The Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society Through the Character and the Plot in Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

73 

Teks penuh

(1)

The Representation of

Chicano’s

Life and Society Through the Character and

the Plot in Luis Valdez’s

Los Vendidos

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fullfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

by

Yoga Adi Nugraha

Student Number: 084214065

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)

1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.Background of the Study

Literature is a result from human experience which is poured into written thing.

Literature usually written into book, novels, play, or many kinds of text. Literature is usually

written as a representation of the writer‟s experiences. The experience that the writer writes in

the work of literature is a part of his/her history in life. From the statement above, we can

conclude that literature and history can not be separated because they have connection each

other.

America is a big country which has many kinds of race, they are spread in many

places. They come from different place. They come to the place that they called “Dreamland”.

The races are consist of White American, Eskimo, Native American (Indian), Chinesse,

Hispanic, etc. In America, racism and colonialism are usual cases. White people are considered

the highest caste, and another races are considered lowest caste. The race that the writer wants to

share and show is Hispanic races. The Hispanic races here means the Mexican American.

Mexican American live in the South part of America, Mexico, Texas, etc. They usually called as

Chicano.

Here, the writer wants to analyze about the life of Mexican American from the

beginning until the end . The writer used Los Vendidos to show this issues. Los Vendidos which

is written in chronological sequences are helpful to know more about the life of Mexican

(14)

First of all, the way of Mexican American could migrate to the United States have a

long process. As stated in this quotation

The Mexican government initially promoted American settlement in parts of the territory now known as Texas in the 1820s to bolster the regional economy . As the proportion of North American settlers in these lands multiplied , however they began to request greater local autonomy , feared the possibility that Mexico might outlaw slavery and resented the imposition of taxes from the government in Mexico City. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2)

From the quotation above, we can see that the Mexican American were offered to to

move to the other country from the government. Although they are offered, the government does

not give them the guarantee that they can live in good condition.

After the process, the connection between Mexico and America strained. United States and Mexico had war. It occurred during 1830-1840. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2)

After the process the process of immigration, United States and Mexico strained,

because the Mexican American wants to get the same rights to the white American.

Finally after the end of the war, the treaty of Guadeloupe and Hidalgo,and Gadsden treaty were signed, many Mexican American can live in the areas. The areas are called New Mexico and California. There are almost 80000 people migrated there. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2)

In the end of war, the United States and Mexico signed on the both treaties that

Mexican American can live in the areas. They signed the treaty that makes both of their people to

live in the same areas. They try to live together in the same areas.

After the migration, Mexican American did not live in an easy way. They faced many

obstacles. They faced many White American who did not like them. The racial discrimination,

economic issues, criminal issues are the obstacles that the Chicano‟s must face in the early

(15)

There, American people using many ways to classify many kinds of race. There are

many races which are considered as lowest caste there. One of them is Mexican American which

can be called as Chicano. In Los Vendidos, they use stereotyping to make a struggle to be free

and have the same rights with white people/ white American person itself. Stereotypes are far too

familiar to American culture. There are so many products which use this as a “building of their

existence”.

In general, Chicano / Chicana are American people which are lived near Mexico.

That‟s why they are called Mexican American. They lived in poor condition, it is different from

another American people which have better life. Not only in their life, but also in races they are

considered as low caste of American people. They are considered as different races with White

People in general, although they are also the part of American people as well.

Chicana/ Chicano is a Mexican-American people who struggle to get an

achievement like American. Chicana/ Chicano was represented as stupid, poor. It is different

from another person in America. American person/white people was represented as the

“highest” caste of people. Here in Los Vendidos, the movement of Chicana/ Chicano is

represented. The representation is drawn in the character of role models and also the seller,

Honest Sancho . The topic is suitable to study because it helps us to know about the chicano‟s

struggle and life during or after the colonization of white people. The characterization in this

play is interesting to analyze. The topic in this play challenges us to learn more about the struggle

of Chicana/Chicano’s movement to get a better life. The background of the writer is one of the

reason which make the play more interesting to analyze. Analyzing and studying this play also

made us to know about the struggle of Chicano/ Chicana „s movement to end a racism era. The

(16)

the racism era in America especially in California which is near with Mexico, a country which

the people are usually called as Chicano/Chicana.

At that time, Chicano lived in the area near Mexico, like in Texas, California,etc.

They lived in a poor condition and also people especially the real American person/ white

people, underestimated them as the lowest race in their area.

And their condition was stated by a person who really know their condition like in

this statement below. The condition at that time was fully related to stereotype.

Stereotypes are far too familiar to American popular culture today. Everyday it is misconstrued stereotypes of Chicanos while covertly ridiculing Americans which in turn successfully brings about conversation and critical thinking of these stereotypes and inspires viewers the opportunity to change their preconceived notions of Chicanos.(Mcfadden,2013:1)

At this play, Valdez wants to show us about the Mexican American‟s struggle to be

free from civilization. Valdez who lives at that place feels about what they are feeling. He told us

from the beginning till the end the way of the Chicano is drawn. From one of the writer

comments,

Valdez‟s Los Vendidos is a play that full of critics from the low caste people in this case is Mexican American to the Higher Caste (white people) in order to get a better life. (Mcfadden,2013:1)

This play is interesting to analyze and disscuss because this play shows us about

the struggle of Chicano‟s movement at that time. Many aspects can challenge us to analyze this

(17)

many analisis with the characters and the plot. Beside that, the work of literature itself has a

meaning and purpose when it is written at that tine.

From the statements above we can conclude that Los Vendidos is a play that is full of

controversy, it tells us about the struggle of Chicano to get better life, and the satire from

Chicano about their life who are fully not in a good condition. We can see it from the characters

that they must do some acts to make sure the secretary as a representation of white people

believe them as the best “model” that the white people/ American needs.

The writer wants to analyze this isues because the characters in this play are

represented the life of Mexican American. The characters gives some representation as Mexican

American. From their characterization, we can see the life that they faces in their first life in

America.

