Chapter 06 2006 Design of Work System

32 

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Teks penuh

(1)

CHAPTER 6:

DESIGN & REDESIGN

OF

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Exhibit 6-1 Exhibit 6-1

Model for Design of Work Systems

Model for Design of Work Systems

Exhibit 6-1

Exhibit 6-1

Model for Design of Work Systems

(3)

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Job SpecializationJob Specialization

Creates jobs with very narrow task (activity) assignmentsCreates jobs with very narrow task (activity) assignments

Resulted in high efficiency, quickly achieved job competency, low Resulted in high efficiency, quickly achieved job competency, low

training costs, but created monotonous jobs

training costs, but created monotonous jobs

Job EnlargementJob Enlargement

– An increase in task variety to relieve boredomAn increase in task variety to relieve boredom

Job RotationJob Rotation

– Employees moved across different specialized positionsEmployees moved across different specialized positions

– Enlargement and rotation add variety, but not necessarily responsibilityEnlargement and rotation add variety, but not necessarily responsibility

Job SpecializationJob Specialization

Creates jobs with very narrow task (activity) assignmentsCreates jobs with very narrow task (activity) assignments

Resulted in high efficiency, quickly achieved job competency, low Resulted in high efficiency, quickly achieved job competency, low

training costs, but created monotonous jobs

training costs, but created monotonous jobs • Job EnlargementJob Enlargement

– An increase in task variety to relieve boredomAn increase in task variety to relieve boredomJob RotationJob Rotation

– Employees moved across different specialized positionsEmployees moved across different specialized positions

(4)

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Design of Work Systems

Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment

– Increasing amount of responsibility for quality and productivity Increasing amount of responsibility for quality and productivity

that employees have for their own work

that employees have for their own work

Vertical LoadingVertical Loading

– Reassignment of job responsibility formerly delegated to Reassignment of job responsibility formerly delegated to

supervisor to the employee

supervisor to the employee

Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment

– Increasing amount of responsibility for quality and productivity Increasing amount of responsibility for quality and productivity that employees have for their own work

that employees have for their own work • Vertical LoadingVertical Loading

– Reassignment of job responsibility formerly delegated to Reassignment of job responsibility formerly delegated to supervisor to the employee

(5)

Five Core Job Characteristics

Five Core Job Characteristics

Five Core Job Characteristics

Five Core Job Characteristics

Skill varietySkill variety

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to use variety of skills

employee to use variety of skills

• Task identityTask identity

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to complete whole or

employee to complete whole or

identifiable piece of work

identifiable piece of work

• Task significanceTask significance

–Extent to which employee Extent to which employee

perceives that work is important

perceives that work is important

and meaningful to those inside or

and meaningful to those inside or

outside organization

outside organization

Skill varietySkill variety

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to use variety of skills

employee to use variety of skills • Task identityTask identity

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to complete whole or

employee to complete whole or

identifiable piece of work

identifiable piece of work • Task significanceTask significance

–Extent to which employee Extent to which employee

perceives that work is important

perceives that work is important

and meaningful to those inside or

and meaningful to those inside or

outside organization

outside organization

AutonomyAutonomy

–Extent to which employee is able Extent to which employee is able

to work and determine work

to work and determine work

procedure at own discretion

procedure at own discretion

• FeedbackFeedback

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to gain sense of how

employee to gain sense of how

well job responsibilities are met

well job responsibilities are met

AutonomyAutonomy

–Extent to which employee is able Extent to which employee is able

to work and determine work

to work and determine work

procedure at own discretion

procedure at own discretion • FeedbackFeedback

–Extent to which work allows Extent to which work allows

employee to gain sense of how

employee to gain sense of how

well job responsibilities are met

(6)

Exhibit 6-2 Exhibit 6-2

Job Characteristics Model

Job Characteristics Model

Exhibit 6-2

Exhibit 6-2

Job Characteristics Model

(7)

