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DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE BY USING NARRATIVE

TEXT

(A Classroom Action Research at Second Grade of MTs. Al-Falah, Jakarta)

A “Skripsi”

Submitted to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in Partial of Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Strata 1 (S.Pd) in English

Language Education

By:

HENI HARYANI NIM: 106014000384

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING

“SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH” STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

JAKARTA

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MTs. Al-Falah, Jakarta). Skripsi, Department of English Education Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training “Syarif Hidayatullah” State Islamic University Jakarta.

Advisor: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd

Key Words: The Simple Past Tense, Narrative Text.

This research is conducted to know whether using narrative text an effective way to develop students’ understanding in learning Simple Past Tense at second grade of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta, and took 34 students as respondent. While Simple Past Tense is one of the English language rules that students should be understood. One of the difficulties which are faced by the students in learning regular and irregular verbs and lack of remembering of the past form. To know about regular and irregular verbs well, teacher must continue looking for more effective and interesting technique in teaching especially teaching Simple Past Tense, the researcher used text in narrative form because language feature of narrative text used Simple Past Tense.

This research used Classroom Action Research (CAR) method in developing students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense. The researcher used the Kurt Lewins’ model that consists of four phases, planning, acting, observing and reflecting. Then, in collecting and analyzing the data, the writer used observation, interview, and questioner, pretest and posttest.

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iii ABSTRAK

Heni Haryani. 106014000384. Developing Students’ Understanding of the

Simple Past Tense By Using Narrative Text (A Classroom Action Research at MTs. Al-Falah, Jakarta).Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Pembimbing: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd

Kata Kunci:The Simple Past Tense, Narrative Text.

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah menggunakan teks narrative adalah sebuah cara yang efektif untuk mengembangkan pemahaman siswa dalam pembelajaran Simple Past Tense di kelas VIII MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta, dan mengambil 34 siswa sebagai responden. Simple Past Tense adalah salah satu tata bahasa Inggris yang harus dipahami siswa. Salah satu kesulitan yang banyak dihadapi oleh siswa dalam pemahaman kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan serta kurangnya memahami bentuk kata kerja lampau. Untuk mengetahui bentuk kata kerja beraturan dan tidak beraturan, seorang guru harus mencari teknik yang lebih efektif dan menarik dalam mengajar terutama mengajar Simple Past Tense, peneliti menggunakan teks dalam bentuk narrative karena fitur bahasa teks narrative yang digunakan adalah Simple Past Tense.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (CAR) dalam mengembangkan pemahaman siswa pada Simple Past Tense dengan menggunakan Teks narrative. Peneliti menggunakan model Kurt Lewin yang terdiri dari empat tahap, perencanaan, bertindak, mengamati dan refleksi. Kemudian, dalam mengumpulkan dan menganalisa data, peneliti menggunakan observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner, pretest dan posttest.

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and strength, so that she could finish this „skripsi’. Peace and blessing be upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companions and his followers.

This „skripsi’ is presented to the English Education Department of the faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for strata 1 (S1).

On this occasion, the writer would like to express her thanks and gratitude to her beloved family, her great parents, H. Nawi (Alm.) and Hj. Masanih, for all their supports, motivations and valuable prayers to finish her study. They inspired her to keep working hard and not to give up easily. They are her inspiration to be strong to overcome every obstacle that she found when she was working on this paper.

Her special thanks go to Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd, the advisor, for all his guidance and advice. Without all of his assistance she cannot complete this paper.

She offers her gratitude to all of people who have contributed to her study among others:

1. All of the lectures of English Education Department.

2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd, the chief of English Education Department.

3. Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd, the secretary of English Education Department. 4. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A., the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and

Teachers Training UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

5. Yusri, S.Pd.I, the headmaster of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta, for permitting the writer in doing the research.

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8. Ramadha Taufik Quzzakiyi, S.T her beloved boyfriend, for helping in any occasion, his supports, motivation and encouragement to finish her study. Allah always loves us.

9. I.Isrotun Nofifah, Irfan Fahmi, Muhammad Bagus Nawawi, for their great deal of help, cooperation and motivation to the writer.

10.All of her friends at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, especially English Education Department Students 2006 – B Class Never Dies, for nice brotherhood and sisterhood.

The writer realizes there are still some mistakes in this „skripsi’, and it is not proper to be said “perfect”. Therefore, the writer expects some suggestions and critics for this „skripsi’. At last, the writer hopes that this „skripsi’ will be useful for all.

Jakarta, May 2011

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B. Limitation and formulation of the Problem ... 3

C. Objective of the Study ... 4

1. Definition of Narrative Text and Its Purpose ... 14

2. Schematic Structure of Narrative Text ... 16

3. Grammatical Features of Narrative Text ... 19

CHAPTER III: PROFILE OF MTS. AL-FALAH JAKARTA A. Profile of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta in Brief ... 20

B. Historical Background of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta ... 21

C. Vision of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta ... 21

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E. Objectives of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta ... 22

F. Academic Facilities... 22

G. Non-Academic Facilities ... 23

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS A. Research Methodology ... 24

1. Time and Place of the Research ... 25

2. Subject and Object of the Research ... 25

a. Subject of the research ... 25

b. Object of the research ... 25

3. The Writers’ Role on the Study ... 25

4. The Method of Research ... 25

5. The Technique of Collecting Data ... 26

6. Technique of Data Analysis ... 27

7. Design of Classroom Action Research ... 28

8. The Classroom Action Research Procedures ... 30

9. The Trustworthiness of Study ... 32

10.Criteria of the Action Success... 35

B. Research Findings ... 35

1. Description of Data before Implementing the Action..35

a. Data of Pre Observation ... 35

b. Data of Pre Interview ... 36

c. Data of Pre-Test ... 37

d. Data of Pre Questionnaire ... 37

2. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research .. 38

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3.1 The Result of Post Interview ... 45

