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Findings

from the

Sociolinguistic Survey of the Lolo People

by Duane Reiman

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Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Motivation for research 1.2 The Lolo

1.3 The linguistic context

1.4 Area description and route followed 1.5 Significant materials by other writers 2 Purpose and aims

2.1 Purpose of the survey 2.2 Aims of the survey 3 Procedures

3.1 Word lists

3.1.1 Reason for use 3.1.2 Design 3.1.3 Administration 3.1.4 Analysis

3.2 Recorded Text Testing (RTT) 3.2.1 Reason for use 3.2.2 Design 3.2.3 Administration 3.2.4 Analysis

3.3 Sociolinguistic questionnaires 4 Tool results and findings

4.1 Word lists—Lexico-statistical findings

4.2 RTT results—Intelligibility of Chuwabu and Takwane by Lolo speakers 4.2.1 Chuwabu intelligibility evaluation

4.2.2 Takwane intelligibility evaluation 4.3 Results from sociolinguistic questionnaires 5 Conclusion and recommendations

Appendices

Appendix A Map sets Appendix B Word list data

Appendix C Score sheet: Takwane RTT for Lolo speakers Appendix D Questionário sociolinguístico

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1 Introduction

1.1

Motivation for research

Late in 1998, we were asked by our supervisors in SIL–Mozambique to consider a work assignment among the Lolo of Zambezia Province, Mozambique. According to their latest official research (Shrum 1998), this language group had the most obvious need in Mozambique for language development by SIL.

However, further research—which we will specify and develop in this document—gave evidence contrary to this statement of need. As a result, we were asked to take a closer look at the linguistic situation of the Lolo. This paper will demonstrate from field findings the necessity for a separate

language development program for the speakers of Lolo.

1.2

The Lolo

The Lolo are a people group of Western Zambezia Province, living chiefly in the District of Morrumbala, and concentrated in the Administrative Post of Derre. Their population was estimated at 92,400 during the 1997 census (INE 2001). The speech variety is classified as Central Narrow Bantu (Grimes 2000), with linguistic lineage as indicated in Figure 1*, in Guthrie’s zone P (SIL 2000). Its linguistic neighbors include Chuwabu speakers to the south, Sena and Valade speakers to the Southwest, Nyanja speakers to the West and Northwest (near the Malawi Border), Takwane speakers to the East, and Maoni, Marenje, and Kokola speakers to the Northeast. (See Map Set 1 in appendix A).

The Lolo are largely horticulturists, relying almost totally on their

machambas (gardens) for sustenance, while also raising chickens, pigeons, goats,

pigs, and occasionally guinea pigs for consumption. Some will augment these staples by hunting small game. Nearly all large game was exhausted during the War for Independence and the Civil Conflict. Many families grow some cotton for a cash crop, which they sell to Agrimo, a state run cooperative.

Other sources of income include selling excess grain to markets, usually in Malawi (to the north). For some, the Mozambican markets of Morrumbala, Mocuba, Alto Benfica, and Quelimane are more accessible. When asked, those who felt they could choose market venue said they chose to sell in Malawi, since Malawi has a record of better prices.

1.3

The linguistic context

With the commercial importance of Malawi comes exposure to its official African language, Nyanja (also called Chichewa). Many reported ability to use Nyanja effectively in the markets, and that the Chichewa Bible is commonly (though not universally) used in the churches.

As to other linguistic contexts, many gain exposure to Sena through trips to the district capitol, Morrumbala. Many vendors in the local markets are nonresidents from Chuwabu-speaking areas like Nicoadala and Quelimane. Toward the edges of Lolo territory, there is casual contact with Takwane speakers, as well as reason to travel through Takwane-speaking areas, though there are no markets of attraction within them. There is no known influence from the other neighboring speech communities due to markets or worship; these have influence only through proximity, and possibly through regional schools, for example in Alto Benfica or Mocuba.

*

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1.4

Area description and route followed

The majority of Lolo territory is low-lying hills, covered with moderate to dense woodlands. Water availability does not seem to be a problem, as the sizeable Luala River flows right through Derre Center. It and the Tambisa River seem to have many tributary creeks that drain most of the Lolo area.

The roads are all dirt, with the larger ones being of solid clay/sand construction. All these were in very good condition, with decent bridges everywhere except for two under construction, just east of Derre Center. The lesser roads we traveled were also passable, but could be problematic during the rainy season. One of our hosts said the bridge just before his property (in Dula) would be underwater by mid-season, and impassable until May. During our travels, we had no troubles with mobility. We hardly ever engaged four-wheel drive and never needed to lock the differential. Bicycles were brought on the first trip, and proved quite useful.

Two trips into the Lolo speech community were necessary. The first trip (21–29 July 1999) we gathered word lists, tested intelligibility with Chuwabu, and researched sociolinguistic opinions of the populace. When we later analyzed this data we discovered the need for intelligibility testing with Takwane, and so we planned a second trip (3–6 January 2000) specifically for this purpose. Both trips used essentially the same route. (See Map Set 2 in appendix A.)

A leading objective was to extend testing for inherent intelligibility. Therefore, a chief goal for our first trip was to locate populations most isolated from other language contexts, especially the Chuwabu context. A basic piece of history shaped this path. During Mozambique’s Civil Conflict, Renamo forces passed through Morrumbala District. They did this in such a way that many of the Lolo to the south of Derre Center fled to Chuwabu-speaking areas near Quelimane, while most of the Lolo to the north stayed put. If we wanted to test for inherent intelligibility, we would need to avoid the southern portion of the Lolo community, where there was great potential for learned

intelligibility and/or bilingual overlay. This could easily cloud the results. We settled on Dula and Nyanzaza—two sites to the north—and Derre Center itself, as the population center. (See Map 2a in appendix A.)

Our second route was planned along similar lines—to find communities with little potential contact with Takwane speakers. Dula was again a prime example. We started there, the most remote location, and worked our way back to Mocuba. (See Map 2b in appendix A.)

Mocuba was the base of operations for our surveys—Lolo and otherwise—though well outside of the Lolo speech community. At the start of our surveys, we traveled west to Alto Benfica1 (shown on some maps as

Macatanja), then turned south to Derre Center. We continued on the main road past Derre Center for 3.5 kilometers, then turned northwest on a secondary road. This secondary road traveled north for approximately 20 km to

Muaherua then about 5 km more to Dula, our most remote location. After gathering data there, we backtracked to Derre Center and, on the first trip, passed through and turned north 0.5 km east of there, continuing 20–25 km to our final area of Terla and Nyanzaza.

On our second trip we collected data in Dula as well, again backtracking through Derre Center afterward. This time, however, we continued on the main road toward Alto Benfica, stopping at Nacuela and Matecula, just west of the Manguze River. Our guide said this river was the accepted demarcation for the end of Lolo territory, as well as the border between Morrumbala and Mocuba districts. (See Map 2b in appendix A.) We then returned to Mocuba.