What Workers Need

What Workers Need

What Workers Need

What Workers Need

Changing demographics Changing demographics

& life styles

& life styles

– Worker needs vary by age, Worker needs vary by age,

gender, race, religion,

gender, race, religion,

physical abilities, sexual

physical abilities, sexual

orientation, and marital and

orientation, and marital and

family status

family status

Employee needs for work/Employee needs for work/

life balance

life balance

– Workers less committed to Workers less committed to organizations today

organizations today

– Also suffer from burnout and Also suffer from burnout and

lower performance

lower performance

Changing demographics Changing demographics

& life styles

& life styles

– Worker needs vary by age, Worker needs vary by age,

gender, race, religion,

gender, race, religion,

physical abilities, sexual

physical abilities, sexual

orientation, and marital and

orientation, and marital and

family status

family status

Employee needs for work/Employee needs for work/

life balance

life balance

– Workers less committed to Workers less committed to organizations today

organizations today

– Also suffer from burnout and Also suffer from burnout and

lower performance

lower performance

Employee needs Employee needs

representation (“voice”)

representation (“voice”)

– Workers want to be involved Workers want to be involved

in work-related issues, and

in work-related issues, and

expect organization to listen

expect organization to listen

to concerns

to concerns

Employee concerns about Employee concerns about

safety in workplace

safety in workplace

– Workers want safe, hazard-Workers want safe,

hazard-free working environment

free working environment

Employee needs Employee needs

representation (“voice”)

representation (“voice”) – Workers want to be involved Workers want to be involved

in work-related issues, and

in work-related issues, and

expect organization to listen

expect organization to listen

to concerns

to concerns

Employee concerns about Employee concerns about

safety in workplace

safety in workplace

– Workers want safe, hazard-Workers want safe,

hazard-free working environment

(8)

Types of Task Interdependence

Types of Task Interdependence

Types of Task Interdependence

Types of Task Interdependence

Pooled interdependencePooled interdependence

– Individual employees work Individual employees work

independently of each other in

independently of each other in

performing tasks but utilize

performing tasks but utilize

coordination of activities

coordination of activities

Sequential Sequential

interdependence

interdependence

– Work in process flow is linear, Work in process flow is linear, from one individual to another

from one individual to another – One individual depends on One individual depends on

timely completion of quality

timely completion of quality

work from another coworker

work from another coworker

Pooled interdependencePooled interdependence – Individual employees work Individual employees work

independently of each other in

independently of each other in

performing tasks but utilize

performing tasks but utilize

coordination of activities

coordination of activities • Sequential Sequential

interdependence

interdependence

– Work in process flow is linear, Work in process flow is linear, from one individual to another

from one individual to another – One individual depends on One individual depends on

timely completion of quality

timely completion of quality

work from another coworker

work from another coworker

Reciprocal Reciprocal

interdependence

interdependence

– Workflow is randomWorkflow is random – Responds to immediate Responds to immediate

situation

situation

– Employees have joint and Employees have joint and

shared responsibilities for

shared responsibilities for

work

work

Higher levels of Higher levels of

interdependence require

interdependence require

higher levels of

higher levels of

coordination and attention

coordination and attention

Reciprocal Reciprocal

interdependence

interdependence – Workflow is randomWorkflow is random – Responds to immediate Responds to immediate

situation

situation

– Employees have joint and Employees have joint and

shared responsibilities for

shared responsibilities for

work

work

Higher levels of Higher levels of

interdependence require

interdependence require

higher levels of

higher levels of

coordination and attention

(9)

Redesign of Work Systems

Redesign of Work Systems

Redesign of Work Systems

Redesign of Work Systems

Current and future work systems more broadly Current and future work systems more broadly defined, and more closely related to strategic defined, and more closely related to strategic

choices choices

Workers becoming more involved in design and Workers becoming more involved in design and reengineering of jobs

reengineering of jobs

Cross-function teams strategically beneficialCross-function teams strategically beneficial

– Also create challenges in effectively managing themselvesAlso create challenges in effectively managing themselves

Employees raised in individualistic cultures need Employees raised in individualistic cultures need training to be effective team members

training to be effective team members

Current and future work systems more broadly Current and future work systems more broadly defined, and more closely related to strategic defined, and more closely related to strategic

choices choices

Workers becoming more involved in design and Workers becoming more involved in design and reengineering of jobs

reengineering of jobs

Cross-function teams strategically beneficialCross-function teams strategically beneficial

