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Submit as Partial for Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Letters and Humanities UIN Sunan Ampel


By Alfarizi Akbar Reg. Number A83211118





Akbar |xiii


Akbar, Alfarizi. 2016. A Portrait of Environmentalist in Jostein Gaarder’s The World

According to Anna, English Department, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

Advisor: Itsna Syahadatud Dinurriyah, M.A.

This thesis attempts to analyze Jostein Gaarder’s novel entitled The World

According to Anna. This novel tells about a girl named Anna who realized that

environment which has been damaged and she tries to save the environment. This thesis concerns on analyzing Anna as character and her effort. The aims of this thesis are to learn about the main character, Anna and to reveal her personality and idea to save the environment. Therefore, this thesis can provide some explanations toward Anna’s effort including to what environment degradation she faces, what her idea to save the environment and how the effect of her plan.

This thesis applies descriptive qualitative method that the steps are as follow: the first is reading the novel: then the second is collecting the important part which is related with the issues of this thesis; the third is analyzing the data based on Greg Garrard’s theory Ecocriticism as the main theory and new criticism as the supporting theory; and the last is drawing the conclusion. The result of this thesis explains that Anna as an environmentalist has special character like, enthusiastic, smart, diligent and wise to save the environment using her idea. The great accomplishment of this

idea and effects is people begin to respect the environment using Green Machines to

save the environment.


Akbar |xiv


Akbar, Alfarizi. 2016. A Portrait of Environmentalist in Jostein Gaarder’s The World

According to Anna, Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Humaniora, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

Dosen Pembimbing: Itsna Syahadatud Dinurriyah, M.A

Skripsi ini berusaha menganalisa sebuah novel yang berjudul The World

According to Anna dan ditulis oleh Jostien Gaarder. Novel ini bercerita tentang

seorang gadis yang menyadari kerusakan lingkungan dan ingin menyelamatkan lingkungan. Skripsi ini fokus pada analisa tokoh, Anna dan upayanya untuk menyelamatkan lingkungan dari kerusakan alam. Maksud dari skripsi ini adalah untuk mempelajari tokoh utama, Anna dan menguraikan tingkah laku serta ideanya untuk menyelamatkan lingkungan. Maka dari itu, skripsi ini bisa memberikan beberapa penjelasan terhadap upaya Anna terhadap kerusakan lingkungan yang dihadapinya, ide untuk menyelamatkan lingkungan dan efek dari ide tersebut.

Skripsi ini menggunakan metode kualitas deskriptif. Dalam metode tersebut yang pertama adalah membaca cerita novel; kedua mengumpulkan bagian yang penting yang berhubungan dengan isu yang akan dibahas; ketiga, menganalisis data dengan menggunakan dua teori, yakni new criticism sebagai teori pendukung dan Ekokritik Greg Garrard sebagai teori utama. Selanjutnya keempat berakhir dengan sebuah kesimpulan. Hasil dari analisis ini didapatkan bahwa Anna sebagai seorang pecinta lingkungan memiliki karakter spesial seperti, cerdas, memiliki antusiasme yang tinggi, rajin dan bijak untuk menyelamatkan lingkungan menggunakan idenya. Puncak pencapaian dari ide dan efeknya terhadap lingkungan adalah orang-orang mulai menghargai lingkungan dan menggunakan Green Machines sebagai media untuk menyelamatkan lingkungan.



Inside Cover Page ... i

Inside Title Page ... ii

Declaration Page ... iii

Dedication Page ... iv

Motto ... v

Advisor’s Approved Page ... vi

Examiner’s Approval Page ... vii

Acknowledgment ... viii

Table of Contents ... x

Abstract ... xiii

Intisari ... xiv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background of study ... 1

B. Statement of the Problem ... 3

C. Objective of the study ... 3

D. Scope and Limitation ... 3

E. Significant of the study ... 4

F. Method of the study ... 4

G. Definition of key terms ... 5


1 Ecocriticism ... 7

a. Position of Ecocriticism ... 9

b. Characteristic of Ecocriticism ... 11

2 New criticism ... 14

1. Character ... 16

2. Characterization ... 18

B. Review of Related Studies ... 20

CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS A. The Description of Anna as Environmentalist ... 22

1 Enthusiastic ... 22

B. Anna’s Plans to Save the Environment ... 31

1. The Signs of Environment Degradation ... 32

a. Exploitation of Oil ... 32

b. Deforestation ... 33

c. Climate Change ... 34

d. The Danger of Animal and Plant Extinct ... 36

2. Anna’s Plan ... 39

a. Making Environmentalist Group ... 39

b. Making a Research ... 41


C. The Effects of Anna’s Plan ... 44

1. People Awareness ... 45

2. Maintenance ... 47

3. Punishment ... 49







Background of Study

Environmentalism is an ideology, a social movement, a way of life with the issues of

environmentalist concern. Being an environmentalist starts with awareness. Aware to share a

common consciousness and a common goal of reducing our impact on the planet (Buell 13)

This ideology makes an environment becomes public concern and major topic of

research in some areas (Buell 3) especially literature whereas we call it ASLE. It is the

Assosiation for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE) in 1992. Their concern is share

an environment issues with some medias such as novel and movies. Those medias are the

alternative way to explain that literature is a product of nature where the human cannot be

separated to the nature, it is best known as ecocriticism (Garrard 3). Simply put, ecocriticism is

the study about relationship between literature and the environment (3).

There are many novels that raised environment issues; one of them is Jostein Gaarder’s

novel. The title of the novel is The World According to Anna. This novel is about idealistic

teenagers, her name is Anna. The action begin when Anna as a Gaarder’s major character, is

aware of the environment which has been damaged. She finds a thousands of plants and animals

have been extinct. All of that condition is the effect of exploitation. Anna sees that human exploit

the nature and uses it as the commodity of company but they do not realised that the materials


She does worry about that condition and makes some solution to solve it. Two days

before her birthday, she is given some presents : a smarthphone and a ruby ring. That night,

Anna dreams that she travels through time to 2082, where she meets her granddaughter, Nova.