1.5

Significant materials by other writers

One paper of relevance to our subject is the survey report by Jeffery and Margaret Shrum, Western

Zambezia Language Survey in Mozambique (1998). The rapid assessment given by the Shrum survey gives us

quality information about the Lolo speech variety and the speech varieties that surround this group.

Their work addressed five undeveloped speech varieties in this area—Marenje, Kokola, Valade, Lolo, and Maoni. The following items gave us strong suggestion that Lolo was the most viable variety for SIL development:

• The Marenje community (approx. 75,000 persons) is much smaller than the Lolo community (approx. 200,000 persons). Additionally, several of those the Shrums interviewed had difficulty deciding whether they were Marenje or Kokola, showing an eroding sense of cultural identity (section 3.4.3). It was the Shrums’ opinion

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that “pressure from the larger and more influential groups in the area may make Marenje nonviable [for their own language development program]” (section 5.3.1).

• The Shrums state that the Kokola community is also much smaller than the Lolo community (50,000–75,000 Mozambican Kokolani). Many of those interviewed preferred to speak other languages over Kokola. Nyanja was highly valued by those interviewed. Moreover, Nyanja is undoubtedly highly used by the Malawian Kokolani (75,000 persons), as it is an official language-of-wider-communication there. (section 3.4.4)

• The Maoni community was described by several sources as a variant of Marenje. All five of the Shrums’ Maoni participants identified their group as being related to Marenje. (sections 3.2.2, 3.5)

• Valade was elusive to the Shrums; they found no one at first who claimed to be Valade. In their observation log (1997), they record meeting a man 12km from Mepinha on the way to Quelimane who at first claimed to be Lolo. When the Shrums mentioned Valade, he admitted that he was Valade. In addition, several Lolo

informants on the author’s survey trips stated that the Lolo word list the Shrums’ collected is actually Valade. This evidence seems to suggest that Valade speakers view their language as a variant of Lolo.

• The Lolo view and esteem their language highly. Nearly all Lolo speakers prefer to use it over all other languages, and want their children to learn it first. (1998:section 3.4.5)

Additionally, the Shrums’ report gave evidence through statistical means that Lolo is lexically distinct from neighboring languages that were being actively developed (Sena, Chuwabu, Lomwe, and Nyanja). Because of these distinctions, the Shrums recommended Lolo for development.

Another paper of relevance is “The Chuwabu Language Cluster” (1999) by James and Virginia Vinton. This report on the Vintons’ survey work in southern Zambezia relevantly drew into question this recommendation. Their survey of the Chuwabu language and its variants had as one focus intelligibility testing, which was beyond the scope of the Shrum survey. In one area of the Vintons’ survey, just south and east of Derre Center, Lolo speakers showed a remarkably high understanding of Chuwabu2 (Vinton 1999:15, 19). An explanation of this apparent inconsistency would be necessary before any action could be taken on Lolo language development.

2 Purpose and aims

2.1

Purpose of the survey

We propose to resolve, through this survey, the differences in the results of the aforementioned surveys. We will extend, through more data over a greater geographic area, the understanding of how distinct Lolo is from its neighbors. We will also tell why these differences in assessment occurred. Ultimately, we will show conclusively that the Lolo speech community is a candidate for the assistance of SIL-Moçambique as a distinct language-development program.

2.2

Aims of the survey

The aims of our research were threefold:

• Develop a broader base of word list findings through several lists in diverse areas of the Lolo-speaking community.

• Research through a larger area the language views and cultural situation of the Lolo.

• Extend intelligibility research throughout the speech community, focusing on the more linguistically isolated zones.

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3 Procedures

3.1

Word lists

3.1.1

Reason for use

One way of quickly assessing similarity/dissimilarity between speech varieties is by comparing the words they use for the same ideas. If, after following a specific, rigorous word list analysis, a certain level of (theoretical) shared language history—percent of cognates—is not found, the capacity for inherent intelligibility is very slim. Thus, word list analysis is a first step toward assessing intelligibility between speech varieties.

3.1.2

Design

We used the SIL/NELIMO 200-word list (NELIMO 1990) to obtain data for researching lexical similarity. It consists of 200 words of several grammatical categories. These are grouped first by grammatical category, then by semantic domain, for ease of recognition by the respondents. See appendix A for these lists.

3.1.3

Administration

The word lists were gathered from a panel of three to eight mother tongue Lolo speakers, appointed by the local governing official. He was asked to provide persons who were known as first-language Lolo speakers, and known to speak it well. All list elicitation was administered by the author. Following the procedure indicated by Wimbish (1989:80), suspect entries were checked and verified against word lists already obtained for the

neighboring speech varieties, as responses were given. The panel was permitted to discuss the word in question, but in general one spokesman, chosen by the group beforehand, gave the answer of consensus.

3.1.4

Analysis

Analysis was handled largely through the lexico-statistical computer application WORDSURV (v. 2.5.12). Word lists for Chuwabu, Takwane, Nyanja, Marenje, Kokola, Sena, Manyawa, and Lomwe speech varieties were jointly analyzed for cognate statistics. This was done after word-by-word inspection for (a) groupings of apparent cognates, and (b) the removal of incongruent data3 from the analysis. The results and their implications are detailed below.

3.2

Recorded Text Testing (RTT)

3.2.1

Reason for use

Shared cognate percentages between word lists of speech varieties have a threshold value for usefulness. Studies of this type use an upper confidence limit of 70% (cited by Bergman 1990:8.1.6). When the value is less than threshold, we can safely term these speech varieties as “mutually unintelligible”. When the value surpasses this threshold, further testing is necessary to determine intelligibility. Recorded Text Testing (hereafter “RTT”) is the next step recommended by our sources (Grimes 1989:4.1). RTT use was indicated by Lolo’s high cognate percentage with Takwane (lowest upper confidence limit = 85.8%), and by the prior RTT results for Chuwabu gathered by the Vintons (1999) (avg. score, 93%, st. dev. = 11%).

3.2.2

Design

The two RTTs utilized on this survey had slightly differing design. These differences are due to different lines of development. We will explain the distinctions in the following two sections.

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3.2.2.1

Design of the RTT for intelligibility of Takwane

Takwane RTT design followed the guidelines set forth in Casad (1974), Blair (1990), and Bergman (1990:4.2). Two short texts (1–5 minutes each) are recorded from native speakers, one text of the speech variety under study (Lolo), the other text of the speech variety of comparison (Takwane in this instance). The former (called

the control text) establishes the test-taking capacity of the participant, while the latter examines the participant’s

understanding of the neighboring speech variety. Each text is listened to twice; once in its entirety, and again with intermittent pauses for context-relevant questions, used for evaluating participant understanding.

To establish the quality of the texts themselves, each is tested on speakers of that particular speech variety (called home testing) before it is used to test a speaker of another speech variety. This was done for both texts, and the questions that native speakers could not answer correctly were eliminated from the exam. In addition, the Takwane text had further quality confirmation in the high scores achieved on other surveys (91% average score during the Manyawa survey (conducted by the author, report forthcoming)).