3.2 The Result of Post Observation ... 46

3.3 The Result of Post Questionnaire ... 46

3.4 The Result of Post-Test ... 47

4. Interpretation of the Data ... 53

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ... 55

B. Suggestion ... 56

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 57

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LIST OF APPENDICES

1. Teacher’s Interview Before CAR ... 61

2. Teacher’s Interview After CAR ... 64

3. Sheet of Pre-Observation ... 66

4. Sheet of Post-Observation ... 67

5. Questionnaire of Students’ Response Before CAR ... 71

6. Questionnaire of Students’ Response After CAR ... 73

7. Field Notes ... 75

8. Lesson Plan of Cycle I ... 79

9. Lesson Plan of Cycle II ... 84

10. The Blueprint of the Pretest, Posttest1, and Posttest 2 ... 89

11. The Instrument of Pretest ... 92

12. The Instrument of Posttest 1 ... 95

13. The Instrument of Posttest 2 ... 98

14. Key of Pre-Test ... 101

15. Key of Post-Test I ... 102

16. Key of Post-Test II ... 103

17. The Item Analysis ... 104

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LIST OF FIGURES

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents and discusses background of the study, the limitation and formulation of the problem, the objective of study, the significance of study and the organization of study.

A. Background of the Study

Nowadays, English is one of the important languages in the world, because it is widely used and studied all over the world. Many books of science, technology, art and other published issued are written in English. It facilitates our relationships with others and helps us understand world events and the art and sciences. In other words, English is an international language.1

In educational world especially in Indonesian school, English is a compulsory subject in the national curriculum. It is taught from Elementary school up to the university level. It means that English has important role so that it is taught in the schools.

To master English, someone has to master its skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students also have to master grammar, one of the language sub skills. Grammar is simply a study of the rules that govern a

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language. The study of grammar can greatly enhance understanding and fluency. As Penny Ur said, “there is no doubt that knowledge of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language, the learners cannot use words unless you know how they should be put together.” 2

Many people would agree that in the English language some of the most troublesome yet fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of tense. While Simple Past Tense is one of the English language tenses that should be understood by the students. One of the difficulties which faced by the students in learning regular and irregular verb lack of remembering of the past tense and past participle change of whether that is regular or irregular verb. To know about regular and irregular verb well, teacher must continue looking for more effective and interesting technique in teaching especially teaching grammar. It is done to make students feel more interested in learning grammar, because learning grammar tends to make students feel bored because it is full of formulation that students are supposed to master it. So that, there should be an interesting way of learning grammar.

The Simple Past Tense which the students of the second grade of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta have to learn, is as a part of grammar rules sometimes also makes them confused because when they are demanded to speak based on the tense, they have to be aware about the time and the verb forms, unlike Indonesian language patterns where the time and the verb forms are regardless. Text then can help considerably by ensuring that language is used in appropriate context, no matter how fantastic this context may seem, and the kind of text that can be used in Simple Past Tense is narrative text. It is one of the texts studied by students in this era as school curriculum. It is also offered as aesthetic reading because one reads it not only for enjoyment and pleasure but also for getting knowledge by introducing to new people, exploring other culture and expanding the world.3

2

Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 4

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The story line which is the backbone of any narrative typically consist of a chronological sequence of events each represented by verbs in the Simple Past Tense, either with regular and irregular verbs and the use of connectors.4

Related with the cases above, the students can come to an assumption that learning English needs the knowledge of its grammatical rules that they learn to communicate well. And the teachers have to choose the best technique they will use in teaching English. Consequently, to make teaching and learning process run well especially in teaching the Simple Past Tense, the teacher has big responsibility to do it as well as possible. The teachers should have the ability to combine some techniques in teaching activities.

The writer chooses the narrative text in this research because text is a unit of meaning which coherent and appropriate for its context and the writer chooses text in narrative form because language feature of narratives text used Simple Past Tense. With narrative text, students can study the Simple Past Tense happily and they not only can write in English but also can speak with correct grammar to convey meaning accurately.

Based on the explanation above, the writer would like to conduct a research under the title:

“Developing Students’ Understanding of the Simple Past Tense by Using Narrative Text (A Classroom Action Research at Second Grade of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta)”

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B. The Limitation and Formulation of the Problem

In this “skripsi” the writer will discuss the students’ problem in learning Simple Past Tense. In this paper, the writer would like to limit the problem in developing students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text.

Based on the background above, the writer would like to formulate the problem as follows: “Is using narrative text as media effective to develop students’ understanding in learning Simple Past Tense at grade VIII-1 of

MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta?”

C. The Objective of Study

The objective of study is that the writer wants to know whether using narrative text is effective in teaching the Simple Past Tense.

D. The Significance of Study

This research is expected to give contribution for the related English education practicing, such as:

1. The writer, as the partial fulfillment of the requirements of Bachelor of Arts in English Language Education.

2. English teacher, to improve their skill in teaching narrative text especially Simple Past Tense as one of the language features of the text.

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E. The Organization of Study

This paper is divided into five chapters:

Chapter I provides introduction which consists of background of the study, this is the main part of fives chapter as in this chapter the writer shows her acceptable reason why she runs her paper, then it also provides the limitation and formulation of the problem, the objective of study, the significance of study, and the last is the organization of study.

Chapter II covers theoretical framework which consists of definition and the form of Simple Past Tense, the use of Simple Past Tense, definition and purpose of narrative text, schematic structure and grammatical features of narrative text.

Chapter III the writer explains detail descriptive Profile of MTs Al-Falah Jakarta that including about historical background, vision and mission, objectives, academic and non-academic facilities.