70 years in the future, and the nature is utterly destroyed at that time. When she wakes up, Anna

realised that environment of her dream is the final condition, but her generation still has a

chance to do something about it.

The problem above deliver Anna to make an inovation. Anna has an idea about what

people can do by green machine. It is an inovation for environment especially the relationship

between human and nature that can be a solution. Green machine is the result of Anna’s effort to

save the environment. The work of green machine is to make people interested to save the

environment by changing their focus and attitude toward the environment.

Talking about environment, It is relevant with Garrard’s argument who said that human

responsibility to the envinronment is part of the environment ethic (Garrard 53). From the

explanation above, the research interest to analyze the problem that concerned on the

environmental issues and its relation with human in The World According to Anna, using


B. Statement of problem

Based on the background of study above, the research

arrange the statements of the problem bellow :

1. How is Anna characterized?

2. What are Anna’s projects in term of taking care to the environment?


C. Objective of Study

Based on the statement of the problem above, the objectives of the study are:

1. To demonstrate the characterization of Anna in The World According to Anna

2. To identify Anna's plan to save the environment.

3. To identify the effects of Anna's plan.

D. Scope and Limitation

The World According to Anna is a novel that concern in the environmental issues. The

scope of this research discusses about global warming, dying animal and plants and finding

solution. Whereas, the limitation focuses on Anna as a major character and her effort. In other

words, this research will take more discussion about environmentalist studied through

ecocriticism theory.

E. Significance of Study

This thesis expected to be useful and enrich the variation of literary work analysis,

especially about ecocriticism on English Department. Furthermore, this study will aslo enrich the

readers to analyze the literary works from various aspects, without forgetting and leaving the

aesthetic and emosional values that contained. Morover, this thesis hoped can be helpful for the

students of English Department of UINSA Surabaya who want to know more about Ecocriticism

and the next study will be a relevant topic.


This thesis is library based. Therefore, to make good study, the study usses library

research by using some books including the novel itself as the primary source, articles, journals,

and online reources. In presenting the analysis, the study mainly uses descriptive qualitative

method. Strauss and Corbin stated that the term qualitatives is mean for kind of research in

which the results are not obtained through the process of any statistics procedure or another

form of calculation (qtd in Supandi 6). If that so, the best method in this analysis is indeed

descriptive qualitative method of research for it describes environmentalism activity. The

research follows the following steps:

1. Deciding object material

Reading the novel to get the complete and well understanding on the whole story.

2. Find the issue

After read this novel, the research found that the major topic of the novel is environment.

Here, Gaarder as author want to share the damage condition of the environment to the

others. Then, this novel also talking about how human exploit the nature is without think

about how to recycle it.

3. Finding the data related

This novel is a primary source to find the data that related to the issue. There some datas are

connected to the issue. Firstly is the forest degradation, climate change, animal extinct and

other crisis.

4. Applying Ecocriticism theory for discussion of the research

This step is to observe some environmental exploitation and the solution, this theory is

relevant to the ecocriticism theory about the relationship between human and nature. It is


5. Analyzing and interpreting the data

This step is to read in several times to observe the novel that focus on the relationship

between human and nature. Ecocriticism.

6. Conclusion

The research concludes the thesis based on the result of data analysis.


Key Terms

Environmentalist : Environmentalism is an ideology, a social movement, a way of life with

the issues of environmentalist concern. The activity of protecting the

environment from polluting and destruction (Buell 13).

Ecocriticism : Ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between

literature and the physical environment (Garrard 3).

Respect : A central concept in many ethical theories; demonstrating it as the very

essence of morality and the foundation of all others duties and obligation




A. Theoretical Framework

This research applies some theories which help to analyze Anna as character and her

effort to save environment. The main theory is ecocriticism theory by Greg Garrard focusing on

the environmental awareness and position of ecocriticism. On the other hand, the research

studies the relationship between literature and nature with ecological perspective. The last

supporting theory is new criticism concerning on character and characterization which help to

understand the main character, Anna including what type of person she is, how her effort is, how

she lives in the society and how her perspective to the environment.

1. Ecocriticism

There are connections between literature and environment, Glotfelty said that environment

as an object can involve a critique of the ways cultural norms of nature contributes to

environmental degradation; it is a form of creative and aesthetic approach like poems and novel,

called ecocriticism (Glotfelty 13).

Ecocriticism is a general term for literary analysis informed by an ecological or

environmental awareness (Garrard 37). It studies the relationship between literature and nature

through a range of approaches having little in common other than a shared concern with the

environment. Combining traditional literary methodologies with ecological perspectives,

ecocriticism is most appropriately applied to a work in which the landscape itself is a dominant


Landscape by definition includes the non-human elements of place rocks, soil, trees, plants,

rivers, animals, air as well as human perceptions and modifications (Garrard 63).

Talking about ecocriticism, Barry Commoner first law of ecosystem ecology argues that

"everything is connected to everything else," ecocritics presuppose that human culture,

specifically its literature, is connected to the physical world, affecting nature as nature affects

culture. The important influence of literature on the conception of nature is made clear by

Roderick Nash who argues that civilization created wilderness (Glotfelty 13). As a cultural

product itself, literature reveals the human relationship to the natural world, not only exposing

conventional attitudes but also providing alternative models for conceptualizing nature and its

relation to human society.

Ecocriticism describes a range of approaches to literature, and this diversity is one of its

strengths. Lawrence Buell argues that ecocriticism takes its energy not from a central

methodological paradigm of inquiry but from a pure commitment to the urgency of rehabilitating

that which has been effectively marginalized by mainstream societal assumptions (Buell 91).

Based on explanation above, the diversity of ecocritical practice stresses that such criticism

should not focus just on trees and rivers that inhabit texts but also should focus on the nature

inherent in humans and in settings in which humans figure prominently.