Besides analyzing the characters, the writer wants to analyze the plot structure to

make a conclusion about the life of Mexican American. The plot structure is an intrinsic element

which is helpful to analyze the work of literature. The plot structure in this play is also helpful to

analyze about the life of Mexican American. Every step in this play, represent the stages of life

of Mexican American. From the beginning until the end of early life in America.

B. Problem Formulation

After reading the Luis Valdez‟s Los Vendidos , The Writer has found some problems

to analyze. The problems are :

1. How are the characters characterized?

2. How is the plot of Los Vendidos?

(18)

C.Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are divided into two parts. The first one is to analyze the

characters which are represented as a Mexican American people. As we know, Chicano or

Mexican American person are “invaded” by white people or the writer means here are American

person. Chicano/ Mexican American are represented as people who are low “caste”. At Los

Vendidos, Chicano are also represented a cruel, poor, stupid people. So in this thesis, the writer

wants to find out how are the real characters of Mexican American persons who usually called

Chicana / Chicano. The Characters in that play showed us about the life of Mexican American

which are so sad, full of cruelty. In Los Vendidos, Mexican American are also characterized as

cruel person (Johny Pachuco), A slave (Farmworker), Strugler (Revolucionario). But The

Honest Sancho hold an important thing in that play, he is drawn as a real “human”, but actually

he is a model/ doll. It is represented that Mexican American people also clever to make sure that

they are the same with white people in America.

The second one is to find out how the plot structure makes a big influence in that

play. The plot is an instrument to make us know about the play itself. The plot which is started

from the first until the end help us to know about the Chicano’s life and the society itself. The

plot structure makes us know about Luis Valdez‟s way of thinking about the Chicano‟s

movement in that area. The writer know that plot structure is one of the most important intrinsic

elements in a play/story, because without plot structure we can not know the way of the story

shown. Plot structure have an important place in the story/play, because the plot structure is not

only to know about the story but also how can the story walk into the climax and resolution, it

(19)

The third one is to combine both of the analysis of the character and the plot structure

to analyze that this play is a representation of Chicano‟s life and society. Combining both of the

analysis above, we can clearly see that this play shows us about the life of the Chicano at that

era. Beside that, we can also see the stages of life of the Chicano.

D.Definition of terms

1. Chicano

A Chicano is an individual (usually with a Spanish surname) of Mexican parentage or

ancestry who lives in the United States. Chicano is often used synonymously with

Mexican-American, although many Chicanos presently make an ideological distinction between the two

terms. (Sinmandera, 2004:1)

2. Plot

Plot is a plan or groundwork for a story, based in conflicting human motivations,

with the action resulting from believeable and realistic human response. In well plotted story,

nothing is irrelevant; everything is related. Plot/ time is important not simply because one thing

happens after another but because one thing happens because of another. (Roberts,1989:87).

3. Representation

Representationis defined as the act of placing or stating facts in order to influence or

affect the action of others (Ann Marie Baldonado,1996)

4. Character

(20)

8

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

A. Review of Related Studies

Los Vendidos is a work that tells us about the life of the

Mexican-American persons. The Mexican-Mexican-American person that usually called Chicano or

Chicana at that moment is struggling to get a recognition that they are also a really

American person. As we know that Chicano lives in a bad condition.

Valdez's performances of anomalous realities allow for an alternate space of expression where classifications can be challenged in terms not

contaminated by dominant ideologies.(Aztlan journal:1970)”

From the quotation we can see that The Honest Sancho was really

represented as a Mexican-American person who do honestly in his own way

representation at the character’s good.

Los Vendidos also makes us to know about the mindset of western people

characterize something as a “character” or stereotype.

Stereotypes are far too familiar to American popular culture today. Everyday it is almost a guarantee to see some stereotypes whether it is on television, on the movie screen or upon everyday products. Every minority has stereotypes built around their existence. In this play Valdez

enhances and gives

emphasis to the stereotypes in order to make them unmistakable. His

work has

been revolutionary in the fact that they inspire change in the views people

have of

(21)

the

misconstrued stereotypes of Chicanos while covertly ridiculing

Americans which

in turn successfully brings about conversation and critical thinking of these

stereotypes and inspires viewers the opportunity to change their preconceived

notions of Chicanos.(Mcfadden: 2011)

Western people usually use stereotyping a man to make a struggle to get a

“better life”. That is a kind of satire to make a struggle. From the studies above we can conclude that stereotyping is one way to make a struggle. For this case, it is

occurred in Chicano/ Mexican American people.

In Los Vendidos, one of many stereotypes concerning Chicanos occurs when Honest Sancho is trying to sell one of the Mexican models to a customer. He uses satire to convey humor , in describing the economic features of the farm worker model. The interaction between the salesman and the customer consisted of the following statement, in regards to the

farm worker. “one plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day” (Vendidos 70) . The stereotypes refer to the traditional foods of

Chicanos and their traditional work ethic. (www.helium.com/items/229121-critique -luis-valdez-los-vendidos-susan-glaspells-trifles-comparison)

The quotation above show us about the most important issue in Los

Vendidos is about stereotypes. Chicanos/ Mexican Americans are considered as low

class people. They are considered as poor and uneducated people. From the word

beans and tortillas, it represents that the Mexican American can be paid in low cost

and besides that, beans and tortillas are their traditional foods in Mexico.

In short, this research will describe the life of Mexican American. Their

(22)

discrimination condition. And also the goals of this research is to know about the life

and condition of the Chicanos.

B. Review of Related Theories

To answer the problems stated obviously, some theories are needed to

support the analysis. There are two theories that the writer used. The theories are:

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

2. Theory of plot

a. Theory of Character and Characterization

The problems asked how the main character and the another characters

are drawn. The character is not only in physically condition but also in

psychologically condition. It is also told,

“When you study character, be sure to consider physical descriptions, but

also be sure to relate the physical to the mental/ psychological.” (

Roberts,1989:144)

In Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos we can also find a character that is not

express no attitude except those to be expected. It is called stereotype, because they

(23)

In Understanding Unseen: An Introduction of English Poetry and the

English Novel for Overseas Student, Murphy (Murphy, 1972:161-173) explained nine

ways of how the author presents the characters:

i. Personal description.

