented in the second section.

5.1 Conclusions

This section presents the conclusion derived from the data analysis and discussions relevant

to the research question addressed in this study, to do with the role of picture books in helping young learners develop their literacy and the students’ responses to picture books in teaching

literacy.

In terms of the role of picture books to help young learners in developing their literacy, the findings revealed that picture books could help students develop their literacy skills that is

reading and writing. The students’ development of reading ability can be seen from their

capabilities of reading (engagement), comprehension, vocabulary knowledge and concepts about

prints. This in line with the finding from De Malendez &Sanchez (2007) that children can learn many skills of literacy which include reading, learning vocabulary, comprehension and concepts

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Moreover, in terms of writing skills, picture books can help the students develop their writing ability. This can be seen from their ability to write sentences, a paragraph which is relevant to the story in the picture books. However, in terms of writing ability, students’ text indicates that the

students still need a lot of guidance in terms of spelling, grammar, sentence structure and punctuation. This is relevant to the concept of writing that writing is not one shot activity that the

students should write a text in different drafts and that the teacher should give them appropriate guidance.

Regarding the students’ responses to the picture books, they admitted that they were

interested in learning English literacy through the picture books. They further explained that although it is an uncommon situation for them to read English story from picture books, they still

enjoyed reading and writing activities using picture books.

Overall, the result of the study showed that the use of picture books could help young

learners develop literacy skills. Moreover, the students also responded positively toward the use of picture books in the learning process.

5.2 Suggestions

Based on some findings, the study suggests that picture books should be used in teaching

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conducted to find out the impact of the use of picture books in a long period of time in helping students improve the reading and writing especially in terms of spelling, grammar, sentence

structure and punctuation.

Besides, further research should also be conducted in a larger class in the school to find out the impact of picture books in a big size class. The teacher should have great capabilities in

managing a classroom. Due to the limitation of the site and participants in this study, the teacher

can control the students’ movement easily. The study was conducted duringan English private

course in the respondents’ house, not in the school where there are many students can follow the learning process. This limitation of participants may effect to the result of this study.

In addition, the teacher should have a greater voice and ascertain that all students are

facilitated impartially. They can hear the teacher’s voice and see the pictures in the book clearly. Then, the students can enjoy the story and the teaching objectives run well.It is also important for

teachers to identify young learner’s characteristics which aim to maintain their interest during the teaching process.

Meanwhile, picture books are rarely found in the book store. The teacher may find the picture books from other countries or they could make picture books creatively by themselves and try to adapt the story from familiar story for children. In addition, the picture books should

have good and appropriate content based on the learning objectives and children’s ages.Besides, the size of picture books itself should be bigger than common story books. It is purposed to make

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Figur

Figure 4.2 Student’s Writing Sentences

Figure 4.2

Student’s Writing Sentences p.9
Table 3.2 Lesson Summary

Table 3.2

Lesson Summary p.10
Table 3.1 Teaching Reading Activities

Table 3.1

Teaching Reading Activities p.24
Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2

p.25
Table 3.2 Lesson Summary

Table 3.2

Lesson Summary p.26

Referensi

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