However, the research uses this theory to make it clear for every point. There are some

points of this theory to analyze Gaarders The World According to Anna. First is position of this

theory, which is each position will explain and be used at some point. The next is element of this


theory that is new criticism which is containing character and characterization to analyze the


a. Position

Ecocriticism have existed a number of different positions that are all ecocritical, but each

has some distinctive characteristics. Every position provides its own individual approach to

ecocriticism and has specific literary or cultural affinities and aversions (Garrard 18). In the next

part, the research will briefly discuss the most important position, since most explanations will

be used at some point in the analysis of The World According to Anna.

a. Attitude towards the environment

This position argues that the threats to the environment posed by modern civilisation are

imagined or exaggerated. One positive aspect they put forward is that human welfare has

demonstrably increased along with population, economic growth and technological progress

(Garrard 19). Especially free-market economists and demographers are advocates of this position

that is in some cases financially supported by anti-environmentalist industrial groups. In their

view industry only brings progress in welfare and economy, supporting capitalism, but they

ignore the fact that if industries move to developing countries, these countries not only have an

increasingly good human welfare, their environment diminishes, and in nations where industry

leaves there have been several environmental improvements (Garrard 20). A serious resistance

against cornucopias is that they only take the non-human environment into account when it is

useful to humans and nature is only valued in relation to human beings (21).


It is the second positions. Deep ecology is the most influential radical form when going

beyond the academic circles, stimulating many green organizations (Garrard 22). One of the

crucial key points made by Arne Naess, who coined the term deep ecology, shows the vital

distinction from environmentalism:

The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves (synonyms: inherent worth, intrinsic value, inherent value). These values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes. (qtd. in Garrard 23)

Most deep ecologists see this distinction as the most important one between

environmentalism and deep ecology (24). This point shows that deep ecologists believe in the

intrinsic value of nature, whereas followers of the shallow approach argue for the preservation of

nature only in how far it is useful for humans. Additionally deep ecologists are prepared to give

up their comfortable lifestyle, as opposed to environmentalists. The deep ecological movement

not just concerns itself with the physical manifestation of the environmental crisis, but rather

looks at its foundation (Evernden 102). Therefore, deep ecologists argue that we should think

more nature-centred instead of an anthropocentric view.

c. Social Ecology

This position suggests that environmental problems follow from systems of domination or

exploitation of humans by other humans and are not only caused by anthropocentric attitudes.

Both are explicitly more political than the positions mentioned before and both view scarcity of

ecological resources as something that is created by capitalistic forms of production that depend


to meet real needs instead of accumulation of wealth, scarcity of certain resources will change in

meaning (Garrard 31).

b. Characteristic of Ecocriticism

The research needs to examine the several cultures present in The World According to

Anna and how they affect to nature. The research needs some elements to show that the text is

actually ecocritical. In this part, the research explains some strategies, modes and tropes and why

they are seen as essential to an ecocritical text. Therefore, the research focuses on their literary

value and not on how these elements apply to cultural ecocriticism. The characteristic elements

in the research are the romantic pastoral, wilderness, and dwelling, as used by Garrard in

Ecocriticism. These lists are most important to this research.

1. Romantic Pastoral

When analysing a text by looking at nature, one cannot ignore the significance of the pastoral

mode. It has its roots in the classical tradition and has deeply embedded in Western culture, so

that it remains a vital mode to investigate even for ecocritics (Garrard 37).

Romantic pastoral is never in serious danger and has a rather poor biological diversity. The

Romantic pastoral mainly focuses on the vastness and beauty of the landscape, especially

looking at the sublime landscapes, which are mostly mountains (48). Base on explanation above,

romantic pastoral insists that human is not the owner of the earth, but should treat it with respect

and like a steward, for himself and for other species (51). This type of Romantic pastoral is more


2. Wilderness

The concept of wilderness refers to nature in a state uncontaminated by civilization and is a

powerful construction of nature. It is organized to protect specific ecosystems and species, and as

it is untainted by humans, people who wish to escape the immorality and material tendency of

the city can go there. Wilderness is important for ecocriticism as it promises a renewed, authentic

relation of humanity and the earth (Garrard 66).

As wilderness has had no contact with civilization, one could say that humanity has a new

chance of treating nature the right way, every time a piece of wilderness is found. Since in fiction

one can invent a particular area of wilderness, one can take that to show the reader how this

wilderness should be treated. Ecocritics are generally divided into two groups with different

views as to how wilderness should be treated.

Wilderness is way of thinking environmentalist approach of ecocriticism, as it is concerned

about nature, but the greatest concern is still maintaining a comfortable lifestyle.

Conservationists are concerned about wilderness, and they do understand that humans cannot

just destroy nature, but in protecting nature, they also want some benefits for humans. In that

respect, they prefer a system of agriculture and forestry over a wild nature, which has no

limitations. This approach also means that wilderness does not stay the wilderness as it is defined

above, as it will be touched by civilization to secure benefits for humanity.

3. Dwelling

Dwelling is one that was coined by Martin Heidegger, who was already discussed in relation


nature (Heidegger 122). It means freeing it from dangers and preserving from something.

Heidegger therefore defines dwelling as to remain at peace within the free sphere safeguards

each thing in its nature. As dwelling also means to live somewhere, this additional meaning of

the word mostly applies to the place where you live. As this place implies emotional attachment,

it is only natural that you want to spare and preserve it.

The significance of dwelling to ecocriticism is clear in that respect that it is an exemplary

way of handling the place you live. To be able to do that, however, you need to have respect for

the place you live, you need to love it. Generally this means that, as Schumacher claims, it is

obvious that men organized in small units will take better care of theirbit of land or other natural

resources than anonymous companies or megalomaniac governments which pretend to them that

the whole universe is their legitimate quarry (Garrard 167).

In this point, ecocriticism as theory will applies to this research by analyze every quotation,

statement, values and character with ecological perspective. This theory will be effective with

new criticism as supporting theory. It is concerning on character and characterization which help

to understand the main character, Anna including what type of person she is, how her effort is,

how she lives in the society and how her perspective to the environment.

2. New Criticism Theory

The term new criticism is firstly introduced by John Crowe Ransom in his book The New

Criticism (1940) and supported by I.A. Richard and T.S. Eliot (Rokhmansyah 68). Anyways, this

practice, which new critics introduce to America and call close reading, has been a standard


(Tyson 135). On the other hand, this practice or theory is still important and useful now to

support students for doing literary studies.