– Also create challenges in effectively managing themselvesAlso create challenges in effectively managing themselvesEmployees raised in individualistic cultures need Employees raised in individualistic cultures need

(10)

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Involves contracting out some of organization’s Involves contracting out some of organization’s noncore work activities to outside specialists

noncore work activities to outside specialists

– Can do work more effectivelyCan do work more effectively

– Often for less than cost of doing work in-houseOften for less than cost of doing work in-house

Areas frequently outsourced:Areas frequently outsourced:

– PayrollPayroll – BenefitsBenefits

– Technological supportTechnological support

More than 75% of organizations outsource at least More than 75% of organizations outsource at least one HR function

one HR function

Involves contracting out some of organization’s Involves contracting out some of organization’s noncore work activities to outside specialists

noncore work activities to outside specialists – Can do work more effectivelyCan do work more effectively

– Often for less than cost of doing work in-houseOften for less than cost of doing work in-house • Areas frequently outsourced:Areas frequently outsourced:

– PayrollPayroll – BenefitsBenefits

– Technological supportTechnological support

More than 75% of organizations outsource at least More than 75% of organizations outsource at least one HR function

(11)

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Outsourcing

Can free up HR staff to focus on more

Can free up HR staff to focus on more

strategic issues

strategic issues

Considerations:

Considerations:

– Cost savingsCost savings

– Whether contractor can deliverWhether contractor can deliver – Compliance with lawsCompliance with laws

– Impacts on employees whose jobs might be lostImpacts on employees whose jobs might be lost – Impacts on morale of remaining employeesImpacts on morale of remaining employees

Can free up HR staff to focus on more

Can free up HR staff to focus on more

strategic issues

strategic issues

Considerations:

Considerations:

– Cost savingsCost savings

– Whether contractor can deliverWhether contractor can deliver – Compliance with lawsCompliance with laws

(12)

Offshoring

Offshoring

Offshoring

Offshoring

Involves exporting tasks and jobs to countries Involves exporting tasks and jobs to countries

where labor costs are significantly less than in the where labor costs are significantly less than in the

U.S. U.S.

• India remains largest marketIndia remains largest market

• Wages approximately 10% of those paid in U.S.Wages approximately 10% of those paid in U.S.

– Often considered good by local standardsOften considered good by local standards

Challenge of managing virtual global teamsChallenge of managing virtual global teamsNeed for tight organizational and operational Need for tight organizational and operational

control to ensure coordination and communication control to ensure coordination and communication • Involves exporting tasks and jobs to countries Involves exporting tasks and jobs to countries

where labor costs are significantly less than in the where labor costs are significantly less than in the

U.S. U.S.

• India remains largest marketIndia remains largest market

• Wages approximately 10% of those paid in U.S.Wages approximately 10% of those paid in U.S. – Often considered good by local standardsOften considered good by local standards

Challenge of managing virtual global teamsChallenge of managing virtual global teamsNeed for tight organizational and operational Need for tight organizational and operational

(13)

Offshoring

Offshoring

Offshoring

Offshoring

Advantages

Advantages

– Cost savingsCost savings

– Extend work day to Extend work day to

24 hours

24 hours

Advantages

Advantages

– Cost savingsCost savings

– Extend work day to Extend work day to

24 hours

24 hours

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

– Loss of domestic Loss of domestic

jobs

jobs

– Transfer of technical Transfer of technical

knowledge

knowledge

– Public image/loyalty Public image/loyalty

concerns

concerns

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

– Loss of domestic Loss of domestic

jobs

jobs

– Transfer of technical Transfer of technical

knowledge

knowledge

– Public image/loyalty Public image/loyalty

concerns

(14)

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers pursued for a variety of reasons:

Mergers pursued for a variety of reasons:

– Economies of scale in operationsEconomies of scale in operations – Consolidation in saturated marketsConsolidation in saturated markets

– Improving competitive position through larger asset Improving competitive position through larger asset

base

base

Two thirds of mergers fail

Two thirds of mergers fail

– Largely because of inability to merge cultural and Largely because of inability to merge cultural and

other human factors

other human factors

Mergers pursued for a variety of reasons:

Mergers pursued for a variety of reasons:

– Economies of scale in operationsEconomies of scale in operations

– Consolidation in saturated marketsConsolidation in saturated markets

– Improving competitive position through larger asset Improving competitive position through larger asset

base

base

Two thirds of mergers fail

Two thirds of mergers fail

– Largely because of inability to merge cultural and Largely because of inability to merge cultural and

other human factors

(15)

Barriers to Change

Barriers to Change

Barriers to Change

Barriers to Change

Disrupting status quo may be met with Disrupting status quo may be met with resistanceresistance by both employees and managers

by both employees and managers • Costs and reallocation of resourcesCosts and reallocation of resources

Employees will resist change unless theyEmployees will resist change unless they

– Perceive need to changePerceive need to change – See benefits from changeSee benefits from change

Risk and uncertainty; no guarantee of Risk and uncertainty; no guarantee of improvements

improvements

Poor coordination and communication can Poor coordination and communication can undermine change initiatives

undermine change initiatives

Disrupting status quo may be met with Disrupting status quo may be met with resistanceresistance by both employees and managers

by both employees and managers • Costs and reallocation of resourcesCosts and reallocation of resources

Employees will resist change unless theyEmployees will resist change unless they – Perceive need to changePerceive need to change

– See benefits from changeSee benefits from change

Risk and uncertainty; no guarantee of Risk and uncertainty; no guarantee of improvements

improvements

Poor coordination and communication can Poor coordination and communication can undermine change initiatives

(16)

To Overcome Resistance to Change

To Overcome Resistance to Change

To Overcome Resistance to Change

To Overcome Resistance to Change

Promote and implement change so it provides Promote and implement change so it provides benefits to those impacted

benefits to those impacted

Involve employees in change process to increase Involve employees in change process to increase their commitment to change

their commitment to change

Open, two-way communicationOpen, two-way communication

Early, before change decisions are made Early, before change decisions are made – Dispel rumorsDispel rumors

Increase trust and acceptance of change by keeping Increase trust and acceptance of change by keeping

employees informed and asking for input

employees informed and asking for input

Promote and implement change so it provides Promote and implement change so it provides benefits to those impacted

benefits to those impacted

Involve employees in change process to increase Involve employees in change process to increase their commitment to change

their commitment to change

Open, two-way communicationOpen, two-way communication

Early, before change decisions are made Early, before change decisions are made – Dispel rumorsDispel rumors

Increase trust and acceptance of change by keeping Increase trust and acceptance of change by keeping employees informed and asking for input

(17)

Reading 6.1 (Nahavandi & Aranda) Reading 6.1 (Nahavandi & Aranda)

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations Reading 6.1 (Nahavandi & Aranda)

Reading 6.1 (Nahavandi & Aranda)

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Reasons for using teams in organizations:

Reasons for using teams in organizations:

– Unlikely one individual will have all of the knowledge Unlikely one individual will have all of the knowledge

and information needed to make complex decisions

and information needed to make complex decisions – Teams provide more “buy-in” to decisionsTeams provide more “buy-in” to decisions

– Managers believe teams enhance motivation and Managers believe teams enhance motivation and

productivity

productivity

– Facilitate acquisition and sharing of information vital Facilitate acquisition and sharing of information vital

to organizational growth and flexibility

to organizational growth and flexibility

– Facilitate variety of internal quality control initiativesFacilitate variety of internal quality control initiatives

Reasons for using teams in organizations:

Reasons for using teams in organizations:

– Unlikely one individual will have all of the knowledge Unlikely one individual will have all of the knowledge

and information needed to make complex decisions

and information needed to make complex decisions – Teams provide more “buy-in” to decisionsTeams provide more “buy-in” to decisions

– Managers believe teams enhance motivation and Managers believe teams enhance motivation and

productivity

productivity

– Facilitate acquisition and sharing of information vital Facilitate acquisition and sharing of information vital

to organizational growth and flexibility

to organizational growth and flexibility

(18)

Reading 6.1 Reading 6.1

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations Reading 6.1

Reading 6.1

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Problems with teams

Problems with teams

– May fail without proper training and supportMay fail without proper training and support