The author can describe a person’s appearance like skin, color, eyes, and

hair, clothes, etc. Personal description is used in many literary works by many

authors; it is the easiest way to tell directly to the readers the clues to a character with

certain feature.

ii. Character as seen by another.

Instead of describing a character directly the author can describe him

through the eyes and opinions of another. The readers get the clue of a character’s

personality or attitude through the other character’s explanation or opinion about that character.

iii. Speech.

The author can give us an insight into the character of one of the person

in the book through what that person says. For example, whenever a person speaks,

whenever he is in conversation with another, whenever he puts forward an opinion,

he is giving some clues to his character. It means that the readers will get some clues

about a character through the character’s own words.

iv. Past life.

By letting the character learn something about a person’s past life, the

(24)

This can be done by direct comment by the author, through the person’s thoughts,

through his conversation or through the medium of another person.

v. Conversation of others.

The author can also gives us clues to a person's character through the

conversation of other people and the things they say about him. People do talk about

other people and the things they say often give us a clue to the character of the person

spoken about.

vi. Reactions.

The author can also gives us a clue to a person’s character by le ting us

know how that person reacts to various situations and events.

vii. Direct comment.

The author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly. By using direct comments, the author gives the opinion about the character. This is one

of the most common ways that the most writer use.

viii. Thoughts.

The author can give us direct knowledge of what the person is thinking

about. In this respect he is able to do what we cannot do in real life. He can tell us

what different people are thinking.

ix. Mannerism.

(25)

whether positive or negative which tell us something about the reflection of his

personality (1972: 161-173).

b. Theory of Plot

The picture of the plot diagram which is fit to the Los Vendidos like the

diagram below. This plot diagram draws from one process into another process. We

can see that the plot diagram below draws the condition in Los Vendidos.

(http://cavemanenglish.blogspot.com/2011/08/plot-map-diagrams.html)

The plot diagram above is fit to the Los Vendidos because there is step by

step process in that plot diagram.

The plot in this play also has a important rules. The plot helps us to know

the way of the story . There is also a statement that said “ without a plot, we don’t have a story or drama”.

The other important thing is conflict in plot. Without conflict, plot can’t

be raised. The reason that the conflict is the major ingredient in a plot is that once two

(26)

“Formal categories of structure is divided into 5 parts. They are Exposition, Complication, Crisis, Climax, Resolution. “(Roberts,1989:102)

Beside that, Stanton (1965) said that plot is the story which has an order

event, but every event are only connected reciprocally. Plot is something, which is

higher and more complex than a story.

Narrative tradition calls for developing stories with particular pieces plot elements in place. Exposition is the information needed to understand a story. The introductory material which gives the setting creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understand the story. Complication is the catalyst that begins the major co.nflict the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts that we encounter can

usually be identified as one four kinds. (Man versus……Man,Nature,

Society, or Self. Climax becomes the turning point in the story that occurs when characters try to resolve the complication, the conflict reaches a turning point. At this point, the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the highest point of the story for the reader. Frequently it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted. (http://notesinthemargin.org.glossary.html.c.2004)

The quotation above shows us about the good plot structure in work of

literature. It starts from the exposition phase which is so important to understand the

story itself. The second phase complication, this phase will be the starting point of the

conflict. After meeting the complication phase there will be a turning point when the

prombles will be. This process called crisis. And the next process is climax. This

phase shows us the top of the problems. This point will be the most important phase

because usually at this phase the problems will reach the top of the point from the

problems before and the last phase is resolution. This phase shows us about the

(27)

C. Review of Chicano’s life

In the early migration in America, the Mexican American people faced

hard conditions. they migrated to America because of the Mexican Revolution and

unsettled economic condition. They tried to move in the new country in order to get a

better condition of life rather than their life in Mexico. They tried to find another job

which can help them reach their purpose of move, better life.

The Chicano/ Mexican American were experienced and well enough in

agricultural sectors. Farming is their specialization. Farming cotton, fruits were usual

thing there.

All along the southwest borderlands economic activity was picking up in the late nineteenth century. Railroads were being built , copper mines were opening in Arizona, cotton and vegetable agriculture was developing in south Texas, and growing was being introduced in in Southern California. (Henretta et al,1999:467)

From the quotation above, we can see that the development of the early

settlement of Mexican American is in the South area of America which is near from

Mexico. There are so many chance to the Mexican American repair their life but the

fact is not like they want.

(28)

From the quotation above, the economic conditions made some efforts.

The efforts were robbery, theft, and another crimes. This condition was caused by

small wages, lack of employment, so to fulfill their life.

Mexicans who held tracts of land of any appreciable size in Texas, California, and New Mexico prior to 1848 were angered and alienated when they began to lose their properties because of alterations made in the 1848 treaty after its signing or because of other unethical tactics used by Anglo Americans to obtain their land (Engelkirk,2013)

From the quotation above, the writer sees that the starting points of the

problem between the Anglo Americans and the Mexican Americans is obtaining the

area. The Anglo Americans try to obtain and break the The Treaty of Hidalgo which

separates the land between the Anglo Americans and Mexican Americans.

During the second era, from 1810 until 1848, the Southwest was part of an independent Mexico. It developed slowly, largely because of the distance between it and the capital of Mexico City. Then in 1846-48 the Mexican War gained the Southwest for the United States. The war was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, in which the United States promised to protect the rights of Mexican Americans in the newly won territories. Most of the treaty's provisions, unfortunately, were not honored by the United States. Huge tracts of land belonging to Mexicans were taken from them by the most dubious legal means or by outright theft. Violence was perpetrated against them, and there was a great deal of economic exploitation. This sad tale of exploitation covers the period from 1849 until 1910, an era of Anglo-American assimilation of the new territory. The Mexican Americans of the Southwest were gradually overwhelmed in numbers by Anglo newcomers from the East. (Anglo is a term used by Hispanics to describe all white non-Hispanic Americans.) (Engklekirk, 2013)

From the quotation above, the writer sees the life of Mexican Americans

(29)

which is accepted before. The worst impact is the number of Anglo Americans which

moved to the South is getting bigger, it makes the Mexican Americans feel that the

Anglo Americans want to occupy their land.