New criticism is clearly characterized in premise and practiced: it is not concerned with

context- historical, biographical, intellectual, and so on; it is not interested in fallacies of

intention or affect ; it is concerned solely with the text in itself, with its language and its

organization; it does not seek the text meaning, but how it speaks itself. (Selden, Widdowson,

and brooker, 19).

Morover, because it closely reads on the text itself, all the evidences is provided by the

literary language. For new criticism, literary language is very different from scientific language,

if scientific language depends on denotation, the one-to-one correspondence between words and

the object or the ideas they represent. While literary language, in contrast, depends on

connotation: on the implication, association, suggestion, and evocation of meanings and of

shades of meanings (Tyson 138). In line with explanation above, scientific language describes a

true meaning of the object or idea while literary language describes a figure meaning or hidden

meaning of the object or idea. Unlike scientific language, the form of literary language is the

word choice and arrangement that create aesthetic experience.

Furthermore, literary language is formed by formal elements of literary work. The formal

elements are consist of images, symbols, metaphors, rhyme, meter, point of view, setting,

character, plot and so on (Tyson 137). Meanwhile this research will analyze the character of

literary work.

As has been noted that new criticism focuses principally on poetry, but two essays by Mark


deploy new critical Practice in relation to prose fiction (Selden, Widdowson, and brooker 21).

From this phase, it is clear that new criticism can be used not only to analyze poem but also

prose fiction. In order to analyze Annas character and her suffering in Gaarders novel entitled

The World According to Anna, this research will use new criticism theory as a supporting theory

to analyze it concerning on the character and characterization. The following explanations of

character and characterization are stated below:

a. Character

A character is one of important part in the story because character can help to grasp the

story well. On the other hand, the character can help to understand about the field of human

inquiry because the character reflects humans life. Minderop says that the character presents a

variety of personality and behavior which relate to psyche and psychological experience or

problem which is felt by human in the real life (1).

Character is someone who acts, appears, or is referred to as playing a part in a literary

work (Hunter, Booth, Kelly, and Beaty 102). This world is like a stage where there are many

characters that act and appear in it. That is why, what the characters do is the best clue to

understand what they are (Roberts and Jacobs 155).

A character, then, is presumably an imagined person who inhabits a storyalthough that

simple definition may admit to a few exceptions. A character should behave in a sudden and an

unexpected way, seeming to deny what it has been told about his or her nature or personality, it

is trusted that there was a reason for this behavior and that sooner or later it will be discovered

(Kennedy and Gioia 74). As like human, characters in the story certainly has a reason for their


There are parts of character which contain in this theory. Characters in fiction can be

conveniently classified as major and minor, flat or round, antagonist and protagonist. All of these

parts will be explain in this theory.

DiYanni remarks that in analyzing a character or characters relationship readers can

relate one act, one speech, one physical detail to another until understand the character (54). The

authors usually do not show the characters motive or describe the situation suddenly. They will

form a good and indirect sentence or dialogue to describe it in his stories. The readers will

understand the character or the situation in the stories if they can relate one act, one speech, and

one physical detail to another.

Characters in fiction can be conveniently classified as major and minor. A major

character is an important figure at the center of the storys action or theme. The major character

is sometimes called a protagonist whose conflict with an antagonist may spark the storys

conflict. Supporting the major character are one or more secondary or minor characters whose

function is partly to illuminate the major character. Minor characters are often static or

unchanging ( DiYanni 54).

The last character classified as protagonist and antagonist. They are two essential roles in

any story ( DiYanni 63). Protagonist is a central character in a story. The story is generally

revolved around a problem faced by the protagonist and how he or she finds a solution to this

problem (64). Protagonist is not always good and admirable. He can be villainous wicked. Evil

protagonist are known by the term, anti-hero. A story can have more than one protagonist; this

can be generally seen in novels written in multiple points of views.

Two main categories of characters in fiction can be conveniently classified as round and


conflicted and contradictory person. Flat character is the opposite of round character. This

personality is notable for one kind of personality trait or characteristic ( DiYanni 60). Round

character can be surprise the readers since he or she is not stereotypical and predictable but flat

character describe a character who can be summed up in a sentence.

The antagonist is the opposite of protagonist. Tough antagonist are generally portrayed as

dark, wicked character, they can be good character who try to stand in the way of the villainous

protagonist as well ( DiYanni 65). Antagonist does not necessarily have to be one character. It

can be a group of character, an institution, a concept that stands in the way of the protagonist.

b. Characterization

Character and characterization are equally important in the story. Both of them relate each

other, although they have a distinction. To understand the morality of character’s behavior, the

reader can see how the character is presented in the story. So, how the author presents or tells the

character in the story is called characterization.

Characterization is the means by which writers present and reveal character. The method of

characterization is narrative description with explicit judgment. It is given fact and interpretative

comment. From both fact and comment the readers derive an impression of the character in the

story (DiYani 55). This statement shows that the author usually give a fact and comment to

reveal the characters in the story. So, the reader can understand them from the impression taken

from the author’s fact and comment about the characters.

In presenting and determining the nature of the character in a story, generally, the authors

use two methods in their works. The first is telling and showing. Telling method is using the


Minderop 77). It is supplying information for covering the ground such as story teller or as a


Usually, this method is used by fictive writers in past time—not modern fiction. Through

this method the author’s interfering in characterizing the character is so much felt, so that the

readers understand the character based on author’s description (Minderop in Minderop 77).

Besides, showing method denotes that the author puts himself/ herself in the outer of the

story by giving an opportunity to the characters for presenting their character/ nature through

dialogue and action (Pickering and Hoeper in Minderop 77). It is for making the reader feel they

are in there: feel as in smell, touch, see hear; believe the actual experience of the character. As

John Gardner says,bit is by being convincing in the reality and detail of how we evoke our

imagine world – by what the characters do and say – that we persuade the reader to read the story

we are telling as if it really happened, even though we all know it did not. That means working

with the immediate physical and emotional actions and experience of the characters.

B. Related Studies

The research uses a new novel in 2015, The World According to Anna, therefore some

research of this novel is only review. The research also finds a thesis which analyzes the theory

of the research, ecocriticism.