Chapter IV is research methodology and finding. In research methodology, the writer explains time and place of research, subject and object of the research, role of the researcher in Classroom Action Research, technique of collecting data, technique of data analysis, design of Classroom Action Research, the Classroom Action Research procedures, the trustworthiness of study, and the criteria of the action success. In research finding, consists of data description, the implementation of Classroom Action Research and the result of data analyzing.

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents and discusses about the theoretical framework which is consist of what the Simple Past Tense is, the form of the Simple Past Tense, the use of the Simple Past Tense, definition of narrative text and its purpose, schematic structure of narrative, and grammatical features of narrative.

A. Simple Past Tense

1. Definition of the Simple Past Tense

Azar, in her book Understanding and Using English Grammar said, “The Past Tense indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.” 1

It means that past tense refers to an activity that occurs in definite time in the past. It is in line with Frank who said that “The Simple Past Tense represents definite time, whether a time word is given or not.” 2 So, Simple Past Tense talks about an action or situation that happened in the past whether there is the time signal or not.

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Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, (New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc, 1989), p. 24

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In addition Geoffrey leech stated in his book “Meaning and the English Verb (Third Edition)” said:

“The Simple Past Tense shows the happening takes place before the present moment. This means that the present moment is excluded. …. With the past tense, the difference between „state’ and „event’ is less important than it is with The Present Tense. In fact, as The Past Tense normally applies only to completed happenings, everything it refers to is in a sense an „event’, an episode seen as a complete entity”3

According to A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, “The Simple Past Tense in regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive, verbs ending in -e add -d only, the negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did not (didn’t) and the infinitive, the interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did + subject + infinitive”.4

It can be said that the Simple Past Tense is formed by adding –d/-ed for regular verbs and for irregular verbs there is no rule on it and must be learned and mastered by the students.

Meanwhile, Swan in his book Practical English Usage defines, “The Simple Past Tense is the one most often used to talk about the past. It can be refer to short, quickly finished actions and events, to longer actions and situations, and to repeated happenings.”5 The Simple Past is used to express the idea that an action started and finished at specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

From the several statements above, we can take the conclusion that the Simple Past Tense used to express a definite event in the past. Simple Past Tense also used if the event happened completely in the past and time period has finished.

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2. Form of the Simple Past Tense

The type of verb that simple past tense used is verb type 2 (past form). There are two types of verbs: Regular and Irregular Verbs.

For examples:

Table 2.1

Regular Verb

V1 V2

Want Wanted

Copy Copied

Watch Watched

Play Played

Jespersen in his book Essentials of English Grammar said, “The Preterit is formed in various ways; as its form is in most verbs either identical with, or closely similar to the second participle, it will be convenient here to treat the two together.”6

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In irregular verb, it is better to know all forms of it very well. For examples:

Table 2.2

Irregular Verb

V1 V2

Go Went

Write Wrote

Bring Brought

Take Took

The formula in Simple Past Tense contains three parts: affirmative, negative, and interrogative. Based on the statement above the writer can formulate it as follows:

a. Affirmative

1). The verb other than be:

S + Verb 2 + O + Adverb of time Examples:

 My uncle went to Palembang two days ago.

 It happened very quickly.

 I posted the letter yesterday.

2). The verb be:

S + Was/Were + Substantive (Adverbial of Phrase) + Examples:

 Those cakes were nice last week

 My father was a manager last year

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Did she study hard last semester?

Did you spend your vacation in Bali?

2). The negative form of verb other than be: Didn’t + S + Verb 1 + …?

Examples:

Didn’t you spend your vacation in Bali?

Didn’t you study hard last semester?

3). The positive form of verb than be:

Was/Were + S + Not + Substantive (Adverbial of Phrase) + …? Examples:

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Were you absent yesterday?

Was she farewell party last night?

4). The negative form of verb be:

Wasn’t/Weren’t + S + Not + Substantive (Adverbial of Phrase) + …? Examples:

Weren’t they at home?

Wasn’t Merry sick?

3. Use of the Simple Past Tense

The usage of Simple Past Tense is follows:

a. Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past Tense to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. For examples:

 I saw a movie yesterday

 Last year, I didn’t travel to Bali

 He didn’twash his car

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We use the Simple Past Tense to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happened 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

For examples:

 I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.

 He arrived to the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the other at 10:00.

c. Duration in Past

The Simple Past Tense can be used with a duration, which starts and stops in the past. Duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, all day, all year, etc.

For examples:

 They sat at the beach all day.

 We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.

d. Habits in the Past

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For examples:

 They never went to school, they always skipped class.

 She worked at the movie theater after school.

e. Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations, which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression “used to.”7

For examples:

 He was in the office yesterday.

 We spent in Kuningan last month.

From several statements above, we can get the conclusion that the Simple Past Tense should be noted that use of the Past Tense located situation in the past, without saying anything about whether that situation continuous to the present and future. We also use the Simple Past Tense when the time is clear and giving older information. One of the most common uses of the Simple Past Tense is to convey any event or action which is done in the past.

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B. NARRATIVE TEXT

Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used, texts are divided into several types. They are narrative, news story, anecdote, recount and spoof, procedure, explanation, report, exposition, discussion, description, review, news item, and commentary. These variations are known as genre.

This genre is introduced in both of Junior High School and Senior High School. One of the texts that is taught in Junior High School level is narrative text. It is a kind of story genre.

1. Definition of Narrative Text and Its Purpose

Before turning into narrative text, someone should know what text is. People live in a world of words. When these words are put together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. When people speak or write to communicate a message, they are constructing a text. When they read, listen to or view a place of text, they are interpreting its meaning.