D. Theoretical Framework

The teories above is used to analyzed the work of literature itself, first the

theory of characterization. Theory of characterization is used to analyze the problem

that the character faced, not only in physical appearance but also in psychologically

condition.

The theory of characterization also helpful for us to make a conclusion

about the study, the study here for knowing the habit of Chicano’s movement to

struggle against the racism in that place. This theory is needed because to analyze a

character, we must use this theory. Characterizing a character can be looked by using

this theory.

The second theory is a plot theory. The plot theory is used to analyze the

plot in that play. It is needed because analyzing plot must use this theory. The theory

of plot help us to know about the way of the story have a relation with the theme and

also the story is in ordinal condition or not. All of that theories is combined to

analyzed one work of literature. That is Los Vendidos in this case. The theories will

(30)

The review of Mexican American’s life is used to compare about the real

condition on that moment than the condition in the Los Vendidos itself. This review

also make us helpful analyzing this play because this review contains some elements

which represent the character on this play. Like the review about the agricultural.

(31)

19

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

A. Object of the study

The object of the study was Luis Valdez’s play Los Vendidos. This play is a famous

play in America especially in California, because the background of the writer is from there. Los

Vendidos is play which told us about a seller whose name is The Honest Sancho. He sells a

dolls/models that represent many kinds of person but actually it is a satire for white people from

Chicano’s people. This play, Los Vendidos was first performed in 1967 for El Teatro Campesino

and was awarded an Emmy in 1972. From that play, we can know and learn about the struggle of

chicano’s movement at that era.

B. Approach of the study

To understand a literary work we need some approach to be applied. Approach that I

can use to analyze this study is Sociocultural-Historical approach. By that approach, analyzing

this play is easier, because that approaches help us about the condition at that time and the

condition of the writer when he wrote that play.According to Rohrberger and Woods,

(32)

Using the Sociocultural-Historical approach also help us identifiying the social life

when the work of literature was written. We can know that the culture at when Los Vendidos

was written is when the racism spread in America especially in America in South which the

boundary’s line is Mexico.

This approach used because it is helpful for us to analyze this work of literature.

Besides that, this approach have big influences to analyze. The big influences are the

background of the story, the background of the writer, and also what is the purpose of the writer

wrote that story/ play. it also connects with the history of the Mexican American and also the

social life there.

C. Method of the study

The method of the study that the writer used to collect data for this study was library

research.

The method of the study are divide into 4 parts. Each part has a mission to complete

the study in order to be a good study. The first part is reading the work of literature. By reading

the work of literature itself will help us to know what is the problems that can be analyzed for

this study. Reading the work of literature can make me understand the content of the story and

can catch the idea which the writer wants to post. The writer focus on the character and the plot

of object study.

The second parts is searching sources to help the writer to make a good study.

(33)

The third step is reviewing and examining the primary and secondary data then

develop a more reliable and reasonable analysis the problem formulation. The analysis process in

this step are read, and search many data which are related with theory of character and the theory

of plot. And then, the writer described how is The Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society

(34)

22

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

In this section the analysis of this research will be divided into 3

sections. The first section is to analyze the characters in Los Vendidos which is

written by Luis Valdez. The second section is to analyze the plot from the first until

the end of the play. This plot helps us to identify about the stages of introduction the

character and also the journey of Chicano’s life and society . The third section is to analyze about the character and the plot in Valdez’ Los Vendidos in order to know

about the Chicano’s Life and Society.

In this play, there are so many characters which build this play. The

characters build their own rules. The characters in this play are Honest Sancho,

Secretary,Farm Worker, Johny Pachuco, Revolucionario, Mexican American. Every

characters in this story made some effects to know about the Chicano’s Life and

Society.

A. Characters

First of all, the writer wants to analyze about the Characters. The

characters in this play are:

1. The Honest Sancho

The character of the Honest Sancho is the main character at that story. The

(35)

There are 2 characteristics of the Honest Sancho. They are Physical characteristic and

psychological characteristics. First the writer wants to analyze the psychological

characteristics of The Honest Sancho. The psychological characteristics of The

Honest Sancho are:

a. Communicative

Sancho is drawn as a communicative person, From the first until the end

of the story, he speaks so much to the customer. As a “Seller”, he plays the role to

make the story becomes in an order way. The character Sancho makes some efforts

in this play. By being a communiative person, Sancho is drawn as the character who

becomes a “bridge” from one moment into another moment, because he talks to the

Secretary from the first until the end to introduce his “dolls” which he wants to sell.

SANCHO: Bueno, Bueno mis monos, vamos a ver quien vendemos ahora

no quihubo, I’m Honest Sancho and this is my shop.Antes fui contratista

pero ahora logre tener mi negocito, All I need now is a customer. Ay, a customer.

SECRETARY: Good Morning, I’m Miss Jimenez from,

SANCHO: Ah una chicana ! Welcome welcome Senorita Jimenez (Valdez 1965:1-9)

From the quotation above we can see that Sancho starts to speak at the

first section of the play. He tries to greet Secretary, he uses so many words which are

actually useless. He tries to be more communicative in order to make the Secretary

impressed with him and his shop. He speaks too much although it is just an

introduction of himself and his shop. By speaking too much in this section, the

quotation above can be made as a proof which shows us that Sancho is a

(36)

SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.

SECRETARY: What about the storage?

SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built out by Parlier or Raisin City?They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven, even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns,old cars, river banks. You can even leave him out in the field overnight with no worry(Valdez,1965:82)

When he offers the dolls, he introduces the dolls briefly and clearly. So

the customer can know the model itself. Maybe being a communicative person is a

characteristic that usually a seller does when he faces the customer.