Review about Gaarders The World According to Anna which is taken from

http://magazine.100percentrock.com/reviews/. This is dystopian fiction, all of the content is

about global warming and the damage people have done, and are still doing to this planet.

However, it is more focused on the human or political aspects instead of nature. The statement


The last is a thesis entitled Water Exploitation and Its Outcomes Caused by Capitalism as

Reflected on Gore Verbinskis Rango Movie (2004) by Daniel Nugraha Setiawan from Brawijaya

University. The thesis explains about the mayor who becomes the main antagonist exploits all

water sources for his own benefit. The water exploitation causes many bad effects for such three

aspects as plant, animal and the citizen of her city. Those effects cause imbalance to the cycle of

ecosystem which disrupts the life of many living beings. Meanwhile, this research has similar

point with theory used in the thesis especially in ecocriticism theory, although the object of the

analysis is different in which this research tries to analyze Anna as character The World

According to Anna.

The difference of the related studies and the research is the object of analysis. This

research attempts to uncover Anna as character and her effort to save the environment while take

the effort to discuss the surprise ending of the story. Besides, both of this research and the thesis




This chapter presents the analysis to answer the research problems. The first is about

character of Anna as environmentalist and environment issues and the effort of Anna to save the

environment; and last is the effect of Anna’s effort. The data is narrated events in the novel, The

World According to Anna by Jostein Gaarder.

A. The Description of Anna As Environmentalist

There are some characterizations of Anna that support her becomes an environmentalist. As

environmentalist she has an ideology that concern for environmental protection as Glotfelty said

that human relationship to the natural world, not only exposing conventional attitudes but also

providing alternative models for conceptualizing nature and its relation to human society

(Glotfelty 13).

Here are some characterizations of Anna who makes her to be environmentalist:

1. Enthusiastic

This is first characterization of Anna that supports her to save the environment. According to

encyclopedia, enthusiastic is having or showing intense and eager enjoyment. Her enthusiasm

looks when she meets Dr Benjamin at Oslo. Her mother suggests Anna to meet Dr Benjamin

who is a psychologist because her parents feel there is something wrong with Anna, because she

has a wild imagination.

During consultation, Anna supposes that Dr Benjamin will makes her unconsciousness and


environment, which is in this discussion, makes Anna’s enthusiasm stand out like quotation


Anna realized the document claiming his attention must have been a report from her

psychologist in her village. “Is there anything you are afraid of, Anna?

She answered at once, “Global warming

The psychiatrist gave a start. He was clearly an experienced doctor but he had been surprised by her answer.

I beg your pardon?

I mean, I am afraid of climate change. I am afraid that we are risking our climate change

and environment without a second thought for future generations.” (Gaarder 12).

Dr Benjamin is a professional psychologist, he really knows that phobia about global

warming cannot recover, even more he thinks that global warming do not need to be afraid that

is why he suggest her to overcome to this condition.

Gaarder also shows Anna’s enthusiastic when she and Dr Benjamin continue their discussion

more serious. She did not think that he having much knowledge about environment problem. It

is makes Anna’s enthusiastic bigger to share everything about her knowing. Dr Benjamin feels it

is time to finish their discussion but Anna refuse and continue her argument:

Dr Benjamin held up his palm, and Anna realized he was trying to stop her. But she was not going to let this chance to share her knowledge go.

The greenhouse effect could get out of control and worst-case scenario; the worlds

temperature could increase by six to eight degrees. By then all the ice on planet may have

melted and the sea may have risen by tens of metres…(15).

The other sign of Anna’s enthusiasm is when her concern to the environment problem

continues with her action. She asks Jonas to solve this problem together. She wants everyone

can participant to save the environment just like they are.

I need you to help me solve a problem.

Go on. I would do anything for you.

How can we save 1001 species of plants and animals?


Not directly. But I have to clear something up..Something I dreamed, Jonas, something I

dreamed last night…(58).

The research find that Anna’s enthusiasm comes from herself when she realize that

environment has degradation. Her passion to the environment is the best source to deliver her

doing anything for makes better future of environment. She proud and enjoy her activity to learn

about environment besides her daily activity as a student deliver her to be an environmentalist


2. Smart

There are many smart’s sign, such as intelligence and having high imagination. Here

Gaarder portrays Anna as a smart girl based on Einstein perspective which is taken from the

website of

http://www.quora.com/Albert-Einstein-reportedly-said-The-true-sign-of-intellegence-is-notknowledge-but-imagination-What-did-he-mean/; he said that imagination is more

important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited, imagination encircles the world .

Based on Einstein’s quotation, Anna has that signs because in The World According to Anna,

Gaarder often explained Anna has high imagination and sometimes she tell her imagination to

people around her, just like this quotation:

Ever since she was small, Anna had been told she had a lively imagination. If she was asked what she was thinking, she would reel off endless stories, and no one had thought this was anything other than a good thing. But that spring, Anna had begun to believe some of the stories. She had a feeling that they were being sent to her, perhaps from another time, or even another reality (9).

The other sign about Anna’s smart, when she can reads atmosphere or indication about


mountain, Anna see carrion of rat. At the same time, she realizes there is something wrong. She

knows that mountain’s rat can survive in the winter season. Look at description bellow:

By now Anna understood, and she no longer felt as though she was on an adventure. She had known that mice and lemmings survived winter in the mountains by hiding between bushes and scrub, under soft blankets of snow. But if there were no blankets of snow, the mice and lemmings would not survive (6).

Her ability to analysis of environment phenomenon is sign of smart. This novel portray

Anna often look having inspection to this phenomenon like animal which cannot survive on the

season. The research also finds full admission of Anna’s character, when she has discussion with

Dr Benjamin. He realizes that in the deep of Anna’s character there is something special like this


I think I got that, he said

You may have such an active imagination that it seems to overflow. You cannot believe

that you made it all up yourself. But imagination is a quality everyone possesses, to a greater or lesser extent. Everyone has their own dream world. Not everyone, however, can

remember what they dreamed the night before. This is where you appear to have a rare gift. You take what you dream at night (11).