Creating a text requires to make choices about the words is used and how to put them together. If people make the right choices then they can communicate with others. Their choice of words will depend on their purpose and their surroundings or the context.8

There are two main categories of texts; literary and factual. Within these are various text types. Each type has a common and usual way of using language.

Factual texts include advertisements, internet websites, current affairs shows, debates, recipes, reports and instruction. They present information ideas and aim to show, tell or persuade the audience. The main text types in this category are recount, response, explanation, discussion, information report, exposition and procedure.9 Literary texts include aboriginal dreaming stories, movie scripts, limericks, fairy

8

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 2, (Sydney, Australia: MacMillan, 1997), p. 1

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tales, plays, novels, song lyrics, mimes and soap operas. They are constructed to appeal to their emotions and imagination. Literary texts can make people laugh or cry, think about their life of consider their beliefs.

There are three main text types in this category: narrative, poetic and dramatic. Media texts such as films, videos, television shows and CDs can also fall in this category.10

A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of speech, poetry, prose and picture) that describes a sequence fictional or non-fictional events. The word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative.11

According to Chatman, S. and B. Attebery (1993) “narrative is the telling of a story or communication of a chain of events, fictive or real. Aspects of narrative include how the story is told, the context in which it is presented and the construction of the story.”12

From several statements it concluded a narrative is a text that tells a story and in doing so, entertains the audience. The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions. Narratives can be presented as written or spoken texts. Written narratives often take the form of novels. The story is usually told by a narrator. If the narrator is one of the characters in the story, the story is said to be told in the first person. If a person outside the story is the narrator, then the story is being told in the third person. 13

10

Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types 2…, p. 1 11

Retrieved from http:<www.msu.edu/kruttlin/narrative.html>. November 26, 2010 at 12.00 pm.

12

Chatman, S. and B. Atterbery, Reading Narrative Fiction, (New York: McMillan, 1993), p. 15

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Examples of narrative texts include:

 Myths

 Fairytales

 Aboriginal dreaming stories

 Science fiction

 Historical fiction

 Romance novel

The purpose of narrative text is to present a view of the world that entertains or informs the reader or listener.14

From the description above, it can be said that narrative text has many meanings. Narrative text has been learned since Junior High School until now. Actually, narrative text is same with the story. It is only different in term. When we were child, we have been read Cinderella story, it is kind of narrative text. It consists of fiction story.

2. Schematic Structure of Narrative

a. Orientation

In this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story, when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on.

b. Complication

This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin in a chain of events. These events will affect one or more of the characters. The complication is the trigger.

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c. Sequence of event

This is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the complication. It includes their feelings and what they do. The events can be told in chronological order (the order in which they happen) or with flashback. The audience is given the narrator’s point of view.

d. Resolution

In this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or problem is solved.

e. Coda

The narrator includes a coda if there is a moral or message to be learned from the story.15

The most common schematic structure is: Orientation-Complication-Resolution.

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Sleeping Beauty

Once upon a time, there was a king and queen. They really wanted to have a baby. When the king finally gave birth to a daughter, they were very happy. They made a party in the castle to celebrate it.

Six good fairies came to the party. They gave the baby presents of intelligence, happiness, goodness, health and wealth. Before the sixth good fairies could give their present, a wicked fairy burst into the party. The fairy was so angry because the king and the queen did not invite her to the party. She cursed the baby, “on her sixteenth birthday, the princess will prick her finger on a needle from a spinning wheel and die!”

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3. Grammatical Features of Narrative

Narratives usually include the following grammatical features: 1. Nouns that identify the specific characters and places in the story

2. Adjectives that provide accurate description of the characters and settings 3. Verb that show the actions that occur in the story

4. Time words that connect event, telling when they occurred.16

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that narrative text is the text that tell a story and when the story only contains the beginning or just the middle or just in the end, it cannot be a good story because there must be the beginning, the middle and the end of the story. It is to make the story is good and easy to be understood.

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CHAPTER III

PROFILE OF MTs. AL-FALAH JAKARTA

This chapter presents and discusses profile of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta in brief, historical background, vision and mission, objectives and academic and non-academic facilities.

A.

Profile of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta in Brief

1.

Name of the school : MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta

2.

Year of Establishment : 1953

3.

Address : Jl. Masjid An-Nur Grogol Utara Kebayoran Lama Jakarta Selatan

4.

Status : Accredited “A”

5.

Phone/Fax number : (021) 5490178/(021) 5303263

6.

No. of Statistic School : 212317110068

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B.

Historical Background of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta

MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta was established on 22 May 1953. It is located in Jl. Masjid An-Nur Grogol Utara Kebayoran Lama Jakarta Selatan. The establishment of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta revealed the story of struggle and journey of humankind, at which time Islamic School since its foundation in 1965 became the basic development of Islamic religious sciences. However, its existence becomes very important, in line with the demands of the time. On the basis of the motivation and the demands of various parties, then established in 1953.

Expectations and ideals of the founding of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta continued to be actualized as a direct response to the developments, challenges and demands of the time, by performing a series of changes, improvements and planning a systematic and integrated through redefining the vision and mission. To that end, MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta has done and partnership collaboration with other committee competent in that fields.

C.

Vision of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta

Vision of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta:

1. Having a firm belief and practice the Islamic religion correctly and consistently in accordance with the Qur'an and Sunnah .

2. To be able to think and act spontaneously and critical in solving the problem.

3. Having the skills, non-academic skills appropriate to their talents and interest.

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D.

Mission MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta

Based on indicators of vision MTs MTs Al-Falah Jakarta, the mission of MTs Al-Falah learning Jakarta in 2010-2011 are:

 Improving the quality of human resources, creative, innovative,

responsible, and berakhlakul karimah.

Developing students' potentials in order to compete in achievement.

Improving learning to cultivate the ability to think and act spontaneously in solving the problem.