As we see in line 68, “Economical? Senorita you are looking at the

Volkwagen of Mexicans. Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas

will keep him going all day.”(Valdez,1965: 68-70), we can clearly see about the

specification of the first model, The Farm Worker. Sancho tells us that the

specification of The Farm Worker is cheap/economical. He also tells about how to

give the the model food to make it work well.

The writer concludes that The Honest Sancho is a communicative person

by seeing the role of himself in the play.

b. Friendly

The Honest Sancho is a character who is a friendly person. It can be

(37)

Sancho makes a good speech when he faces the customers. He serves the customer

well so the customer feels comfortable with the situation.

Sancho: Ah, una chicana! Welcome, welcome Senorita Jimenez. (Valdez, 1965: 2)

From the quotation above, we can clearly see that the seller wants to

prove that he tries to be kind to the customer. It can be proved when he tries to greet

the customer at first time. As a seller, he wants to show his good manner in serving

the customer.

Friendly is a habit that a seller must show to customer. It is almost shown

by every seller to the customer. By being a friendly person, the customer will feel

good and they will understand about the things the seller’s sell.

c. Hardworker

Hardworker is another characteristic of the Honest Sancho. We can see

from the text that Sancho wants to get profit from the things that he sell. So, The

Honest Sancho tries to make sure that the products that he sell are good enough to

sell. He offers the “dolls” one by one. He also explains about the use, price, and any

features that the dolls have.

By using the Murphy’s theory of characters in the point of “thoughts”, we

can see the characteristics of the Honest Sancho as a hardworker. Here, Valdez wants

to show about the Sancho’s acts which shows us as a hardworker person.

(38)

keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.(Valdez,1965:69_

From the quotation above we can see when Sancho tries to explain about

one of the features that the model have. He explain about the “dolls” clearly so the

customer will know about the “dolls” well. As a seller, maybe it is hard to offer

something patiently but it is a must as a seller itself.

After analyzing the psychological characteristics, the writer wants to

describe the physical characteristic. The physical characteristic of The Honest Sancho

are using sombrero, handling gabacho, speaking Spanish.

2. Secretary

Besides Sancho, there is another character who plays an important rule in

this play. The character is Secretary. Secretary creates a conflict in this play. It makes

the situation becomes in an order way.

Actually, this play is started because Secretary is asked by the governor

to find a model which is fit to fill the position of administration. She comes to

Sancho’s shop and tries to find the models. She selects the models one by one in

order to get the cheap, and good Mexican American. There, she finds many kinds of

models.

(39)

a. Critical

As a buyer, Secretary wants to get the best model like she wants. To be a

buyer, she must be selective to choose from many options that the seller’s offered.

She talks to much to know about the composition, the price and the quality of the

models. It is usual to do like that as a buyer.

SECRETARY: Yes, we are looking somebody suave. (Valdez 1965:21)

From the quotation above, we can conclude that this is the first sign that

the Secretary being a critical person. She tries to describe the model that she wants.

SECRETARY: Wonderful. But is he economical? (Valdez 1965: 67)

The quotation above is another proof that she is a critical person. She tries

to speak to the seller in order to get information. She talks too much because she

wants to know about the feature that the models have.

b. Underestimating

As we know, at that era, American people colonized the Mexican

American people. They considered the Mexican American as a slave that can help

them to finished the work.

Sancho:Mota. Secretary: Mota?

Sancho: Lenos, Marijuana(snap;Johny inhales on an imaginary joint)

Secretary: that’s against the law!

Johny: (big smile,holding his breath), Yeahhh (Valdez, 1965:136-140)

By seeing the quotation above we can see that Johny is represented

(40)

American. Inhaling marijuana is considered as a criminal acts. It also shows us that

the Secretary makes a negative prejudice to Johny Pachuco because he tries to inhale

marijuana in front off her. She does not like that act because according to her,

inhaling marijuana is considered as a criminal act.

Sancho: He steals(Snap. Johny rushes the secretary and steals her purse

Johny: Dame esa bolsa, vieja!(He grabs the purse and runs. Snap by Sancho. He stops)

(Secretary runs after Johny and grabs purse away from him, kicking him as she goes

Secretary : No, No, No!We can’t have any more thieves in the state

Administration. Put Him back.

By seeing the another quotation we can see that Johny do another

criminal acts. He tries to steal the Secretary’s purse. It connects with the previous

quotation. The acts that Johny has done makes the Secretary underestimates him. It

can be concluded that The Secretary (white people) underestimates and has negative

prejudice to him as the criminal or bad people who always do the criminal acts.

c. Curious

Curiousity is a characteristic that someone has to know more about

something for a purpose. In this play, the Secretary is curious about the model that

she wants to buy.. Actually, it is a common thing when a customer wants to know

(41)

The Secretary asks one by one about the models to the seller. She makes

a “bridge” in this play, so the story can flow in the order way. We can see from the

quotation below,

SECRETARY: Versatile isn’t he?( Valdez, 1965: 54) SECRETARY: BILINGUAL? (Valdez, 1965: 129)

SECRETARY: Wonderful, is he economical? (Valdez, 1965:67) SECRETARY: Does he function in politics? (Valdez, 1965:274)

From the quotation above, we can see that the characteristic of the

secretary is full of curiousity. From the first quotation, we can see that the Secretary

wants to know more about the features of the model. Then, in the next quotation, it is

also about the feature of the role models, the important things that the secretary wants

to find is the models must be English spoken. The next feature that the Secretary

wants is also cheap. It has a relation between the curious and underestimating

characteristic. The Mexican American is considered as “cheap” person. In the last

quotation, we can see that Secretary also tries to find model which can have a

function in political view.

3. Farm Worker

The Farm Worker is one of the characters which is represented as a

Mexican American. He is drawn as a hardworker person. The writer can see this

characteristic by viewing and analyzing the play.