3.2.2.2

Design of RTT for intelligibility of Chuwabu

As one aim of this survey was to extend the intelligibility research of the Vintons, we decided to use the RTT they developed for their survey. This would make the RTT results of the two surveys comparable. This RTT had no control test in the Lolo speech variety, but rather two Chuwabu texts, the official text for intelligibility evaluation, preceded by a shorter, simpler text to aid in evaluating each participant’s test-taking ability. Although we proceeded without a Lolo control test, we feel confident that post-test interviews brought to light any participants who had problems in test taking. As well, the adequacy of the test design was supported by the score differences between our three test locations. We will bring further light to this in our explanation of RTT results (see section 4.2.1.1).

Standard RTT design has the context-relevant questions recorded directly onto the test recording. In their report, as well as personal conversation, the Vintons detailed difficulties with this methodology (1999:14). Many test participants who understood the recorded text had great difficulty in responding well to the pre-recorded questions. Due to this, they opted to forgo the questions altogether, instead asking for a summary at each pause in the text. In an effort to maintain comparability of results (and avoid the same pitfalls), our testing also forwent the prerecording of the questions. Still, to achieve a comfortable level of objectivity, we decided to utilize questions read by a mother-tongue speaker,4 trained for this work. The same mother tongue speaker was used throughout both the Takwane and Chuwabu testing.

3.2.3

Administration

At the start of each test administration, our host (government administrator, local chief, or host compound owner) would begin gathering exam participants. We requested an equal number of young vs. old, and male vs. female. This was not always possible, and our ratios were sometimes 6 to 4. We would administer a brief pre-test questionnaire to each participant. This was to record basic demographics as well as ensuring the participant was from the location and speech community of focus.

The participant would then listen to each text twice, once in its entirety, and once with several interruptions for contextually based questions (given in Lolo by our interpreter).4 Records were kept of right and wrong

responses, as well as any answers that might reveal information useful to the survey. See appendix B.

The test was administered in three different locations for each RTT. Our aim was to collect data from monolingual or near-monolingual situations, as well as geographically diverse locations.

3.2.4

Analysis

Percentages of correct responses were recorded for each test administered. Average scores were calculated, as were statistical standard deviation, for specific demographic profiles, as well as for overall numbers. Each demographic was statistically analyzed to determine if there exists a significant difference between the two groups in question. Demographic profiles include age, sex, residence, outside language exposure, and long-term relocation outside of the Lolo speech community.

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3.3

Sociolinguistic questionnaires

Questions fell into two basic categories: background demographics, and language opinion. The first was to offer profiles with which to examine our data, while the second was to give light to native opinions about Lolo in the context of the surrounding speech varieties. See sample questionnaire in appendix C.

The questionnaires were administered to either one or two persons at a time, through an interpreter when Portuguese was not understood. They were customarily completed just prior to RTT administration.

4 Tool results and findings

4.1

Word lists—lexico-statistical findings

Before we compare Lolo’s word list data with the other speech varieties, we would like to point out in background the very high percentages found between the Lolo variants themselves (94, 95, and 96 percent; potential maximum 96.8 percent lexical agreement between all three).5 This confirms the quality of choices for research locations, unifies the Lolo lists for comparison with the other speech varieties, and will give us a solid backdrop for the comparison of results from the Recorded Text Tests.

Since lexico-statistics is a tool with limitations, we hesitate to publish such a complete table as table 1. There is often a temptation to make more of the numbers than is reasonable or justified. As we have said above, less than a 70% upper confidence limit indicates that the speech varieties are inherently unintelligible. Greater values tell us the speech varieties could possess noteworthy intelligibility, but need further testing.

That being said, let us note the dividing line in table 1. Those speech varieties below the line share, by the methodology, no practical inherent intelligibility with those above the line. Hence, the development programs existent in Nyanja, Sena, and Lomwe should not be applicable to the other speech varieties (except for the dubious borderline case of Lomwe and Takwane). The values found above the line express the need for further investigation of these speech varieties, with other tools.

Table 1: Lexico-statistical Results—Percentage of Shared Cognates, with upper/lower confidence levels.

Lolo of Derre Center 94±2.8 Lolo of Dula

95±2.7 96±2.5 Lolo of Nyanzaza

88±4.9 89±4.8 88±5.0 Kokola

83±5.8 86±5.4 85±5.5 81±7.6 “Valade”

80±4.9 82±4.7 82±4.7 86±5.3 75±6.6 Marenje

83±4.5 81±4.8 81±4.8 77±6.5 74±6.7 72±5.5 Takwane7

70±5.6 71±5.6 69±5.7 66±7.2 69±7.1 66±5.8 71±5.5 Chuwabu7

56±6.1 56±6.1 55±6.1 57±7.6 52±7.6 55±6.1 65±5.8 59±6.0 Lomwe7

52±6.1 54±6.1 54±6.1 52±7.6 57±7.6 52±6.1 48±6.1 57±6.0 Sena7

45±6.1 48±6.2 47±6.2 48±7.7 47±7.7 49±6.2 42±6.1 43±6.1 Nyanja

5

Upper confidence limit of the lowest scoring pair. See table 1.

6

“Valade” is written within quotation marks because of the uncertainty of the name. The word list was gathered by colleagues in a place called Muandiua, and assumed to be Lolo. As our team was driving to our first survey destination, our guide (a Lolo mother-tongue speaker and native to the region) pointed out that Valade was spoken there. As we gathered my word lists and noted discrepancies, we asked several informants about them. At times they would state, “That’s another language”, but usually, “That’s Valade”. With the similarity shown here between the “Valade” list and the lists this survey gathered, we can take “Valade” to be at least a mixture of Lolo and another speech variety, and very possibly Valade itself.

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Of the speech varieties above the threshold, Valade, Marenje, and Kokola do not have language

development programs. Since they had no such resources to offer Lolo development, they were beyond the scope of our research. We did not test Lolo speakers for intelligibility with these three speech varieties.

Only Chuwabu and Takwane have current language development programs. Hence, we must look at other test results to make decisions about the intelligibility of these two speech varieties by the Lolo. See section 4.2.

4.2

RTT results—Intelligibility of Chuwabu and Takwane by Lolo speakers

In general, the most valuable results from RTT studies are the overall averages—51.5% for Chuwabu, 56.67% for Takwane, with high variation in the scores of both (see table 2). Hence, intelligibility levels are well within the range to show them as separate “languages”, and variation indicates that much of the intelligibility is learned. Still, some demographic groups showed details of interest. These will be handled separately for Chuwabu and Takwane in table 2.