E.

Objectives of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta

 Improving the quality of Average Value of the UN in accordance

KKM ideal quantity of at least 70% and 100% of graduates.

 Improving the practice and appreciation of Islamic faith in school, MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta gives more facilities to all students, such as: Moral Education, Research Methodology, Computers and Motivation Training Program.

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Graduation is a routine activity done every year to respect and congratulate students who have succeeded in finishing their studies in MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta.

G.

Non-Academic Facilities

Meanwhile non-academic facilities or extracurricular can be chosen by students. One of them is sport, like football and basket ball. Many sport events are being organized and facilitated by MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta, whether internal activities that involve other schools.

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24

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

AND

RESEARCH FINDINGS

This chapter deals with research methodology and research findings. Research methodology consists of time and place of research, subject and object of research, the writer’s role on the study, technique of collecting data, technique of data analysis, design of Classroom Action Research, the Classroom Action Research procedures, the trustworthiness of the study, and criteria of the action success. Research Findings consists of data description, the implementation of Classroom Action Research and the result of data analyzing.

A. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.Time and Place of the Research

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2. Subject and Object of the Research

a. Subject

The Subject of this study is students at grade VIII-1 class of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta in academic year 2010/2011. The number of students consists of 34 (thirty-four). It is chosen based upon unstructured interview result with the English teacher at that class proving that they have the lowest achievement in learning Simple Past Tense among the other eight classes.

b. Object

The object of the research is using narrative text an effective way to develop students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense.

3. The Writer’s Role on the Study

In this role, the writer is as not only the observer whilst the action but also makes a lesson plan and the assessment or test before Classroom Action Research (CAR) pretest and after Classroom Action Research (CAR) posttest in each final cycle. The English teachers’ role as observer who observes teaching-learning situation, student and teachers’ performance during teaching-learning process. Afterwards, the writer also collects and analyzes data with English teacher.

4. The Method of Research

The writer in this research used Classroom Action Research (CAR) method which is derived from the root an action research, because it occurs in the classroom frame, it is called CAR. John W. Santrock stated “CAR is a research that used to solve a specific classroom or school problem, improve teaching and other educational strategies or make a decision at a specific level.”1

1

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26

5. The Technique of Collecting Data

In completing the data, the writer used qualitative data and quantitative data, qualitative data consists of observation, interview and field note, quantitative data consists of pretest and posttest. 2 performance, and sheet of post observation of teaching learning is done during implementing CAR.

b. Interview

Interview is held with the teacher and students in order to know the real condition in applying the technique narrative text and how far the technique can motivate the students in improving students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense. The writer interviewed the English teacher and students. This interview conducted before and after the implementation of Classroom Action Research.

c. Test

The test used in this study is pretest, posttest I and posttest II. Pretest is done before implementing CAR. It is done to make sure whether the data of observation in line with the result pretest or not. Meanwhile, the posttest is implemented after using narrative text technique. In this study, the test is done in form of multiple choices. The test is held on every second action of each cycle.

d. Questionnaire

The writer conducted questioner to 34 students. Questionnaire is done before implementing CAR; it is purposeful to know students’ difficulty in English learning. Questionnaire is done after implementing

2

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CAR; it is purposeful to know students’ response about narrative text in learning Simple Past Tense.

6. Technique of Data Analysis

The writer uses the observation of teaching-learning activity and the interview before and after CAR in the analyzing of qualitative data. In the other hand, the analysis quantitative data used is numerical data. In analyzing the numerical data, the writer used this formula:3

_ X : mean

x : individual score n : number of students

Then, the writer tried to get the class percentages which passed the KKM (70) of English lesson at MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta. It is the formula:4

Sudjana, MetodaStatistik, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. 67 4

Anas Sudjiono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008), p. 43

�=

�= �

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28

To identifying improvement of students’ score from pretest up to posttest score in cycle I and cycle II, by using the formula:5

P : percentage of students’ improvement y : pre-test result

y1 : post-test 1

P : percentage of students’ improvement y : pre-test result

y2 : post-test 2

7. Design of Classroom Action Research

According to Niff, “CAR encourages teacher to be reflective of his own practice in order enhance the quality of education for himself and his pupils.”6

It means that CAR is one of researches that requires teacher to practice and give him or her new opportunities to reflect on and asses their teaching.

In this design classroom action research (CAR), the writer used Kurt Lewins’ design, this concept consists of planning, acting, observing, and

5

David E. Meltzer, The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Scores, (Iowa: Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2008), p.3.

6

Jean Mc Niff, Action Research: Principles and Practice, (New York: MacMillan Education Ltd., 2002), p. 1.

�= − � %

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reflecting7. The relationship among those concepts formed one cycle. Basically, amount of cycle depends on with the issue or issues happened in teaching and learning activities and also the achievement. The writer describes the scheme of action research designed by Kurt Lewins’ design.

Figure 4.1

Kurt Lewins’ Action Research Design

7

Kunandar, Langkah Mudah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Sebagai Pengembangan Profesi Guru, (Jakarta:PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2008), p. 42

Planning

Cycle I

Planning

Reflecting Acting

Observing

Reflecting

Observing Cycle II

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30

8. The Classroom Action Research Procedures

Based on the design above, the researcher decides to use two cycles in her action research, each cycle consists of four phases. Those are planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The research will be probably found a new problem or the previous unfinished problems yet. Therefore, it is necessary to continued to achievement at the end of cycle, and then prepares the instrument to notice all activities in the classroom. In this cycle, the writer decides to choose two meetings.

2. Acting

In the acting phase, the writer implies the planning that is made by her. The writer gives material based on the lesson plan that has been made. Later, the writers begin the research process more deeply based on her lesson plan. The teacher presents the topic that will be learned by using narrative text, explained the material and gave students exercises. Then, at the end of this phase, the writer gives a pretest to students.