The ability of Anna who can remember her dream so clear is the signs of her intelligence,

because not everyone can remember what they dreamed in the night before but she can. The

research finds that Anna curious about living thing and she interest to naturalistically intelligence

such as animal, weather, oceans and so on. She can observe the animal behavior and ecological

principles around her.

3. Dilligent

The characterization of Anna as environmentalist delivers her looking for some info and

solutions to solve the environmental degradation. Her effort as diligent character is most

important requirement to save the environment. Gaarder portray Anna as a diligent character in


muttered about global warming and climate change, and Anna made a note of these new terms


Anna’s effort like search in some websites and articles are the part of her diligent to solve

environment degradation. Since her realize about environment degradation, she starts to read

and observe something related to environment. She takes advantage from technology to explore

and searching information using computer that is not enough, she also like reading book and

magazine to improve her knowledge, like quotation bellow:

She lifted up the book that her dad had given her. It was a Gap in Nature: Discovering the

World’s Extinct Animals and was y an Australian author. The book was heavy: it must have

weighed a kilo at the very least. The cover showed a doo, a large bird from Mauritius, which was related to the pigeon and dove families, and last seen in 1681. Anna opened the book at a drawing of the last surviving species of moa bird, hunted to extinction by the Maoris at the turn of the seventeenth century.

In other chapter, Gaarder portrays Anna observe environment phenomenon. Anna takes

advantage of technology to compare environment condition before. Anna’s believes that

environment condition before is better and more beautiful. See at this quote bellow:

She touches the screen and calls up the latest satellite pictures. The globe rotates slowly. The continent was smaller than they were only a few years ago. The ice caps over Greenland and the Antarctic are definitely smaller than they were last years (20).

Technological development in The World According to Anna, support her to know more

about the environment condition. Anna knows enough that using this technology is more

efficient, but she has to frequently because in this technology present some waste information,

that is why she diligent to classify what kind of info that she need.

The research finds that, Gaarder portrays Anna as a diligent character enough although in

this case the world has been progression. The evidence of her diligent is her effort to get


effort means that she is seriously to solve the environment problem and it means that she has a

diligent character.

4. Assertive

This part will analyze characterization of Anna as Assertive girl. Gaarder portrays her

peevish feeling with human’s act that shatters the earth. From this phenomenon, her felling

refuse give up but she makes stronger her heart to resist her sad felling. She does not want to lose

with her sad felling in confront reality, like this quotation: She pulls herself together and forces

to stop crying. She decides to be sad no longer. She will not allow the people who destroyed her

planet to take pleasure in the fact that she is crying; that she is sad (54).

The attitude of Anna who would not to give up with this situation is relevant with assertion’s

Lange and Jakubwoski perspective which is taken from the website of

http://www.uwec.edu/Counsel/pubs/selfhelp/assertivecommunication/; they said that the basic

message of assertion is this is how I see the situation. It is a style of communication as Anna has

adapted to the various situation like above.

In the Ignition Key chapter, Anna doing real act as her peevish feeling to someone who

waste energy. At the time she is going to somewhere, in the half way she look a woman let her

car turn on, while she went to somewhere. Look at the quote bellow:

A car idled in front of the carwash with its engine running. Anna stuck her skis into the snow at the roadside: I was just about to turn off your engine and throw they key into the snow! Anna shouted. Then she threw on her skis, and with that she was gone, heading into the mountain (67).

From this moment, she standing up for personal right and expressing thoughts, feelings in

direct, honest and appropriate ways that do not violate another person’s right. Anna thinks that


causing enough harm to the planet that it may become uninhabitable for humans for a long while.

Human destroying their planet and they are the ones doing it.

The research finds that the gesture of Anna in the moment above is the signs of her

assertive. She modulated her voice to advise that woman to turn off her engine. Anna knows that

people have right to do what they want but she realize that nature has same right too that is why

she wants people respect to the nature by her assertive style.

5. Wise

Gaarder portrays Anna as a wise character very clear in his novel. The research finds a

moment of Anna as a wise character at this part. Someday in the evening Anna mixed up

discussion with her mother, she want to build swimming pool, but Anna know that to build

swimming pool it must sacrifice their garden and many kinds of plants in their garden. That is

why Anna talked into her mother to cancel her planning.

Anna feels plants existence is more important than swimming pool like this conversation


The summers so short, Anna. It is nice to have a refreshing swim when it is hot. And it

will be good exercise” Her mom said.

Anna sat down on the chair opposite so she could look her mother in the eye.

Has your estimate factored in the benefits of a garden? What about all the pears and plums

we will lose? What about all the cherries and redcurrants and roses? A garden was not only

there to look nice, it was a home for nature.” She said (64).

The conversation above is the evidence of Anna as a wise character. She can diplomat her

mission without hurt her mother. After this conversation, her mother canceled her plan to make a

swimming pool and their garden still exist. She realizes that she cannot sacrifice the garden

because she knows the condition of environment is damage enough.


she will be guilty. Now I am the one who has to do something and in seventy years’ time I will

meet my great grandchild. And if I have not done my job, I will be the one chased into the forest.

If I cannot help save the planet, I will punish myself (82).

The research finds that her reaction of this situation is based on the coordination of

knowledge and her experience. This reaction is relevant with wisdom definition in Oxford

Dictionary which said that wisdom is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience,

understanding, common sense and insight. It leads her to overcome feelings of helplessness to

find the solution of environment degradation. She know the real effect of environment

degradation and she believe that people also feel what is she feel, that is why empathy of this

situation needs to build a problem solving.

6. Proactive

A consciousness about the important of saving the environment, makes Anna becomes

proactive. Gaarder shows Anna’s character as a proactive when she fell fidgety to confront the

environment problem. She takes initiative to ask Dr Benjamin like quote bellow:

This was sick. What right did mankind have to destroy other forms of life? What was wrong with humanity? That was what Anna wanted to find out as soon as she could. She had an idea.

