Urbanization & Globalization
the Challenge for Housing Provision
Urban Laboratory at Graduate Program in Urban Planning – Tarumanagara University
Strategic Questions on Existing Urban Challenges
The first strategic question
is how to develop our cities
to be able to provide increasing of urban population,
worldwide included Indonesia, with appropriate living
The second strategic question
is how to make our cities
able to anticipate the unstopable process of
The third and specific question
is now more focus on
Anticipating the Urbanization (especially for developing countries) in the era of Globalization
The Structural Change of Spatial Order
> firstly on level between cities in the same country, > secondly on the relation of the city to its hinterland, > and thirdly on the internal structure of a city.
How these transformations are influencing the prozess of Urbanization
The impacts on our capability to anticipate the urbanization ie. to develop the appropriate urban area.
Increasing of Urban-Land Coverage Area
Year 2000 2010 2025 2050
• Urban Population 87,7 jt 120jt 170jt 227,7jt
• INCOME/GNP 100% 210% 441% 809%
• Urban Land coverage(sqkm)
• Increasing based on Pop. (sqkm) 6800 13.550 23.800
• Increasing bas GNP 6800 15.300 24.480
• Total Urban Land Covery (sqkm) 17.000 30.600 45.850 65.280
Second Strategic Question:
How to anticipate “the Spatial Fix“
• Standarization the technical and legal system
• Integration to the worldwide operation system of capital accumulation.
• The organization of Production and Reproduction system The impact:
A total restructuring of existing city is devided
the urban population in two groups, the first is
successfull integrated to the global system and
the second is marginalized or vulnerable to be
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• A south-african scholar Mark “ illing underlines that in the ne
developed countries and in what we call as global south in the next 30 years the urban area will increase from 200.000 to 600.000 Sqkm .
• Even if the countries have the technology, they will have problems to get the amount of materials needed, to construct the 400.000 Sqkm within 30 years, because the same materials are needed to execute the process of globalization.
• The other challenge is surely how to organize and to distribute the
resources to those peoples, who want to build their houses, exactly to those places where there are needed. For the time being the global south has not the organizational capabilities to meet those challenges.
City as Human Habitat
• If our cities in Indonesian in the next 35 years are not able to provide the additional 1,20 Mio.hectars housing area, then the rest has to
look for another alternative, and significant part of them will living in poor housing areas, included in illegal squatters and extrem dense living areas.
• If we are not able to provide housing for the big majority of these peoples, is that mean that we are facing the end of the function of the city as a human settlement? And this will be in the same time
the end of the function of the city as a social institution.
The big problem: How to provide Housing Land?
• The pressure of Globalization will drive the price urban land high.
• If the only criteria who can have the land in the city is who can pay the highest price, and the price of land is increasing much faster than the average income,
The dominating private sector control more than 30.000 ha housingland but between 1985 to 2010 these new towns are able to provide housing only for 800.000 person. In the same time the population of Greater Jakarta was increasing from 12 to 25 Mio.
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• Can we upgrade the efficiency of existing housing production through increasing its competitiveness?
• Can we overcome the distortions on housing market, i.e. reducing
• Can we improve the housing management system and extend the life
cycle of housing?
• Or should we develop alternatif housing delivery system which is not depending from housing market system?
Alternative Housing Delivery Systems
1.Development Planning Unit as basis to provide mixed-use housing projects.
2.City as community has to provide housing land and built rental housing units.
3.Developing Housing as integrated part of industrial estate. 4.Set up non-profit housing development corporation
5. Establish indipendent housing finance institutions with different scheme for different kind of delivery system.
6. etc, etc.