3. Observing

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students’ response, and the class situation. In addition, the observer also collects the data from the posttest given to the students.

4. Reflecting

Reflecting phase is designed to reflect researcher action in teaching learning process, it is based on data that have been collected. After collecting data, the writer has to analyze data and reflect with English teacher by using result of the observation. The teacher and English teacher will discuss and analyze the data of teaching-learning process and also identify less of teaching Simple Past Tense by using narrative text and how to improve it at classroom.

However, if there is found problems it should move to the next cycle regarding re-planning, re-acting, and re-observing. Consequently, the writer and the teacher should work out uncompleted problems that have been solved yet.

CYCLE II

1. Planning

In cycle one, the writer identifies and analyzes the issue then finds the problems based on issue that are appeared in the classroom. So, in this phase the teacher will revise and modify lesson plan and reselect narrative text material that will be taught selectively.

2. Acting

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32

3. Observing

In this phase, after the teacher does the acting in cycle II, she observes and notices all of activities that occur in the classroom. The writer also notices the class situation using the field note and structured observation sheet.

4. Reflecting

Reflecting phase is designed to reflect the writer’s action in cycle II, it is based on data that have been collected. The writer has to analyze data and reflect with English teacher by using result of the observation. The writer also analyzes observation data, interview data, pretest and posttest based on criteria success. If the result of cycle II has reached the main goal, thus the writer should stop her research. In the other hand, if the result of cycle has not reached the main goal, thus the writer has to direct to the next cycle until the main goal is reached.

9. The Trustworthiness of study

In analyzing the test items, there are two ways that will be used to know the trustworthiness of the data, and it is explained as follows:

1. Discriminating Power

The discriminating power of a test item is an index that shows its ability to differentiate between pupils who achieved well (the upper group) and those who have achieved poorly (the lower group). It is supported by the theory of Norman E. Gronlund in his book, Constructing Achievement Test, he stated that “discriminating power is the comparison between the number of students in the upper group and lower group who answered the item correctly”.8 To find out the

discriminating power index, it will be used the following formula: 9

8

Norman E. Gronlund. Constructing Achievement Test, (New Jersey: Prentince-Hall, Inc. 1982) , p.103

9

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D : The index of discriminating power

Ru :The number of pupils in the upper group who answered the item correctly

RL :The number of pupils in the lower group who answered the item correctly

½ T : One half of the total number of students included in the item analysis

Then, the criterion of discriminating power is rated as follows:

Table 4.1

The Classification of Discriminating Power

DISCRIMINATING

POWER REMARK

0.6 – 1.0 Very good

0.4 – 0.6 Good

0.1 – 0.3 Ok

-1 – 0.0 Bad

Ru – RL

D = ────

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34

2. Item Facility

Item facility refers an index of how easy an individual test item was for the people who took it.10 Item facility is typically printed in a decimal number and it represents the proportion of people or test takers who got the item right. The reason why item facility must be concerned by test makers is to know whether an item is too easy or too difficult to answer.

To count the item facility of a test item, it will be used the following formula:

After the item facility has been counted, it can be known the rate of the difficulties and the easiness by using the item facility scale as follows:

Table 4.2

Item Facility Scale

ID REMARK

0 – 0.14 Difficult 0.15 – 0.85 Moderate

0.86 – 1.00 Easy

10

Kathleen M. Bailey, Learning about Language Assessment: Dillemas, Decisions, and Direction, (London: Heinle & Heinle Publisher, 1998), p. 132

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10. Criteria of the Action Success

Classroom Action Research is called successful research if the criterion that has been determined is reached. Meanwhile, if the criterion has not been reached yet, thus the next cycle has to done. The criterion is fixed by teacher and researcher.

In this research, teacher and researcher determine when there are 70% of students achieve any improvement; started from the pretest until the second posttest in cycle two. It can be stated that successful CAR and next action will be stopped. Meanwhile, there are no 70% of students achieve any improvement; it can be called unsuccessful CAR. Thus, the next cycle has to done.

B. RESEARCH FINDINGS

In this part, the writer presents the data of the research that have been collected. It is divided into three parts: data description, data analyzing, and interpretation of the data. The data discusses developing students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text at VIII-1 grade of MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta. Data description consists of observation before implementation the action, observation, interview, and also test (pretest), data analyzing consists of posttest 1 and posttest 2.

1. Description of Data before Implementing the Action

Before the implementation of the action, the writer has divided three parts of data description in order to know the obstacles of teaching learning in reading activities selectively, those are data of observation, data from interview questionnaire and the test.

a. Data of Pre-Observation

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36

from the observation, the writer saw that the teacher used the traditional method in teaching Simple Past Tense. The teacher explained the grammar (Simple Past Tense) inductively. Which is she gave the rule first, and then she gave example based on the rule, after that she asked the students to make another example according to the rule. The teacher only focused on the rule of grammar, she didn’t ask the students to do another activity like reading or speaking. At the first, she explained the rule of the simple past tense and wrote it down on the whiteboard, and made several examples based on the rule. Next, the teacher asked the students to do the exercise in LKS (workbook). After the students finished it, the teacher asked some students to wrote their own answers on the whiteboard while the other students checked their work. In the end of the teaching learning activity, the teacher gave homework to the students.

b. Data of Pre-Interview

This interview was conducted as unstructured interview, it was held on Thursday, October 7th 2010, and started 10.00 A.M up to 11.00 A.M. In this interview, the writer asked some questions related English teaching learning activity, emphasized on grammar material. The English teacher taught grammar inductively, she explained the rule first and then she gave examples based on the rule. Besides that, the English teacher also never used other method and never gives any media in teaching the Simple Past Tense. According to the teacher, students’ understanding of grammar especially tenses is still low, their English score also not good.