– Often poorly integrated into organization’s hierarchyOften poorly integrated into organization’s hierarchy – Individuals often feel their team contributions dilute Individuals often feel their team contributions dilute

personal success

personal success

– Few teams have found effective means to deal with Few teams have found effective means to deal with

“freeloaders”

“freeloaders”

– Usually not represented at top levels of organizations, Usually not represented at top levels of organizations,

sending a mixed message about their importance

sending a mixed message about their importance

Problems with teams

Problems with teams

– May fail without proper training and supportMay fail without proper training and support

– Often poorly integrated into organization’s hierarchyOften poorly integrated into organization’s hierarchy – Individuals often feel their team contributions dilute Individuals often feel their team contributions dilute

personal success

personal success

– Few teams have found effective means to deal with Few teams have found effective means to deal with

“freeloaders”

“freeloaders”

– Usually not represented at top levels of organizations, Usually not represented at top levels of organizations,

sending a mixed message about their importance

(19)

Reading 6.1 Reading 6.1

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations Reading 6.1

Reading 6.1

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Restructuring Teams for Re-engineered Organizations

Three keys to successful teams

Three keys to successful teams

– Value and endorse dissentValue and endorse dissent

– Encourage fluidity of membershipEncourage fluidity of membership – Enable teams to make decisionsEnable teams to make decisions

Three keys to successful teams

Three keys to successful teams

– Value and endorse dissentValue and endorse dissent

(20)

Figure 1

Figure 1

Three Key Elements for Success of US Teams

Three Key Elements for Success of US Teams

Figure 1

Figure 1

Three Key Elements for Success of US Teams

(21)

Figure 2 Figure 2

Team Development Model

Team Development Model

Figure 2

Figure 2

Team Development Model

(22)

Supplement to Reading 6.1 (Werner & Lester, 2001) Supplement to Reading 6.1 (Werner & Lester, 2001)

Research on Student Case Teams

Research on Student Case Teams Supplement to Reading 6.1 (Werner & Lester, 2001)

Supplement to Reading 6.1 (Werner & Lester, 2001)

Research on Student Case Teams

Research on Student Case Teams

What predicts the performance of student teams?

What predicts the performance of student teams?

SatisfactionSatisfaction GradeGrade

Team structureTeam structure positive positive strong positive strong positiveTeam spiritTeam spirit strong positive strong positive strong positive strong positiveSocial supportSocial support strong positive strong positive negative negative

Workload sharingWorkload sharing positive positive not significant not significantCommunicationCommunication not significant not significant not significant not significant

What predicts the performance of student teams?

What predicts the performance of student teams?

SatisfactionSatisfaction GradeGrade

Team structureTeam structure positive positive strong positive strong positiveTeam spiritTeam spirit strong positive strong positive strong positive strong positiveSocial supportSocial support strong positive strong positive negative negative

(23)

Reading 6.2 (Greer et al.)

Reading 6.2 (Greer et al.)

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2 (Greer et al.)

Reading 6.2 (Greer et al.)

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Five competitive forces driving

Five competitive forces driving

organizations to outsource HR activities:

organizations to outsource HR activities:

– DownsizingDownsizing

– Rapid growth or declineRapid growth or decline – GlobalizationGlobalization

– Increased competitionIncreased competition – RestructuringRestructuring

Five competitive forces driving

Five competitive forces driving

organizations to outsource HR activities:

organizations to outsource HR activities:

– DownsizingDownsizing

– Rapid growth or declineRapid growth or decline – GlobalizationGlobalization

(24)

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Operational rationales for outsourcing

Operational rationales for outsourcing

– Small firms lack resources; large firms gain Small firms lack resources; large firms gain

economies of scale

economies of scale

– Specialized HR expertise and objectivitySpecialized HR expertise and objectivity

• Reduced liability and risk in legally sensitive HR Reduced liability and risk in legally sensitive HR

areas

areas

– Innovations and economies of scale in HRIS Innovations and economies of scale in HRIS

technology used by outside vendors

technology used by outside vendors • Simplify transactions Simplify transactions

Operational rationales for outsourcing

Operational rationales for outsourcing

– Small firms lack resources; large firms gain Small firms lack resources; large firms gain

economies of scale

economies of scale

– Specialized HR expertise and objectivitySpecialized HR expertise and objectivity