Table 2 – Overall

Takwane RTT 30 56.67% 29.0%

Chuwabu RTT 30 51.5% 36.7%

4.2.1

Chuwabu intelligibility evaluation

4.2.1.1

Background and Overall Score Evaluation

We started our testing in Derre Center, our southernmost and most densely populated point of contact. It is also essential to note that these participants largely fled south to Chuwabu speaking territories during the Civil Conflict and were the most broadly traveled of the three groups. With this increased exposure to Chuwabu came the expected high scores for intelligibility with Chuwabu (Derre Center had an average score of 74.2%—at least 35% higher than the other two locations. See table 3)

Table 3 – Chuwabu RTT scores

divided by location # of Participants Average Score Standard Deviation

Overall Score 30 51.5% 36.7%

Location A Derre Center 10 74.2% 22.0%

Location B Dula 10 39.2% 36.0%

Location C Terla/Nyanzaza 10 35.0% 40.0%

This fits quite well with the Vintons’ findings. They showed very high scores from their Lolo participants, all of whom were tested to the south of Derre Center, and nearly all of whom fled the conflict to Chuwabu speaking areas (Vinton 1999:18).

Although many participants had high scores, the average score was still below the accepted inherent intelligibility threshold (75%). Variation was quite high as well, indicating much of the existent intelligibility is learned.

The high scores of Derre Center in general provided an excellent backdrop to the lower scores in the next two more linguistically isolated areas. Certainly without this high-score backdrop, the extremely low scores in Dula and Nyanzaza would have shed doubt on test design and test administration.

4.2.1.2

Evaluation of Different Demographic Groups

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Table 4 – Chuwabu scores divided by residence patterns # of Participants Average Score

Standard Deviation Overall Scores:

Never Lived in Chuwabu-speaking zone 21 37.1% 34.25%

Lived several years in a Chuwabu-speaking zone 9 80.8% 13.6%

Location A – Derre:

Never Lived in Chuwabu-speaking zone 2 41.7% 23.57%

Lived several years in a Chuwabu-speaking zone 8 83.3% 11.79%

Location B – Dula:

Never Lived in Chuwabu-speaking zone 10 39.2% 35.58%

Lived several years in a Chuwabu-speaking zone 0 N/A N/A

Location C – Terla/Nyanzaza:

Never Lived in Chuwabu-speaking zone 8 33.3% 38.05%

Lived several years in a Chuwabu-speaking zone 2 75.0% 23.57%

Data having figures above threshold levels for intelligibility indicated in bold

The reader will also note that older participants scored significantly higher than the younger participants (see table 5). This leads one to believe that increased life experience increases Chuwabu comprehension, and points once again to learned intelligibility. The lower scores of the younger participants allow us to also surmise that the Chuwabo-speaking area is probably not expanding through the current Lolo-speaking area.

Table 5 – Chuwabu scores divided by age

Older than 30 19 58.8% 34.2%

Younger than 31 11 39.4% 36.15%

Location A – Derre:

Older than 30 6 80.6% 15.52%

Younger than 31 4 64.6% 28.3679%

Location B – Dula:

Older than 30 5 43.3% 39.7%

Younger than 31 5 35.0% 35.06%

Location C – Terla/Nyanzaza:

Older than 30 8 52.1% 36.12%

Younger than 31 2 0.0% 0.0%

Data having figures above threshold levels for intelligibility indicated in bold

4.2.2

Takwane intelligibility evaluation

On our trip to evaluate Lolo intelligibility of Takwane, we started in the more linguistically isolated zones—Dula, then Muaherua (see Map 2b in appendix A.). If, here, we received low RTT scores, it would be a clear statement on intelligibility—we could then be quite certain the Lolo’s understanding of Takwane is not inherent. On the other hand, if the RTT scores were not low, we would have no such guarantee, and would need to labor further into the demographic and geographic dynamics of these intelligibility levels.

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Table 6 – Takwane RTT scores

Overall Score 30 56.67% 29.0%

Location 1 Dula 10 35.45% 33.0%

Location 2 S. Muaherua 10 64.55% 25.0%

Location 3 Nacuela 10 70.00% 13.6%

This being established, we headed out of “deep Lolo”, towards areas closer to lines of commerce, in the direction of Takwane communities (see Map 2b in appendix A). Still, throughout our travels we were always testing Lolo mother-tongue speakers. As we progressed through Muaherua to Nacuela, the average scores increased (to 64.55% and 70.00%, respectively). Also the variance decreased (to 25% and 13.6, respectively), demonstrating more homogeneity in these groups toward Takwane bilingualism (see table 6).

There is no statistical difference8 between men and women in regard to these scores. The same is true between older (>30 years) and younger (<31 years) participants. Our only demographic figure that showed a difference in scores was exposure to other speech variety contexts. This figure was the culmination of several questions. Did the participant travel much? What were the mother tongues of the parents? Did he/she live outside of the Lolo speech community for extended periods? When these showed a broader exposure to other speech variety contexts, we studied their scores under the heading “High Exposure to Other Speech Varieties”. Overall, this division’s average scores fell above the threshold figure for intelligibility of Takwane (78.41%, threshold 75%. See table 7).

Table 7 – Takwane RTT scores divided by exposure to other speech varieties.

# of Participants Average Score

Standard Deviation

Low exposure, all locations 22 48.76% 28.2%

High exposure, all locations 8 78.41% 17.5%

Low Exposure, Location 1 (Dula) 9 29.29% 28.7%

High Exposure, Location 1 (Dula) 1 90.91% 0.0%

Low Exposure, Location 2 (S. Muaherua) 7

60.61%

16.9%

High Exposure, Location 2 (S. Muaherua) 3

87.88%

10.5%

Low Exposure, Location 3 (Nacuela) 8 High Exposure, Location 3 (Nacuela) 2

no statistical difference9

Data having figures above threshold levels for intelligibility indicated in bold.

We should note that in some areas, persons with such high exposure were not in abundance. Note that in Dula (Location 1), our test sample included only one person that met such criteria. We had low participation at South Muaherua (Location 2) as well. Although this is just a reflection of the linguistic isolation of the test locations, it still softens this conclusion.

We should also note that the figures from Nacuela (Location 3), our location closest to the Takwane community, did not demonstrate a statistical difference between the low exposure and high exposure groups. We might expect this, due to general proximity and hence high casual exposure to Takwane. Still, the general indication of these statistics (that linguistic exposure augments intelligibility) is not negated by the figures from Location 3; the figures are simply unable to support the indication.

Regardless of these weaknesses, we can be fairly certain our greatest contributor to score variation is exposure to Takwane.

4.3

Results from sociolinguistic questionnaires

Through lexico-statistical analysis and intelligibility testing, we have established from a linguistic point of view how the neighboring language development programs could not easily be applied to the Lolo community. The

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Statistical validity for comparing these pairs of data was found using the Mann-Whitney U test.

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question that remains is, do the Lolo themselves see it that way? Do they want their language developed independently from their neighbors?

The responses to the sociolinguistic questionnaires give us an overwhelming “yes”. No one in the Lolo speech community thought Lolo development should not happen. There is not even a hint of the sentiment that Sena, Chuwabu, Nyanja, or Takwane are superior speech varieties. Nor was it felt that what is developed by and for these others should be used for the Lolo.

The thirty participants described Lolo as nearly universal in its use at home, in the marketplace, and at church. Only one participant said they used Portuguese as the primary language at home, and three participants (all from Dula) said they used Nyanja in their market contacts. These three also described the use of Nyanja at church, but only with translation into Lolo. Various participants also mentioned Chuwabu, Portuguese, and Lomwe at times, but always as a secondary possibility for use in these contexts.