She opened her desk drawer and took out Dr Benjamin’s business card. He had said she

could call him. To be on the safe side, she texted him first:

What on earth is wrong with us humans? Can we talk? When is a good time? Best, Anna


Her initiative to talk this problem with Dr Benjamin is the evidence of her proactive

character. She know that it cannot be confrontation only by herself, that is why she ask to Dr

Benjamin as her partner for get solution from this problem. From their conversation, the research

analyze that Anna’s society have a low respect to nature. They often avoid their responsibility to


The other evidence of Anna as a proactive character is when Anna and Jonas visit to meeting

place of environment group in the world. Anna feels that place will give her much knowledge to

help this condition and their plan to make the environmental group.

Anna and Jonas stayed, they walking hand in hand through the Oslo streets. They went to Frogner Park and Aker Brygge, then they visited the Ecology centre in Grensen, where

many of Norway’s environmental pressure groups were based. On the train home that night,

they made plans for their own group. Jonas had agreed to form one with her (16).

Their participation on this convention is the evidence that they are proactive of

environmental issues. The research finds that, although they are still young but they have a good

spirit to learn about everything of environment issues. Their passion to save the environment

delivers them to meet people that having same passion likes them.

B. Annas Plans to Save The Environment

This part will explain how Anna tries to save the environment. According to the discussion of

Anna’s characterization, it is uncovered that Annas plan to save the environment and the

condition of environment degradation in her society. Anna feels that her generation is the reason

of environment degradation. It can be seen in the following quotation: This balance had been

constant for many hundreds of thousands of years, and humans had no effect on this cycle. So

they were able to ignore it (14).

There is a correlation between human activity and environment degradation. Glotfelty said in

the Ecocriticism reader that, there is a connection between human and culture and the physical

world and that both effect to the other (Glotfelty and Fromm 19). Based on the relationship of

human and environment, the research will analyze Anna’s plan to save the environment but


deforestation, climate change and the dangers of animal and plant extinct to portrays as clear as

possible about Anna’s plan to save the environment.

1. The Signs of Environment Degradation

This part will explain about the signs of environment degradation based on the Gaarder’s

novel, The World According to Anna such as exploitation of oil, deforestation, climate change

and the danger of animal and plant extinct.

a. Exploitation of Oil

The first causes of environment degradation in The World According to Anna when

petroleum begin on exploitation to excess. As a vital resource, petroleum needled some elements

of her generations to exploit it brutally.

She read that Somalia was protesting against Kenya’s plans to drill for oil off Somalias

coast. According to the UN’s Convention on the Law of the Sea, many of the areas in

question belonged to Somalia. Four major oil companies were involved, among them Norwegian Statoil. But there was no news of the hostages, only an article which said no ransom demands had been made so far.

Based on quotation above, Oil as a vital resource being an object of the struggle for Kenya,

whereas a high exploitation has a negative effect especially illegal exploitation has bigger effect.

This condition happen because people or country in this novel thinks that they need more new

source to supply their country from oil but in fact, it causes of human characteristic who never

have self-satisfaction.

Besides, Anna feels many people suffer because of oil exploitation; it is visible when Anna

meets Arabian man who becomes a refuge of climate, because the sand has drowned his country.


The boy turns to her and says: My great-great-grandfather used to travel by camel. My great-grandfather drove a Mercedes and my grandfather flew across the world in a jumbo jet. But now we are back to camels. Oil was a disaster for my country. We became rich

overnight, but now we are poor. How can we be rich when we can no longer live in our


Gaarder describes the destruction of Arab because of incompetence in managing it. As a rich

country, Arab cannot guarantee as a prosperous country in fact because of the natural wealth this

country has gone. The research finds that it is happen because as a surplus country of oil, Arab

careless about this limited resource and do not try to find the alternative energy such as oil from

their benefit.

b. Deforestation

The novel also demonstrate exploitation nature by deforestation. It is one of the main causes

of climate change. Vander said that deforestation and forest degradation contribute to

atmospheric greenhouse gas emission through combustion of forest biomass and decomposition

of remaining plant material and soil carbon (Vander 737). This novel show deforestation

happens when corporation send out their people to cut down the tree, although there are only a

little tree in the forest. Richard said that exploitation of natural resources for economic growth

sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation (Richard

63). This context of deforestation is climax because there is only a few of trees. It makes some

effects such as climate imbalance, soil erosion, floods and global warming. Trees as a vital organ

release water vapor in the air, which is compromised on with the lack of trees and provide the

required shade that keeps the soil moist. This leads to the imbalance in the atmospheric of Anna’s

town. Eventhough Anna is trying to block the people.


Anna : Why

Foreman : They’re gong to build a wind farm here. And so the forest has to be cleared.

You win some, you lose some, young lady. That’s how the world works.

Anna : I think it’s a shame to lose the forest.

Foreman : But perhaps that’s not the point (65).

The incident above makes Anna guiltiest, because Anna as a part of her generation cannot

gives something of solution for next generation to save the environment such as, fresh air and

clean water. Based on above conversation, human do not really care about it, especially foreman,

because on their mind they think that profit is absolutly important than everything. This is

reasonabel because economy as a major focus affected all term of life and subjects, including

ecology. Those activities make felling down of trees. They lose their habitat and forced to move

to new location, some of them are even pushed to extinction. Anna’s town has lost so many trees

because of this activity.

c. Climate Change

This sub analysis, the research concerns on the effects of oil exploitation and deforestation.

Gaarder portrays some phenomena of climate change, one of them is when Anna and Dr

Benjamin discuss about climate change on the novel: Precisely. You know all this as well as I

does. If you eat more calories than your body needs every day, you will begin to put on weight. It

is the same with CO2 in atmosphere (47).”

The quotation above is an illustration the process of climate change by increasing of CO2.

Miles said that climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar

radiation received by earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions (Miles 130). Certain human

activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred


Anna observes that there is a rise in average surface temperatures on earth. It is just like as

Gaarder portrays the effect of climate change in quotation bellow:

She watches intently as the worlds population is decimated, as millions starve or perish

in natural disasters or in desperate wars for what is left. No censes has been taken since the

catastrophes began. But it is estimated that the world’s population is well under one billion


According from quotation above, the earth in Gaarder’s novel has been degradation in serious

condition. It is reminder Anna about obligation as a human that human has every reason to feel at

home in the universe. She explains that Man is perhaps the only living creature in the whole

universe that has a universal consciousness – a prodigious sense of this immense, mysterious

cosmos of which we are an essential part. So maintaining life on this planet is not only a global

responsibility: it is a cosmic responsibility.