• Reduced liability and risk in legally sensitive HR Reduced liability and risk in legally sensitive HR

areas

areas

– Innovations and economies of scale in HRIS Innovations and economies of scale in HRIS

technology used by outside vendors

technology used by outside vendors

(25)

Reading 6.2 Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Operational rationales for outsourcing

Operational rationales for outsourcing

(continued):

(continued):

– Time-sensitive issues better handled by outsourcingTime-sensitive issues better handled by outsourcing – Temporary or cyclical increases in HR needsTemporary or cyclical increases in HR needs

– Efficient vendor management practices drive costs Efficient vendor management practices drive costs

down more than economies of scale

down more than economies of scale

– Specialized vendors offer activities as their core Specialized vendors offer activities as their core

business and strategic focus

business and strategic focus

Operational rationales for outsourcing

Operational rationales for outsourcing

(continued):

(continued):

– Time-sensitive issues better handled by outsourcingTime-sensitive issues better handled by outsourcing – Temporary or cyclical increases in HR needsTemporary or cyclical increases in HR needs

– Efficient vendor management practices drive costs Efficient vendor management practices drive costs

down more than economies of scale

down more than economies of scale

– Specialized vendors offer activities as their core Specialized vendors offer activities as their core

business and strategic focus

(26)

Reading 6.2 Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Strategic rationales for outsourcing:

Strategic rationales for outsourcing:

– Outsourcing nonstrategic activities permits HR to Outsourcing nonstrategic activities permits HR to

move away from administration toward strategic role

move away from administration toward strategic role – Decentralization of HR function through Decentralization of HR function through

redeployment of some of assets to operating units

redeployment of some of assets to operating units – Develop less bureaucratic HR departmentsDevelop less bureaucratic HR departments

– Downsizing may require HR to reduce staff, Downsizing may require HR to reduce staff,

eliminating specialized in-house expertise

eliminating specialized in-house expertise

– Outsourcing provides “big picture” perspectiveOutsourcing provides “big picture” perspective

Strategic rationales for outsourcing:

Strategic rationales for outsourcing:

– Outsourcing nonstrategic activities permits HR to Outsourcing nonstrategic activities permits HR to

move away from administration toward strategic role

move away from administration toward strategic role – Decentralization of HR function through Decentralization of HR function through

redeployment of some of assets to operating units

redeployment of some of assets to operating units – Develop less bureaucratic HR departmentsDevelop less bureaucratic HR departments

– Downsizing may require HR to reduce staff, Downsizing may require HR to reduce staff,

eliminating specialized in-house expertise

eliminating specialized in-house expertise

(27)

Reading 6.2 Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Positive outcomes

Positive outcomes

– Lower HR costsLower HR costs

– Higher service qualityHigher service quality

– Realignment or redeployment of internal HR Realignment or redeployment of internal HR

expertise

expertise

– Development of negotiation and broker skillsDevelopment of negotiation and broker skills – Enhanced credibility of HR functionEnhanced credibility of HR function

– Risk and uncertainty absorption by HR vendorRisk and uncertainty absorption by HR vendor

Positive outcomes

Positive outcomes

– Lower HR costsLower HR costs

– Higher service qualityHigher service quality

– Realignment or redeployment of internal HR Realignment or redeployment of internal HR

expertise

expertise

– Development of negotiation and broker skillsDevelopment of negotiation and broker skills – Enhanced credibility of HR functionEnhanced credibility of HR function

(28)

Reading 6.2 Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Reading 6.2

Reading 6.2

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

HRM Outsourcing: Make or Buy Decision

Negative outcomes

Negative outcomes

Significant cost savings not always

Significant cost savings not always

experienced

experienced

Vendor switching costs

Vendor switching costs

Long-term vendor contracts

Long-term vendor contracts

Disruption of firm’s culture

Disruption of firm’s culture

Removal or distancing of HR function from

Removal or distancing of HR function from

employees

employees

Negative outcomes

Negative outcomes

Significant cost savings not always

Significant cost savings not always

experienced

experienced

Vendor switching costs

Vendor switching costs

Long-term vendor contracts

Long-term vendor contracts

Disruption of firm’s culture

Disruption of firm’s culture

Removal or distancing of HR function from

Removal or distancing of HR function from

employees

(29)