Seventeen responded to our question as to which language their children should learn first. All indicated Lolo except for one who thought it should be Portuguese.

5 Conclusion and recommendations

Of the six speech varieties bordering the Lolo community, that have or had a language development program,10 only Chuwabu and Takwane share sufficient cognates to possibly include the Lolo community in their scope of service. Of these two, Lolo speakers did not demonstrate sufficient intelligibility as to support inclusion in these language programs.

Regarding its comparison to the two other surveys, our work comes to the same basic conclusion found in the Shrums’ report (1998). Still, our results do not differ greatly with the Vintons’ results (1999). Rather, our results add focus to their results concerning Lolo. They found their test location to show a high level of intelligibility with Chuwabu. We found this area to have the highest level of such intelligibility throughout the Lolo community. Our research adds that the mean level of intelligibility does not reach a functional level, and is in fact learned.

Since there are no sociolinguistic opinions against such a course, the data recommends a separate

development program for the Lolo speech variety. Further, we recommend additional research on the applicability of a Lolo development program to the Marenje, Kokola, Valade, and Maoni. The data shows them as more lexically similar to Lolo than any other speech variety. The Lolo program could possibly be these communities’ best road toward language development.

Appendices

10

(13)

Map 1a: Mozambique, Province of Zambezia shaded.

Map 1b: Zambezia, District of

Morrumbala shaded.

Map 1c: Speech Varieties

of District of Morrumbala. Differing administrative posts shown by shading. Inset indicates area of Map 1d below.

Map 1d: General research area and

neighboring speech varieties.

(14)

Map 2a Route 1: Chuwabu RTT

July 1999

Map 2b Route 2: Takwane RTT

January 2000

(15)

Appendix B

Word list data

This should probably be titled “Morpheme List Data”, as there are few entire words listed here. All affixes, as best as possible, have been removed, so as not to skew the results. Each word asked for is listed in English and Portuguese, and is followed by the responses for the speech variety being investigated. Every response listed is preceded by a letter which indicates cognate grouping; all those responses utiliizing the same letter are judged to be cognates. Preceding this letter is the name of the speech variety.

1 arm braço

Lolo of Derre Center a| m uono***

Lolo of Dula a| wono***

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| m uono***

Takwane a| m ono***

Chwabo a| m ono***

Lolo(Valade?) a| !uonumoi

Manyawa Munguluni a| m uono*** Nyanja/Chichewa a| nk nnn***

Lolo of Dula d| tana

Lolo of Nyanzaza d| tana

Takwane c| duli*****

Lolo of Derre Center a| i0gulu

Lolo of Dula a| i0gulu

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| i0gulu

Takwane a| e gulu

Chwabo a| ru gulu

Lolo(Valade?) a| !i0gudu Manyawa Munguluni a| ru gulu

Nyanja/Chichewa c| mimb¡

Lolo of Derre Center a| sa0giri

Lolo of Dula a| sa0giri

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| sa0giri

Takwane a| sa0g'ri

Chwabo a| sa0g'ri

Lolo(Valade?) a| sa0g‹ri Manyawa Munguluni b| mwasi Nyanja/Chichewa c| g¡zi

Marenji d| k ame

Lolo(Valade?) a| nu0gu

Manyawa Munguluni b| mwi:li Nyanja/Chichewa d| t*upi

Marenji c| t*ut*u

Lolo(Valade?) a| s is i

Manyawa Munguluni a| t it i Nyanja/Chichewa a| t5*is i

Marenji a| s is i

Cocola a| s is i

Sena a| s is i

(16)

7 bone osso

Manyawa Munguluni b| k uva

Nyanja/Chichewa c| fup¡

Manyawa Munguluni a| b'le Nyanja/Chichewa a| ˜ere

Marenji a| b'le

Cocola a| b'li

Sena a| ˜'ri

Lomwe a| p'le

9 buttocks rabo

Lolo of Derre Center a| t au

Lolo of Dula a| t au

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| t au

Takwane a| t*au

Chwabo a| r ao

Lolo(Valade?) a| Ü au

Manyawa Munguluni a| r ao

Nyanja/Chichewa ==no entry===

Lolo of Derre Center a| aru

Lolo of Dula a| aru

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| aru

Takwane a| arÂ

Chwabo a| aru

Lolo(Valade?) a| arÂ

Manyawa Munguluni a| aro Nyanja/Chichewa d| k*utu

Marenji a| arÂ

Cocola a| aru

Sena d| k utu

Lomwe a| jaru

11 eye olho

Lolo of Derre Center b| so

Lolo of Dula b| so

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| so

Takwane a| nt o

Chwabo a| nt o

Lolo(Valade?) a| Ü*o

Manyawa Munguluni a| nt o

Nyanja/Chichewa b| su

Lolo of Derre Center a| buno

Lolo of Dula a| buno

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| buno

Takwane a| buno

Lolo of Derre Center a| jala

Lolo of Dula a| jala

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| jala

Takwane a| jala

Chwabo a| jala

Lolo(Valade?) a| jala

Manyawa Munguluni b| ek warukwa Nyanja/Chichewa d| k*¡&¡˜o

Marenji a| Õal¡

Cocola a| jala

Sena c| ngoli

(17)

14 foot pé

Lolo of Derre Center a| jalo

Lolo of Dula a| jalo

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| jalo

Takwane a| jalu

Chwabo a| Õalo

Lolo(Valade?) a| jalu

Manyawa Munguluni a| jalu Nyanja/Chichewa c| p*¡zi

Marenji a| alo

Lolo(Valade?) a| d and a

Manyawa Munguluni a| l a d a Nyanja/Chichewa a| dz¡n <a

Lolo of Derre Center b| muru

Lolo of Dula b| muru

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| muru

Takwane b| muru

Lolo of Derre Center a| rima

Lolo of Dula a| rima

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| rima

Takwane a| rima

Lolo of Derre Center b| njelu

Lolo of Dula b| njelu

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| njelu

Takwane c| ru bo

Chwabo c| ru bo

Lolo(Valade?) b| njelo

Manyawa Munguluni c| ru bu

Nyanja/Chichewa c| tumbo

Lolo of Dula a| bondo

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| bondo

Takwane b| kut a

Chwabo a| bo Ço

Lolo(Valade?) a| bondo

Manyawa Munguluni b| kut a Nyanja/Chichewa a| ˜nndn

(18)