At first, the Farm Worker is drawn as a friendly man. It can be proven

(42)

FARM WORKER: (lifts up head)Buenos Dias, senorita(his head drops)

From the quotation above we can see that the Farm Worker show his

respect to the Secretary. We can see that, from the quotation above it is said that the

Farm Worker tries to respect Secretary by dropping his head.

SECRETARY: Wonderful. But is he economical?

SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.(Valdez 1965:68)

From the quotation above we can see that the Farm Worker is considered

as “cheap” models. It doesn’t takes so much cost to make it worked correctly. Here,

the character of Sancho tells about the way to keep the model of Farm Worker.

SECRETARY: What about the storage?

SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built our by Parlier or Raisin city? They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns, old car, river banks. You can ever leave him out in the field overnight with no worry!

SECRETARY: Remarkable

SANCHO: And here’s an added feature. Every year at the end of the

season, this model goes back to Mexico and doesn’t return, automatically, until next spring. .(Valdez, 1965:75)

From the quotation above, the writer can clearly see that the Farm

Worker is considered as a poor, and people will underestimate them because he is

(43)

better job than the Farm Worker. We can also see, that the Farm Worker’s jobs is just

to cut the grapes, pick cottons, pick melons, anything which have connection with

farm’s job. It is totally different with the Secretary who is drawn as a clean, smart

like an intelligent person, and also she is represented looks like a boss.

4. Johny Pachuco

In this story, there is a character which is drawn as cruel, can’t obey the

regulations but he can speak English. English spoken is one of the characteristic that

the Secretary wants to find. He is Johny Pachuco.

In this play, although Johny Pachuco does not take so much roles, he

plays the role as a Mexican American who is rude, unintelligent, and live in road is an

usual habit. As we know, in Mexico, criminalities are usual. Here, Johny Pachuco is

drawn as cruel, he can fight with knifes, He tries to hurt The Secretary by using his

knife. It can be proven in the quotation below,

SANCHO:Ah, from the city! Step right back.over here in this corner

of the stop is exactly what you’re looking for. Introducing our new

1969 JOHNY PACHUCA model! This is our fast back model. Streamlined. Built for speed, low riding, city life. take a look at some of the features. Magshoes, dual exhausts, green chartreuse paint job,dark tint windshield a little poof on top.let me just turn him on. (Valdez,1965 : 106)

From the quotation above we can conclude that Johny Pachuco must

survive in the city life which is cruel, hard, not friendly. Here, Johny Pachuco is

(44)

SANCHO: Anything and everything necessary for city life. For instance , survival : he knife fights (snap. Johny pulls out switch blade and swings at the secretary). (Valdez, 1965:117)

JOHNY: (Comes downstage) Fuck-You (Valdez, 1965:133)

SANCHO : lenos… marijuana. (Snap. Johny inhales on an imaginary

joint.) (Valdez, 1965: 146)

From the quotation above we can conclude that the proofs that the

Mexican American is a criminal is really shown. They are drawn as a criminal. They

use marijuana, sniff glues, fight with knifes. It has a relation with the real life in

Mexico.

5. Mexican American

The character of Mexican American is shown in the climax phase in this

play. At first, Valdez tries to describe this character as a real good Mexican

American. We can see from the quotation below,

Sancho: He just came this morning. Ain’the beauty? Feast your eyes

on him!Sturdy US steel frame ,streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models except that he comes in variety of darker shades:naugahyde, leather, or leatherette.

Secretary: Naugahyde

Sancho: Well, we just write down. Yes, Senorita, this model represents the apex of American Engineering! He is bilingual, college

educated, ambitious! Say the word “acculturate” and he

accelerates. He is intelligent, well mannered, clean-did I say clean? Smell.

Secretary: Old Sobaco, my favorite.

Sancho: Eric! We call him Eric Garcia. I want you to meet Miss JIM-enez

Mexican American: Miss JIM-enez, I am delighted to make your acquaintance. (Eric kisses her hand)

(45)

From the quotation above we can see that Valdez who is the writer of this

play wants to show about the characterization of this Mexican American. The

character of Mexican American shows us about the image of the Mexican American

itself. From the smell of the character of Mexican American, we can see that the

authentic smell of the Mexican American (old sobacco) can be found in this play.

Here we can see that the writer also wants to analyze the Mexican American as one of

the important character in this play. The character of Mexican American has a big role

in the climax phase in plot structure.

At first, the character of Mexican American looks like support the

Reagan’s government. We can see from the quotation below,

Secretary: Does he function in politics?

Sancho: Senorita, you are looking at a political MACHINE. Have you

ever heardof the OEO, EOC,COD, WAR ON POVERTY? That’s our

model! Not only that, he makes political speeches Secretary: May I hear one?

Sancho: With pleasure. Eric, gives us a speech.

Mexican American: Mr. Congressman, Mr. Chairman, members of the board, honored guests, ladies and gentlemen. Please, please, I come before you as a Mexican American to tell you about the problems of Mexican. The problems of the Mexican stem from one thing and one

thing alone; He’s stupid. He’s uneducated. He needs to stay in school

He needs to be ambitious , forward looking, harder working. He needs to think American, American, American, AMERICAN, AMERICAN, GOD BLESS AMERICA

Secretary: Oh my, He’s patriotic too! (Valdez:1965,275)

From the quotation above, we can see there is a satire to the American

itself. The character of Mexican American tries to describe the behaviour of the

(46)

American says that the Mexican American are fool, uneducated. But, actually the

diction of the character of Mexican American is a satire, because the American itself

underestimate the Mexican American. So the character of Mexican American has 2

values. Although he is a Mexican American, in contradictory, he acts like a white

American.

In the end of the play, we can see that the Mexican American changes his

manner towards the Secretary. When The Secretary wants to try operating him, the

Mexican American does the different act into the The Secretary. We can see from the

quotation below,

Mexican American: RAZA QUERIDA!VAMOS LEVANTANDO ARMAS PARA LIBERARNOS DE ESTOS DESGRACIADOS GABACHOS QUE NOS EXPLOTAN !VAMOS

Secretary: What did he say?