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c. Data of Pre-test

In completing the data, the writer did the pretest before conducted Classroom Action Research, it was held on Friday, 15th October 2010, and it began from 6.45 A.M up to 8.05 A.M. There were 34 students of VIII-1 grade followed the test. The test was 20 questions in multiple choices and the students did it during 30 minutes. From this pretest, it is known the mean score of pretest that was done by students was 55.29.

The data above showed nine students who obtained the score above the KKM (Criterion of Minimum Completeness), while KKM of MTs. Al-Falah was 70. So, twenty five students were below the standard of KKM. From the data, there were five students gained the higher score and one student gained the lowest score which the higher score was 75 and lowest score was 35.

d. Data of Pre Questionnaire

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38

2. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research

After knowing the data from observation and interview above, the writer knew that the students had some difficulties and learning in Simple Past Tense, such as the transformation of the verb forms, especially irregular verb, the negative and the interrogative form of the Simple Past Tense.

The teacher also had a problem when she teaches English in the classroom. The problem was the background knowledge of students was different each other, the students felt bored and not interest in studying English. To overcome the problem, the writer used narrative text in teaching the Simple Past Tense to support the teaching learning-process.

This Classroom Action Research was held from 22nd October 2010 up to 13th November 2010 at VIII Grade MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta, there were 34 students followed this implementation. The writer conducted this research two cycles which each cycles was conducted two meetings. After doing each cycle, the writer conducted posttest to know improvement of the students understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text.

2.1 CYCLE I

a. Planning

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In the second meeting the researcher combined the teaching learning process of Simple Past Tense by using narrative text. She asked the students to analyze the Simple Past Tense sentences form the text and then discussed it together. Besides that, she also gave reading comprehension activity from the text that was given, she asked the students to read aloud in front of the class while checked their pronunciation, determine the topic and the title of the text, found the main idea, supporting idea, and specific information from the text. Next, she asked them to underline the verb two and found out the sentences of the Simple Past Tense form from the text.

In this phase, the writer the writer not only made planning for teaching learning activities but also prepared some activities and exercises; like made a sentence in the Simple Past Tense and then asked them to changed it into negative and interrogative form, fill in the blank with the appropriate words in the form of Simple Past Tense (positive, negative, and interrogative), the time signal, and the verb 2 forms (both regular and irregular). She gave explanation about the regular and irregular verbs and also gave them a list of irregular verbs. Next, she asked the students to make a sentence using Simple Past Tense and then changed it into negative and interrogative form.

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40

knew and checked their pronunciation. After that she asked them to determine the topic and the title of the passage, finding the main idea, supporting idea, and specific information from the text. After doing those activities, the writer together with the students made a discussion about the material. In each meeting the writer made evaluation and gave assessment to the students by giving mini exercises.

c. Observing

In this phase, the writer together with the English teacher of class VIII-1 observed the teaching learning process by monitoring the students’ activities in each cycle. The writer and the English teacher saw that most of the meetings were not good and still had much lackness, the students still had difficulties in teaching learning activities.

In the first meeting, the English teacher saw that many students had difficulty of the verb two form; they still confused about the irregular verb forms. They also had a problem with negative and interrogative forms of the Simple Past Tense, some of them often used verb 2 in negative and interrogative forms. For example: My father did not asked me to study hard, it should be “My father did not ask me to study hard”. “Did you saw that movie last night?” It should be “Did you see that movie last night?”.

In the second meeting, the writer focused on reading comprehension, writing and speaking. According to the English teacher observation, the students had problem in determining main idea and supporting idea, they could not distinguish between them and schematic structure itself. In writing activity, they did not do it well. They could not write grammatically, they did not know the use of part of speech, and did not know when to use to be in a sentence. The other problem was the lack of vocabularies and practice, so it made the students hard to write what on their mind.

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d. Reflecting

After analyzing the data by observing and evaluating the result of the teaching learning process and students’ pretest and posttest scores in cycle I, the writer and the English teacher of class VIII-1 concluded that the first cycle was not good; so it is very important for her to give more activities, exercises, and practice to the students to get a better result. Most students had difficulties in negative and interrogative form of Simple Past Tense, they confused when they must use the verb 2 forms, most of them used verb 2 in negative and interrogative forms. They also still confused about the irregular verbs forms. In reading the writer found that the students still had difficulties in determining the main idea and supporting idea from the text.

Based on the observation above, the writer saw that there were many lacks in the first cycle, such as the students have not mastered the irregular verbs yet, they still confused whether use verb 1 or verb 2 in negative and interrogative forms. In reading, they could not differentiate between main idea and supporting idea. In writing, they could not make write coherently. In speaking, they still need much time to find some words and their pronunciation also still bad.

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42

2.2 CYCLE II

a. Planning

After finding the result from the cycle I that the students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense still had some problems, the writer and the English teacher discussed about the result of the recent cycle, and found the solution of the students’ difficulties. After the discussion, the writer and the English teacher agreed to give some additional to the plan that has been made before and revised it to be the better one. In this cycle the writer gave new topics and emphasized in practice. She used different activities in each meeting to avoid students’ boredom and to refresh the situation in the classroom.

In the first meeting, the writer gave a new text to the students and then asked them to read aloud the text while checked their pronunciation, and asked them to find out the Simple Past Tense sentence in the text. Then, she gave a reading comprehension activity to them (find out the main idea, supporting idea, specific information, etc).

In the second meeting, the writer still had the students to discuss the text that was given. After the discussion, the writer asked them to summarize the text read it aloud in front of the class and then retell the other students’ stories. By doing these kinds of activities, the students became more active. They not only could memorize the form of the Simple Past Tense and the verb two forms (especially irregular verb) from the text directly but also the use of the Simple Past Tense in the real communication, so it made the teaching learning process became fun and easy to understand it.