21 mouth boca

Lolo of Derre Center a| lomu

Lolo of Dula a| lomu

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| lomo

Takwane a| lomo

Lolo of Derre Center b| t5umbu

Lolo of Dula b| t5umbu

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| t5ombo

Takwane a| toku

Chwabo a| teku

Lolo(Valade?) b| t5ombo

Manyawa Munguluni a| tukwa Nyanja/Chichewa b| t5nmbn

Marenji b| t5ombo Nyanja/Chichewa a| khns i

Marenji a| k o i

Lolo(Valade?) a| p*uno

Manyawa Munguluni a| p*una Nyanja/Chichewa a| f unn

Marenji a| p uno! Nyanja/Chichewa b| k*ungu

Marenji d| kwi’imba

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| sodi

Takwane b| t ori

Chwabo b| nt oˆi

Lolo(Valade?) a| !odi

Manyawa Munguluni b| t*ori Nyanja/Chichewa a| snzi

Marenji a| sodi

Cocola a| sodi

Sena a| sozi

Lomwe b| t ori

27 tongue língua

Lolo of Derre Center a| lu**mi

Lolo of Dula a| lu**mi

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| lu**mi

(19)

28 tooth dente Lolo of Derre Center a| no

Lolo of Dula a| no

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| no

Takwane a| no

Lolo of Derre Center c| o so

Lolo of Dula c| o so

Lolo of Nyanzaza c| o so

Takwane b| jedo

Chwabo b| riÇo

Lolo(Valade?) b| odo

Manyawa Munguluni b| rudo Nyanja/Chichewa c| kndzn

Marenji c| ˆo zn

Cocola c| o so

Sena e| tindo

Lomwe b| jodo

30 child criança

Lolo of Derre Center a| ana

Lolo of Dula a| ana

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ana

Takwane a| ana

Lolo of Derre Center a| ba ba

Lolo of Dula a| ba ba

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ba ba

Takwane a| aba ba

Chwabo a| ba ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| ba ba

Manyawa Munguluni a| aba ba Nyanja/Chichewa a| ˜ambo

Marenji a| ba ba

Cocola a| ba ba

Sena a| ba ba

Lomwe a| pa pa

32 human being ser humano

Lolo of Derre Center a| t*o

Manyawa Munguluni a| t u Nyanja/Chichewa a| nt*u

Marenji a| t u

Cocola a| u t*u

Sena a| u t*u

Lomwe a| c u

33 man homem

Lolo of Derre Center a| lombwana

Lolo of Dula a| lombwana

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| lombwana

Takwane a| lombwana

Chwabo a| lo bwana

Lolo(Valade?) b| ma

Manyawa Munguluni a| lombwana Nyanja/Chichewa d| mpnngn

Marenji a| lombwana

Cocola a| lombwana

Sena c| muna

Lomwe a| lo bwana

34 son filho

Lolo of Derre Center a| ana***

Lolo of Dula a| ana***

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ana***

Takwane a| ana***

Chwabo a| ana***

Lolo(Valade?) a| ana0ga

(20)

35 twins gémios

Lolo of Derre Center b| anasambili

Lolo of Dula b| anasambili

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| anasambini

Takwane c| anapat*a

Chwabo a| anakono

Lolo(Valade?) b| anasambili

Manyawa Munguluni c| anapat a Nyanja/Chichewa e| map ¡s¡

Marenji b| anasambili

Cocola d| kamwini Manyawa Munguluni a| !i ana Nyanja/Chichewa b| k¡zi

Marenji a| iˆana

Lolo(Valade?) a| Õjama

Manyawa Munguluni a| n ama Nyanja/Chichewa a| Õ¡m¡

Lolo of Derre Center a| balam'

Lolo of Dula a| mbalame

Manyawa Munguluni a| k u ** Nyanja/Chichewa a| k*u ku

Marenji b| koˆo

Lolo(Valade?) a| 0ombe

Manyawa Munguluni a| 0ombe Nyanja/Chichewa a| Ônmbe

Marenji a| 0ombe

Cocola a| 0ombe

Sena a| Ônmbe

Lomwe a| mo pe

41 dog cão

Lolo of Derre Center a| nambw a

Lolo of Dula a| nambw a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| nambw a

Takwane a| na bw a

Chwabo a| na bw a

Lolo(Valade?) a| nambw a

Manyawa Munguluni a| na bw'a

Nyanja/Chichewa b| galu

Marenji a| nambw a

Cocola a| nambw a

Sena a| nambw a

(21)

42 elephant elefante Lolo of Derre Center b| t embo

Lolo of Dula b| t embo

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| t embo

Takwane b| t*e bo

Chwabo b| d e o

Lolo(Valade?) a| d o u

Manyawa Munguluni b| t*e bo Nyanja/Chichewa a| nd<nvu

Marenji b| t 'mbo

Cocola b| t*'mbo

Sena a| n zo u

Lomwe b| t e bo

43 fish peixe

Lolo of Derre Center a| somb‹

Lolo of Dula a| somb‹

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| somb‹

Takwane a| somba

Chwabo a| o ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| somb¡

Manyawa Munguluni a| o ba

Nyanja/Chichewa a| somba

Marenji a| snmba

Cocola a| somba

Sena b| ¤jama za mazi

Lomwe c| hopa

44 goat cabra

Lolo of Derre Ctr. a| mbuzi******

Lolo of Dula a| mbudi******

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| mbuzi******

Takwane a| mbuzi******

Chwabo a| mbuzi******

Lolo(Valade?) a| mbudi!iiana Manyawa Munguluni a| mbusi******

Lolo(Valade?) b| k*alamu Manyawa Munguluni a| p o do goma

Nyanja/Chichewa d| kango

Lolo(Valade?) b| t*umbo

Manyawa Munguluni b| t*u bo Nyanja/Chichewa c| sa˜w'

Marenji b| t*umbo Manyawa Munguluni a| n o a Nyanja/Chichewa a| nznka

Marenji a| Õjowa

Cocola a| Õjowa

Sena a| njnka

Lomwe a| n owa

48 tortoise cágado

Lolo of Derre Center a| w amba

Lolo of Dula a| w amba

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| o; amba

Takwane a| k*a ba

Chwabo a| k a ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| w amba

Manyawa Munguluni a| k a ba Nyanja/Chichewa a| k ¡mb¡

(22)

50 egg ovo Lolo of Derre Center a| zai Lolo of Dula b| ond<e Lolo of Nyanzaza a| zai

Takwane b| o d<e

DISQUALIFIED: multiple senses between lists: fat, oil.

52 feather of a bird pena

Lolo of Derre Center a| t*e0ga Lolo of Dula a| t*e0ga Lolo of Nyanzaza c| tete

Takwane c| t'te

Chwabo a| t 'ng‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| t*'0g¡ Manyawa Munguluni c| tet' Nyanja/Chichewa a| t*'0g¡

Marenji a| t e0ga Manyawa Munguluni a| Õja ga Nyanja/Chichewa a| Õ¡ng¡

Lolo of Derre Center a| ila

Lolo of Dula a| ila

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ila

Takwane a| ila

Chwabo a| ila

Lolo(Valade?) a| ila

Manyawa Munguluni a| ila Nyanja/Chichewa a| 5ira

Marenji a| ila

Cocola a| ila

Sena a| ida

Lomwe a| ila

55 wing asa

Lolo of Derre Center b| p ep elo

Lolo of Dula b| p ep elo

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| p ep elo

Takwane b| ***p elo

Chwabo a| kapwa

Lolo(Valade?) b| p*ep*edu Manyawa Munguluni b| ***p elo Nyanja/Chichewa c| p*ikn

Marenji b| p ep elo

Cocola b| p*ep*elo

Sena b| p ap idu

Lomwe b| ***p*elo

56 lake lago

DISQUALIFIED: multiple senses between lists: “lake”, “puddle”, and “calm area in a river”.