Sancho: Something about lifting arms, killing white people, etc.

Secretary: but he’s not supposed to say that! (Valdez:1965,327)

The character of Mexican American takes an important role in this phase.

He makes the different manner towards the Secretary of this play. From the quotation

above, we can also see that the Mexican American hates the Secretary itself. The

Mexican American said that he wants to kill white people, etc.

6. Revolucionario

As a matter of fact, the character of Revolucionario doesn’t have an

(47)

physical characteristic. Here, in this play, the character of Revolucionario doesn’t

give much speech, but the character of The Honest Sancho gives many explanations

about the feature that the character of Revolucionario have.

We can see the representation of Mexican American in Sancho’s

speech about the character of Revolucionario. Here are the quotation below,

Sancho: Ah, a lover. Step right over here, senorita. Introducing our standard Revolucionario and or Early California Bandit type. As you can see he is well built, sturdy, durable. This is the international Harvester of Mexicans.

Secretary: What does he do?

Sancho: You name it, he does it. He rides horses, stays in the mountains, crosses deserts, plains, rivers, leads revolutions, follow revolutions, kills, can be killed, serves as a martyr , hero, movie star, did I say movie star? Did you ever see Viva Zapata, viva villa, villa rides?pancho villa returns?pancho villa goes back? Pancho villa meets abbot and costello?

From the quoation above, we can see the physical characteristic of the

character of Revolucionario. That character wears sombrero, rides horses, do like a

cowboy. The character of Revolucionario is represented as a Mexican who usually

makes some revolutions to struggle about their life. In quotation above we can clearly

see the word “Viva Zapata, Viva Villa”, the word “ viva “ means come on or let’s go

in English word. They want to show their struggle to face the hard moments in their

(48)

B. Plot

Plot structure is an important thing in work of literature. The plot

structure will always make a “story” in the work of literature.

“Fictional people or characters are derived from life, as are things they do. These actions or incidents, occur in sequence , or in chronological order” (Roberts,1987: 98)

Every work of literature will always be in the chronological order,

from the first moments until the end of the moments in the work of literature. Without

plot structure we will always miss the parts of the work literature itself. The example:

the first moment in the work of literature is introducing the character, etc.. By using

the plot structure we can know the journey from the start until the end of the story of

the work literature itself. If there is no plot in the work of literature, the work of

literature will not have sequences/parts and it will make the story becomes tasteless,

especially in analyzing the work of literature itself. That‟s why the plot structure in

the work of literature is so important.

But before analyzing the plot, the plot itself means plan or groundwork

of human motivations, with the actions resulting from believable and realistic human

responses. (Roberts, 1987:98). In a well plotted work, nothing is irrelevant.

Everything is relevant to each other. So we can conclude that everything in a good

(49)

In analyzing the plot we need something/element which can built the

work of literature itself. The most significant element of plot is conflict. In conflict

human responses are brought out to their highest degree. Conflicts exist both between

individual and larger forces.

Reffering to the formal categories of structure, we can divide the plot

structures into exposition, complication, crisis, climax and the last is resolution. The

plot structure here makes us to know the way of the story itself. Here the writer wants

to analyze every single parts of the Los Vendidos.

1. Exposition

First of all, the writer wants to introduce what exposition is. Exposition

means the laying out, the putting forth, of the materials in the work. It presents

everything that is going to be important in the pattern of the actions. ( Roberts 1987,

101). The exposition in this play is when The Honest Sancho introduces himself and

his shop. It is common in the starting point of the work of literature, the characters

was introduced.

SANCHO: Bueno, Bueno mis monos, vamos a ver quien vendemos ahora no quihubo, I‟m Honest Sancho and this is my shop. Antes fui contratista pero ahora logre tener mi negocito, All I need now is a customer. Ay, a customer.

SECRETARY: Good Morning, I‟m Miss Jimenez from,

(50)

From the quotation above we can see that it is the exposition of the play.

We can see that The Honest Sancho introduced himself and introduced his shop. It is

important for the reader to know the starting point of the play. So by analyzing that

parts, the writer wants to introduce the first part of the play itself. The first part of this

play is the background and introduction of the play itself. From the exposition we can

see about the character and the starting point of this play itself.

2. Complication

The second parts of the good plot structure in this play is when The

Secretary wants to find a “model” which fit for the government. That process is

called complication. The complication marks the onset of the major conflict in the

story (Roberts 1987, 101). The complication starts when The Secretary wants to find

the model which is cheap and can speak English. When The Secretary tries to choose

the model, The Honest Sancho offers her the model that he had in his shop.

SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.

SECRETARY: What about the storage?

(51)

We can see from the quotation below is the starting point of the “conflict”

of this play.

SECRETARY: I don‟t care. You still don‟t understand what we need. It‟s true we need Mexican

models, such as these, but it‟s more important that he be American. SANCHO: American?

SECRETARY: That‟s right, and judging from what you‟ve shown me, I don‟t think you have what

we want. Well, my lunch hour‟s almost over, I better … SANCHO: Wait a minute! Mexican but American? SECRETARY: That‟s correct.

From the quotation above we can see that the conflict starts to raise. The

character of Secretary wants to find a Mexican but American model. The Honest

Sancho has offered her some models but she still can not find the model.

SANCHO: Mexican but … (A sudden flash.) American! Yeah, I think

Ta-ra-ra-raaaa! (SANCHO brings out the MEXICAN-AMERICAN model, a clean-shaven middle class

type in a business suit, with glasses.)

SECRETARY: (Impressed.) Where have you been hiding this one? SANCHO: He just came in this morning. Ain‟t he a beauty? Feast you eyes on him! Sturdy U.S.

Steel frame, streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models,

except that he comes in a variety of darker shades: naugahide, leather or leatherette.

SECRETARY: (Smells.) Old Sobaco, my favorite.

