Kotler14_basic.ppt 148KB Aug 31 2008 08:53:44 PM

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Teks penuh

(1)

MARKETING MANAGEMENT

12th edition

14

Developing Pricing

Strategies and

Programs

(2)

14-2

Chapter Questions

 How do consumers process and evaluate prices?

 How should a company set prices initially for

products or services?

 How should a company adapt prices to meet

varying circumstances and opportunities?

 When should a company initiate a price change?

 How should a company respond to a competitor’s

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14-3

Synonyms for Price

 Rent

 Tuition

 Fee

 Fare

 Rate

 Toll

 Premium

 Honorarium

 Special assessment

 Bribe

 Dues

 Salary

 Commission

 Wage

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14-4

Common Pricing Mistakes

 Determine costs and take traditional industry

margins

 Failure to revise price to capitalize on market

changes

 Setting price independently of the rest of the

marketing mix

 Failure to vary price by product item, market

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14-5

Consumer Psychology and Pricing

 Reference prices

 Price-quality inferences

 Price endings

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14-6

Table 14.1 Possible Consumer Reference Prices

 “Fair price”

 Typical price

 Last price paid

 Upper-bound price

 Lower-bound price

 Competitor prices

 Expected future price

 Usual discounted

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14-7

Table 14.2 Consumer Perceptions vs. Reality for Cars

Overvalued Brands

 Land Rover

 Kia

 Volkswagen

 Volvo

 Mercedes

Undervalued Brands

 Mercury

 Infiniti

 Buick

 Lincoln

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14-8

Price Cues

 “Left to right” pricing ($299 versus $300)

 Odd number discount perceptions

 Even number value perceptions

 Ending prices with 0 or 5

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14-9

When to Use Price Cues

 Customers purchase item infrequently

 Customers are new

 Product designs vary over time

 Prices vary seasonally

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14-10

Steps in Setting Price

 Select the price objective

 Determine demand

 Estimate costs

 Analyze competitor price mix

 Select pricing method

(11)

14-11

Step 1: Selecting the Pricing Objective

 Survival

 Maximum current profit

 Maximum market share

 Maximum market skimming

(12)

14-12

Step 2: Determining Demand

 Price sensitivity

 Estimating demand curves

(13)

14-13

Step 3: Estimating Costs

 Types of Costs

 Accumulated Production

 Activity-Based Cost Accounting

(14)

14-14

Cost Terms and Production

 Fixed costs

 Variable costs

 Total costs

 Average cost

(15)

14-15

Step 5: Selecting a Pricing Method

 Markup pricing

 Target-return pricing

 Perceived-value pricing

 Value pricing

 Going-rate pricing

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14-16

Auction-Type Pricing

 English auctions

 Dutch auctions

(17)

14-17

Step 6: Selecting the Final Price

 Impact of other marketing activities

 Company pricing policies

 Gain-and-risk sharing pricing

(18)

14-18

Price-Adaptation Strategies

 Geographical pricing

 Discounts/allowances

 Promotional pricing

(19)

14-19

Price-Adaptation Strategies

Countertrade

 Barter

 Compensation deal

 Buyback arrangement

 Offset

Discounts/ Allowances

 Cash discount

 Quantity discount

 Functional discount

 Seasonal discount

(20)

14-20

Promotional Pricing Tactics

 Loss-leader pricing

 Special-event pricing

 Cash rebates

 Low-interest financing

 Longer payment terms

 Warranties and service contracts

(21)

14-21

Differentiated Pricing and Price Discrimination

 Customer-segment pricing

 Product-form pricing

 Image pricing

 Channel pricing

 Location pricing

 Time pricing

(22)

14-22

Increasing Prices

 Delayed quotation pricing

 Escalator clauses

 Unbundling

(23)

14-23

Brand Leader Responses to Competitive Price Cuts

 Maintain price

 Maintain price and add value

 Reduce price

 Increase price and improve quality

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