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b. Acting

The acting of cycle II was done on 5th and 12th of November 2010. In this phase, the writer conducted the teaching learning activities to get the better result to improve the students understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text, while the English teacher observed the teaching learning process, the writer reviewed the material briefly and then explained new activities and exercises as stated in planning phase above.

In the first meeting, the writer reviewed the last lesson. Then, she gave them a new text (The Five Footed Bear), she asked them to read aloud the story while checked their pronunciation. After that, she asked them to find out the simple past sentences in the text.

In the second meeting, the writer gave the text (with different title) to the students. She still made the students to do the same activity like in the first meeting (made a summary of the text). After summarizing the passage, the students had to read their summary in front of the class, and then the other students should ask question orally to her/him based on the text.

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44

retell the story well and confidently although sometimes they stuck in some words, but it was a good progress for them.

In the first meeting, the English teacher saw that there was a progress in students’ reading, their reading comprehension pretty good; they could understand what did the passage talk about and could answer some question well.

In the second meeting, the writer and the English teacher realized that the students’ grammar (especially Simple Past Tense), reading, writing, and speaking skills were good enough. They could understand the forms (positive, negative, and interrogative) and usage of the Simple Past Tense well. For example, usually before the lesson started, the writer always asked them “what did you do last night?”, and in this meeting they could answer correctly like “I studied English”, students B answered “I cooked with my mother”, and so on. Their reading comprehension is also good, they had no difficulty to determine the main idea and supporting idea, they also understand what the story talked about. In speaking, they did it well enough because of the discussion activity regularly. One problem in speaking was pronunciation, the students just need more practice to make it better.

After teaching and learning process have finished, the observer gave them to posttest 2 exactly on the second action of the cycle II it is to know whether the students’ achievement in cycle II was improved or not. Based on the result of posttest II, it showed the students who passed the KKM in cycle II were 29 students or 85.29%. It concluded there were improvements in their understanding of the Simple Past Tense when the technique was conducted by the teacher.

d. Reflecting

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writing skill was better although it was not really good and there were some successful and they decided to stop continued the next cycle.

3. Data Analyzing

After conducting the action research, the writer gained three data; those were the result of post interview, the result of post observation and the result of posttest observation. In this case, the writer gave the report concerning the data analyzing according to post interview and the result of posttest.

3.1The Result of Post Interview

The result of this interview was taken from the English teacher as observer who helped the writer for this research and the students of VIII-1 grade MTs. Al-Falah Jakarta. This interview was held on Saturday 13th November 2010 started from 08.00 A.M up to 09.00 A.M. From the interview, it was known that there was improvement for the students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text. The students’ skills like reading, writing and speaking also had progress. The students mastered the verb forms both regular and irregular verbs, they could make sentences in the Simple Past Tense form (positive, negative, and interrogative). Moreover they also could apply the Simple Past Tense in speaking and writing.

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46

In this interview, the writer explained that the classroom activity more active than before the implementation of Classroom Action Research. It could be seen from the students’ enthusiasm in learning Simple Past Tense using narrative text.

The improvement of students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense could prove from by the improvement of students’ score. The result of pretest, posttest I and posttest II showed a significant improvement. Based on the explanation above, the writers concluded that the Classroom Action Research has done successfully.

3.2The Result of Post Observation

After the implementation of the Classroom Action Research, the writer

also took the result of post observation to support the implementation of Classroom Action Research. From the post observation, the teacher and the observer knew whether the using of narrative text to develop students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense was successful or not. In this case, the writer and the teacher collaboratively discuss the how far the technique can improve the students’ understanding.

3.3 The Result of Post Questionnaire

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3.4The Result of Pre-Test, Post-Test I and Post-Test II

The aim of pretest, posttest I and posttest II is to know about the improvement of students’ understanding of the Simple Past Tense by using narrative text that has taught in classroom action research. Before the students did the test, the writer had done the reasonable the test using item facility and discriminating power to identify the test was used or not in the pretest, posttests I and posttest II. Here, the writer used quantitative descriptive technique to analyze the data.

The writer described the students’ score in pretest, posttest I and posttest I in the table below:

Table 4.3

The Students’ Score of Pretest, Posttest I, Posttest II

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48

Based on the data above, the writer gave bold numerical score to students who passed KKM (70), it is showed there were five students who passed KKM in pretest, twenty one students in posttest I and twenty nine students in posttest II. The writer also concluded the lowest score in pretest was 35, in posttest I was 50 and posttest II was 60.

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The mean score of the pretest was computed such following:

_ ∑x X = ── n

_ 1880 X = ─── 34 _

X = 55.29

Based on that computation, it is showed the mean score of the class in pretest before implementation the action is 55.29. Then to know the percentage of students’ score who passed the criterion of minimum completeness, the writer used the formula:

F

P = ── X 100% N

5

P = ── X 100% 34

P = 14.70%

From the calculation above, it is known the students’ percentage score is 14.70%. It means there are five students, who passed the KKM of English Lesson and students who got score below the target of KKM are twenty nine students.

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50 69.26. It proves that there are some improvements from the pretest mean score. It could be seen from the pretest mean score (55.29) to the mean score of posttest 1 (69.26). It improves 13.97 (69.26 – 55.29).

The second step is to get the percentage of students’ improvement score from pretest to posttest 1. The writer computes by using as follows:

y1 - y has improved 25.26% from the pretest score.

Gambar

Table 2.1   Regular Verb ........................................................................
Table 2.1 Regular Verb
Kurt LewinsFigure 4.1 ’ Action Research Design
Table 4.1 The Classification of Discriminating Power
+3

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