From the quotation above, we can see the specification that the Secretary

(52)

American, He is good looking, looks smart, clean, has a good smell. That is the

criteria of the Secretary wants from the Mexican American model.

Secretary: That‟s much better, but you didn‟t answer my question. Does he speak English?

Sancho: Bueno no pero, he has other. Secretary: No.(Valdez,1965: 95)

Secretary : No, Mr. Sancho, I don‟t think this.

Secretary: No, No, No! We can‟t have any more thieves in the State Administration. Put him back.

Secretary: No, I‟m sorry we can‟t buy anything but American products. . He just won‟t do

Sancho: but he‟s an antique

Secretary : I don‟t care . You don‟t understand what we need. It‟s true we need a Mexican models such as these, but it is more important that he be American. (Valdez,1965 :235)

From the quotation above we can see that the conflicts start. The conflict

in this work of literature is when The Secretary wants to find a model which can

speak English and fit to fulfill the position in Governor‟s Reagan parliament. She

wants the best model to fulfill the position, because of that, She asks the seller to give

her so many options for that. That‟s why The Honest Sancho who is the seller offers

her some models that he sells in his shop. The problems start to raise, the simple

saying is the moments above is introducing the problems. The complication in this

work of literature has a significant role, because it is the starting point of the conflict

in this work of literature. So, from the process of the complication the plot will raise

(53)

3. Crisis

After the process of complication, we can see the phase which can be

called as crisis. The crisis is the turning point , the separation between what has gone

before and what will come after. The crisis is usually a decision or action undertaken

to resolve the conflict( Roberts 1987, 101). The crisis in this play starts when The

Honest Sancho introduces all the models that he had. The Secretary can‟t find the

models that she wants so much.

The Honest Sancho offers the models that he sells. He tries to offer the

Secretary from one model into another models. The model which the Honest Sancho

offers to the Secretary are The Farmworker, Johny Pachuco, Revolucionario,

Mexican American (Eric Garcia).

Although The Honest Sancho has offered The Secretary some models,

from The Farm Worker until Johny Pachuco, The Secretary can not find the model

that she wants much to fulfill the position. This process called “crisis” because it will

be the turning point between the last moments to the what will happens in the next

moment.

SECRETARY: That‟s right, and judging from what you‟ve shown me, I don‟t think you have what

we want. Well, my lunch hour‟s almost over, I better … SANCHO: Wait a minute! Mexican but American?

SECRETARY: That‟s correct. (Valdes,1965: 236)

From the quotation above we can see that the phase which is called crisis

(54)

play go. The crisis in this play is when the Secretary wants to find a Mexican

American which is cheap enough, and have good qualities to fullfil the position in

Governor Reagan‟s parliament. After the Honest Sancho gives her so many options,

she can not find the model that can fulfill the parliament.

4. Climax

The next process of this conflict is climax. This is the top/peak of the

problems of the play itself. The climax in this play is when the models try to catch the

Secretary because Secretary makes them to be angry. They are angry because the

models feel that the Secretary has a lot of excuse in choosing the models that she

wants.

The peak of this play is when the Mexican American or Eric Garcia was

offered by the Honest Sancho to the Secretary

SANCHO: Mexican but … (A sudden flash.) American! Yeah, I think

Ta-ra-ra-raaaa! (SANCHO brings out the MEXICAN-AMERICAN model, a clean-shaven middle class

type in a business suit, with glasses.)

SECRETARY: (Impressed.) Where have you been hiding this one? SANCHO: He just came in this morning. Ain‟t he a beauty? Feast you eyes on him! Sturdy U.S.

Steel frame, streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models,

except that he comes in a variety of darker shades: naugahide, leather or leatherette.

(55)

From the quotation above, the process of climax is reached. The Secretary

finds the model that she wants. She can find a model which is good enough, he is

more intelligent, cleaner than the previous models. When The Honest Sancho asks

him to give an act to show his capability, at first Mexican American or Eric Garcia

gives his capability to give speech in congress situation. His speech is about

supporting American government and tells about the Mexican American‟s capability

who are stupid, uneducated, criminal, etc. Suddenly when the Secretary wants to try

him, the Mexican American gives another version of speech. He gives speech like the

writer shown below.

Mexican American: RAZA QUERIDA VAMOS LEVANTANDO ARMAS PARA LIBERARNOS DE ESTOS DESGRACIADOS GABACHOS QUE NOS EXPLOTAN!!VAMOS.

Secretary: What did he say?

Sancho: Something about lifting arms, killing white people, etc. Secretary: but he‟s not supposed to say that! ( Valdez, 1965: 328)

From the quotation above, we can see that the Mexican American is

angry. He shows his anger. The diction that he choose to express his anger is a cruel,

hard words. He says his language which can be translated that he wants to kill white

people, lifting arms, etc.

This phase shows us the climax of this play. After the process of

introduction, the rising of conflict and this is the peak of this work of literature. From

the quotation above, we can clearly see the feeling of the character of Mexican

(56)

hard. Mexican American also make an important effort in this phase of the plot

structure, because this will be the peak of this play.

5. Resolution

The final process of the plot is resolution. The resolution in this work of

literature also has an important effect, because the resolution in this work of literature

is the conclusion and the end of the plot structure.

After Secretary goes away because the models try to catch her, the

models chat each other. The models talks about the Secretary who can be lied

because she does not know that the real model is The Honest Sancho. The models are

successful in tricking her. After she goes away the models also divide the money that

they have gotten from the Secretary.

Johny: Man, that was a long one, ese? Farm Worker: How did we do?

Johny: Pretty Good, look all that lana, man!

Revolucionario: En la madre, look at all the money. Johny: We keep this up, we‟re going to be rich Farm Worker: They think we‟re machines. Revolucionario: Burros

Johny: Puppets (Valdez,1965: 353-362)

From the quotation above we can see that the models chat each other

about the Secretary. The models feel that their success to trick the Secretary is an

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...

Unduh sekarang (73 Halaman)