Reading 6.3 (Evangelista & Burke) Reading 6.3 (Evangelista & Burke)

Productivity in Downsizing

Productivity in Downsizing

Reading 6.3 (Evangelista & Burke)

Reading 6.3 (Evangelista & Burke)

Productivity in Downsizing

Productivity in Downsizing

Many downsizing firms face immediate

Many downsizing firms face immediate

challenge of keeping operations going with

challenge of keeping operations going with

minimal staff

minimal staff

Productivity often declines

Productivity often declines

Survivors

Survivors

– Working more hours Working more hours

– Receive with bigger workloadReceive with bigger workload

Morale often plummets

Morale often plummets

Many downsizing firms face immediate

Many downsizing firms face immediate

challenge of keeping operations going with

challenge of keeping operations going with

minimal staff

minimal staff

Productivity often declines

Productivity often declines

Survivors

Survivors

– Working more hours Working more hours

(30)

Reading 6.3 Reading 6.3

Work Redesign

Work Redesign

Reading 6.3

Reading 6.3

Work Redesign

Work Redesign

Typical problems

Typical problems

Failure or inability to identify and categorize

Failure or inability to identify and categorize

duties and assignments

duties and assignments

Failure to identify when employee is over-

Failure to identify when employee is

over-tasked

tasked

Failure to see when business unit’s demands

Failure to see when business unit’s demands

exceed its capacity

exceed its capacity

Typical problems

Typical problems

Failure or inability to identify and categorize

Failure or inability to identify and categorize

duties and assignments

duties and assignments

Failure to identify when employee is over-

Failure to identify when employee is

over-tasked

tasked

Failure to see when business unit’s demands

Failure to see when business unit’s demands

exceed its capacity

(31)

Reading 6.3 Reading 6.3

Work Redesign: Task Categories

Work Redesign: Task Categories

Reading 6.3

Reading 6.3

Work Redesign: Task Categories

Work Redesign: Task Categories

Critical tasks Critical tasks

– Enable company to Enable company to

accomplish primary

accomplish primary

objectives

objectives

• Sub-critical tasks Sub-critical tasks

– Need to be Need to be

performed, but

performed, but

average standard of

average standard of

quality will suffice

quality will suffice

Critical tasks Critical tasks

– Enable company to Enable company to

accomplish primary

accomplish primary

objectives

objectives

• Sub-critical tasks Sub-critical tasks – Need to be Need to be

performed, but

performed, but

average standard of

average standard of

quality will suffice

quality will suffice

Minor tasks Minor tasks

– Add value to firm, but Add value to firm, but

will not hinder

will not hinder

operations or goals if

operations or goals if

left undone

left undone

Unnecessary tasks Unnecessary tasks

– Can be discarded Can be discarded

because they drain

because they drain

resources

resources

Minor tasks Minor tasks

– Add value to firm, but Add value to firm, but

will not hinder

will not hinder

operations or goals if

operations or goals if

left undone

left undone

Unnecessary tasks Unnecessary tasks – Can be discarded Can be discarded

because they drain

because they drain

resources

(32)

Reading 6.3 Reading 6.3

Work Redesign

Work Redesign

Reading 6.3

Reading 6.3

Work Redesign

Work Redesign

Output from work categorization process

Output from work categorization process

must be shared with all employees, so they

must be shared with all employees, so they

have list of tasks for which they are

have list of tasks for which they are

accountable

accountable

These tasks are used to drive performance

These tasks are used to drive performance

management process

management process

Output from work categorization process

Output from work categorization process

must be shared with all employees, so they

must be shared with all employees, so they

have list of tasks for which they are

have list of tasks for which they are

accountable

accountable

These tasks are used to drive performance

These tasks are used to drive performance

management process

Figur

Figure 1Figure 1Three Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US Teams

Figure 1Three.

Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US TeamsThree Key Elements for Success of US Teams. View in document p.20
Figure 2Figure 2Figure 2Figure 2Team Development Model

Figure 2.

Figure 2Figure 2Team Development Model. View in document p.21

Referensi

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