57 mountain montanha

Lolo(Valade?) a| a0go

Manyawa Munguluni a| a0go Nyanja/Chichewa c| gnmn

Marenji a| a ko

Cocola a| a0go

Sena b| p*idi

Lomwe a| a ko

58 path caminho

Lolo of Derre Center a| d ila

Lolo of Dula a| d ila

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| d ila

Takwane a| d ila

Chwabo a| d ila

Lolo(Valade?) a| d il¡

Manyawa Munguluni a| d ila Nyanja/Chichewa a| d<ira

Marenji a| d ila

Cocola a| d ila

Sena b| njida

(23)

59 river rio Nyanja/Chichewa a| s in <'

Marenji a| +nd<e

Cocola a| iÔd<e

Sena c| kulo

Lomwe a| hi dze

60 village aldeia

DISQUALIFIED: multiple senses between lists: “neigbors”, “company-provided housing”, “intra-familiar dwelling area”, “small grouping, large grouping”, etc.

61 cloud nuvem

Lolo of Derre Center a| rambo

Lolo of Dula a| rambo

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| rambo

Takwane a| ra bo

Chwabo a| ra bo

Lolo(Valade?) a| rambo

Manyawa Munguluni a| ra bo Nyanja/Chichewa a| t¡mbu

Marenji a| rambn Nyanja/Chichewa a| 'zi

Marenji a| 'di

Cocola a| edi

Sena a| '<i

Lomwe a| eri

63 sky çeu

Lolo of Derre Center b| zulu

Lolo of Dula b| zulu

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| zulu

Takwane b| &ulu

Chwabo b| dulu

Lolo(Valade?) b| duru

Manyawa Munguluni b| dulu Nyanja/Chichewa d| kumu¡mb¡

Marenji c| wod<idimu

Cocola c| ****udimu

Lolo of Derre Center a| zuwa

Lolo of Dula a| zuwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| zuwa

Takwane a| & u a Nyanja/Chichewa a| Õ umba

Marenji a| Õjumba

Cocola a| Õjumba

Sena a| Õjumba

(24)

67 knife faca Nyanja/Chichewa a| p'ni

Marenji a| b'ne

Cocola a| b'ne

Sena a| p'ni

Lomwe b| mwalo

68 pot for cooking panela

Lolo of Derre Center c| jombwe

Lolo of Dula c| jombwe

Lolo of Nyanzaza c| jombwe

Takwane a| bia

Chwabo a| bi‹

Lolo(Valade?) c| jomb;e

Manyawa Munguluni a| bia Nyanja/Chichewa b| p*ika

Marenji c| d<nmbwe

Manyawa Munguluni b| go i Nyanja/Chichewa c| ingw'

Lolo of Derre Center a| inju

Lolo of Dula a| inju

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| inju

Takwane a| iÕju

Chwabo a| iÕju

Lolo(Valade?) a| iÕju

Manyawa Munguluni a| inju Nyanja/Chichewa b| t5'r'

Marenji a| iÕju

Cocola a| inju

Sena a| uÕju

Lomwe a| oÕ u

71 spear lança

Lolo of Derre Center a| ana0go

Lolo of Dula a| ana0go

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ana0go

Takwane a| ala go

Chwabo a| ala go

Lolo(Valade?) a| ala0go

Manyawa Munguluni a| ala go Nyanja/Chichewa e| knndn

Marenji a| 0gala ko

Cocola 0 vot5a(most likely a verb)

Sena d| Èipa

Lomwe 0 vak*a (most likely a verb)

72 stool banco Nyanja/Chichewa b| nk*arira

Marenji a| b and o

Cocola a| p*and u

Sena c| b ank u

Lomwe a| p a t*o

73 ash cinza

Lolo of Derre Center a| dor a

Lolo of Dula a| dor a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| dor a

Takwane a| dor a

Chwabo a| dur a

Lolo(Valade?) a| dor a

Manyawa Munguluni a| dur;a Nyanja/Chichewa c| p*ulusa

Marenji a| dor a

Cocola a| dur a

Sena b| Ènt*a

(25)

74 dew orvalho

Manyawa Munguluni b| 0game

Nyanja/Chichewa b| m ami

Lolo of Derre Center a| t*umbulu

Lolo of Dula a| t*umbulu

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| t*umbulu

Takwane b| t u bi**

Chwabo b| Ü*u bi**

Lolo(Valade?) a| t*umbudu

Manyawa Munguluni b| t*u bi** Nyanja/Chichewa b| f umbi**

Lolo of Derre Center a| lo

Lolo of Dula a| lo

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| n lo

Takwane a| nd o

Chwabo d| mot*o

Lolo(Valade?) a| lu

Manyawa Munguluni a| n lo Nyanja/Chichewa d| mnt o Manyawa Munguluni a| k w ini Nyanja/Chichewa a| k* uni

Marenji a| f uni

Manyawa Munguluni b| t ai a

Nyanja/Chichewa d| pansi

Lolo of Derre Center b| momba

Lolo of Dula b| momba

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| momba

Takwane a| gogo

Chwabo f| £ila

Lolo(Valade?) b| momb¡

Manyawa Munguluni a| gogo Nyanja/Chichewa c| t5*ulo

Marenji c| s ulo

Cocola b| momba

Sena d| utali

Lomwe e| tipo

80 rain chuva

Lolo of Derre Center a| zo0gwe

Lolo of Dula a| zo0gwe

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| zo0gwe

Takwane a| zo0gwe

Chwabo a| zo gwe

Lolo(Valade?) a| ndo0gwe

Manyawa Munguluni b| bula Nyanja/Chichewa b| vula

Marenji a| zo0gwe

Cocola a| zo0gwe

Sena b| vula

(26)

81 sand areia

Lolo of Derre Center b| seva

Lolo of Dula b| seva

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| seva

Takwane c| se0ga

Chwabo a| t*ak‹

Lolo(Valade?) b| use$¡

Manyawa Munguluni c| se0ga Nyanja/Chichewa c| t5'nga

Marenji b| useva

Lolo(Valade?) a| wit5*i Manyawa Munguluni a| i s i Nyanja/Chichewa a| ut5*i

Marenji a| wit5*i

Cocola a| wit5*i

Sena a| ut5*i

Lomw a| i s i

83 stone pedra

Lolo of Derre Center b| bwe

Lolo of Dula b| bwe

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| bwe

Takwane b| bwe

Lolo of Derre Center a| ind<e Lolo of Dula a| ind<e Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ind<e