To be sure, Lawrence Buell as the most prominent American environmental literary critics

said that Ecocriticism’s first wave, rooted in deep ecology, tended to see nature and human

beings as opposed to one another and held that the proper response of environmental criticism

should be to help protect the natural environment from depredations of human culture (21).

This research may not be scientist but by exploring this rich cultural and environmental

issues, Ecocriticism make vital contributions towards understanding how we as a civilization can

proceed in a responsible and ethical way in a time of severe ecological crisis.

d. The Danger of Animal and Plant Extinct

The radical effect of environmental degradation is the danger of animal and plant extinct.


By now Anna understood, and she no longer felt as though she was on an adventure. She had known that mice and lemmings survived winter in the mountains by hiding between bushes and scrub, under soft blankets of snow. But if there were no blankets of snow, the

mice and lemmings would not survive (6).”

The quotation above is an illustration that the earth has been unbalance. Anna believes some

environmental species require substantial areas to help provide food, living space and other

different assets. She recognizes that a more basic cause of environmental degradation is land

damage. In normal condition mice and lemmings can survived, but in these case they are dying

because of this climate change.

This condition continues with a sense of climate change when the entire planet is damage.

Where the world is going through crisis due to global warming that makes a millions of species

extinct. Another evidence of this phenomenon is following quotation bellow:

The terminal beeps and a picture appears on the screen. It is a small monkey with eyes

like saucers. Another primate is declared extinct. It had disappeared from the wild a long

time ago: the South American cotton-top tamarin’s eco-system had burned up and dried out.

The very last member of the species has died in captivity. It is sad. It is tragic (18).”

Garrard explain that we must take this formulation a step further: Ecocriticism must not only

expand our notion of ‘the world but also the social, the realization that the human animal is one

of many life forms engaged in process of nature and culture is the first step toward a post

humanist multiculturalism (234). The explanation above inspiring Anna to keep respect toward

every diversity in the world without discriminated them, even though they are a little animal such

as a bee.

However, the influence of individuals over environment should not be ignored. She realizes

if people do not confess that their planet are their home, they will never be able to take


international authorities as well as individuals. Every single person should take care of the


In the half story, Gaarder portrays red list. It is list of some animal and plant that have

emergency to become extinct, also he include a list some species in the novel. Gaarder is

drawing of the last surviving species of moa bird, hunted to extinction by the Moris at the turn of

the seventeenth century.“The moa and dodo had a lot in common. They were flightless birds with

no natural enemies until mankind came along. From then on, they were easy prey (49).”

There is a human’s role in above case, Anna recognize that most people in this world give

contributed to makes environment degradation. The greed of human is the main factor of this

damage, she realizes that every people have a greedy in their soul but it must be control when

they want to live in a nice pickle. The effect of activity above is so many victims of this damage

came from animal and plant.

The destruction of the Earth in The world according to Anna is not the end of everything.

There still a hope even though there is not much but at least we can increase self awareness to

respect for the nature. It is present when Anna using Lost Species application. by this application

she can see each species that became extinct at any time by Lost Species.“She installed the Lost

Species app a long time ago. Of course, she could unistall it at the press of a button. But she

considers it her duty to notice the earth’s species and habitats dying out (18).

Anna think that this application can awakens consciousness that should not have all of the

species extinct by despicable. Furthermore, she grumbling to the previous generation that is


2. Annas Plan

This part will explain the Anna’s plan based on the environment condition above. Anna as a

major character tries to save the environment depicted in the novel. Here some plans to save the


a. Making Environmentalist Group

The idea to make environmentalist group comes from Dr Benjamin. And this chapter will

explain some step of Anna who continues this idea; Dr Benjamin said that “Perhaps you and

Jonas should set up an environmental group in your village. That would be the best course of

action. As a psychiatrist I know it is not healthy to become consumed by your worries. So, if I

may give you a piece of advice it would be: go for it. Make something happen (15).”

Anna accepts this idea as environmental movement which recognizes of humanity as a

participant in ecosystem, the movement is centered on ecology, social, diverse scientific and

political movement for addressing environmental issues. She believes that environmental

movement will help to converse and restore natural ecosystem such as animal, plant and their

habitats for the benefit of humanity and the earth’s biological diversity.

At the beginning, Anna tries to find a concept: what modes of critique and action are

adequate to describe and respond to this moment when environmental knowledge circulates from

any political project of social change. Lousley said in Garrard book that first outline of

representational challenge that ecocriticism faces: not the representation of nature, but we make a


According to Garrard theory, Anna recognize that, there is a way of creating a more

harmonious relationship between humanity and the planet, she also recognize the virtues that do

anything for the benefit of the Earth and the Earth will do anything for us well being. That is why

she starts to divides some job description to Jonas. She knows that Jonas is famous on her school

society; it will be easiest to recruit some personal who wants to join this environmental group.

This is a political way to make an environmental group. Anna thinks that this group is innovative

not only because of its participation but also because of the mission as a platform for

conversation and collaboration beyond the annual convention.

Jonas would be in charge of recruitment. Anna had suggested this because Jonas was the

most popular boy at school, and he could sign up the girls without even trying. He laughs:

Jonas : But I did not realize it was a girl’s group.

Anna : No, of course not. But if you sign up the pretty girls, the cool boys will follow (16).

Jonas thinks for the moment, it is a great moment take an action before too late. He also want

to give evidence to Anna that he really support her mission, beside he know that it is a step in the

right direction. Anna and Jonas believe that making environmentalist group they can help protect

endangered species clean up pollution, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, etc. It is recognizing

that they live on a planet where everything, including them, is exquisitely interconnected with

and interdependent on everything else.

b. Making a Research

This part will explain Anna stages for find the solution of environment degradation. As a first

stage, Anna tries to research and read some books and articles who discuss about environmental

issues. Anna’s job will be to supply the information. That is why she is sitting at the table now,