Takwane a| ind<e

Chwabo a| n£ e

Lolo(Valade?) a| !i0g e Manyawa Munguluni b| & e

Nyanja/Chichewa a| a dzi

Marenji a| !ind<e

Cocola a| !i0d<e

Sena a| dzi

Lomwe b| h i

85 wind (move leaves) vento

Lolo of Derre Ctr. a| p*ev o Manyawa Munguluni b| t egu Nyanja/Chichewa c| kanpuripuri

Manyawa Munguluni b| t a0ku Nyanja/Chichewa b| t 'ngo

Marenji b| t engo

Cocola b| t*e0go

Sena a| ti

Lomwe a| ri

87 flower flor

Lolo of Derre Center b| t ondo

Lolo of Dula b| t ondo

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| t*ondo

Takwane b| t*o do

Chwabo a| Îu a

Lolo(Valade?) a| luwa

Manyawa Munguluni b| t u du

Nyanja/Chichewa a| luwa

Marenji a| luwa

Cocola a| lu a

Sena a| duwa

(27)

88 bark of a tree casca Nyanja/Chichewa d| k ok o

Marenji c| ku0gwa

Cocola b| 0gura

Sena d| k*ok*o

Lomwe a| kapa

89 leaf folha

Lolo of Derre Center b| t ak uru

Lolo of Dula b| t ak uru

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| t ak uru

Takwane b| t ak uru

Chwabo a| t a ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| t* amba Manyawa Munguluni b| t ak uru

Nyanja/Chichewa a| samba Manyawa Munguluni a| si si

Nyanja/Chichewa c| muzu

Manyawa Munguluni b| &o Nyanja/Chichewa c| t*angala

Marenji a| beu

Cocola a| beo

Sena a| beu

Lomwe a| peo

92 war guerra

Lolo of Derre Center a| k ondo

Lolo of Dula a| k ondo

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| k*ondo

Takwane a| k*o do

Chwabo a| k*o Ço

Lolo(Valade?) a| k*ondu

Manyawa Munguluni a| k*o Ço Nyanja/Chichewa a| k*nndn

Marenji a| k ondn

Cocola a| k ondo

Sena a| k nndo

Lomwe a| k n co

93 hunger fome

Lolo of Derre Center a| dal a

Lolo of Dula a| dal a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| dal a

Takwane a| dal a

Chwabo a| dal a

Lolo(Valade?) a| dar a

Manyawa Munguluni a| dal a Nyanja/Chichewa a| <¡l ¡

Lolo of Derre Center a| zina

Lolo of Dula a| zina

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| zina

Takwane a| d ina

Chwabo a| zina

Lolo(Valade?) a| d ina

Manyawa Munguluni a| &ina

Nyanja/Chichewa a| dzina

Marenji a| zina

Cocola a| zina

Sena a| dzina

(28)

95 night noite

Lolo(Valade?) c| nama!iu Manyawa Munguluni a| !i u

Lolo of Derre Center a| ja ka

Lolo of Dula a| ja w a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ja ka

Takwane a| ja ka

Chwabo a| ja ka

Lolo(Valade?) a| ja w a

Manyawa Munguluni a| ja: ka Nyanja/Chichewa a| dza ka

DISQUALIFIED: onomatopoetic entries - all but Sena

98 to bite morder

Lolo of Derre Center a| luma

Lolo of Dula a| luma

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| luma

Takwane a| luma

Lolo of Derre Center a| ze**la

Lolo of Dula a| ze**la

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ze**la

Takwane a| 8e**la

Chwabo a| de**la

Lolo(Valade?) a| de**d¡

Manyawa Munguluni a| &e**la Nyanja/Chichewa a| zi**ra Nyanja/Chichewa f| tet*a

Marenji a| t umeˆa

Cocola c| vija

Sena d| pisa

Lomwe e| jela

101 to bury enterrar

Lolo of Derre Center c| vu elela Lolo of Dula c| vu!elela Lolo of Nyanzaza c| vu!elela

Takwane a| ti bela

Chwabo a| ti bela

Lolo(Valade?) b| !umber¡ Manyawa Munguluni a| ti b'la Nyanja/Chichewa f| kwirira

Marenji a| timbela

Cocola c| vu elela

Sena d| fikira

Lomwe e| hela

102 to come vir

Lolo of Derre Center a| ze

Lolo of Dula a| za

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| za

(29)

103 to cook cozinhar Nyanja/Chichewa a| p*ika

Marenji a| p iˆa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| k ot omula

Takwane a| k ot omola

Chwabo a| k nt omol‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| k ot *omul¡ Manyawa Munguluni a| k ot omola Nyanja/Chichewa a| k nts*nmnla

Marenji a| k ot omola

Cocola a| k ot omula

Sena a| k o s **nla

Lomwe a| k*ot *omola

105 to count contar

Lolo of Derre Center e| contari

Lolo of Dula d| ale0ga

Lolo of Nyanzaza e| contari

Takwane b| anag a

Chwabo a| e0ges‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| i0ges¡ Manyawa Munguluni b| alak anha Nyanja/Chichewa d| 'renga

Marenji d| eli0ga

Lolo(Valade?) a| d a la

Manyawa Munguluni a| a la

Nyanja/Chichewa 0 ==no data===

Lolo of Derre Center a| kwa

Lolo of Dula a| kwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| kwa

Takwane a| kwa

Manyawa Munguluni b| wiri a

Nyanja/Chichewa a| mwa

Lolo(Valade?) a| d<a Manyawa Munguluni a| d<a Nyanja/Chichewa a| Èja

Marenji a| d<a

Cocola a| d<a

Sena a| dja

(30)

110 to fall cair

Lolo of Derre Center c| ****gwa

Lolo of Dula c| ****gwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza c| ****gwa

Takwane c| t*u0gwa

111 to fear ter medo

Lolo of Derre Center a| ova

Lolo of Dula a| ova

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ova

Takwane a| ova

Lolo of Derre Center a| vava

Lolo of Dula a| vava

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| p urumuwa

Takwane a| vava

Chwabo a| vava

Lolo(Valade?) b| p*urumu a Manyawa Munguluni a| vava

114 to give birth dar a luz Lolo of Derre Center a| bala

Lolo of Dula a| bala

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| bala

Takwane a| bala

Chwabo a| bala

Lolo(Valade?) a| mbara

Manyawa Munguluni b| jara

Lolo of Derre Center a| vwa

Lolo of Dula a| vwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| vwa

Takwane a| wa

Lolo of Derre Center b| k oma

Lolo of Dula b| k oma

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| k oma

Takwane c| dwa&a

Chwabo a| vaÇa

Lolo(Valade?) b| k*oma

Manyawa Munguluni f| kut*a Nyanja/Chichewa d| m'Õ a

Marenji b| k oma

Cocola b| k oma

Sena d| m'Õja

(31)

117 to hunt caçar Lolo of Derre Center b| saja

Lolo of Dula b| saja

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| saja

Takwane b| saia

Manyawa Munguluni a| ip a Nyanja/Chichewa a| p*a

Marenji a| p*a

Cocola a| p*a

Sena a| p*a

Lomwe a| ip a

119 to know (a person) conhecer Lolo of Derre Center c| nona

Lolo of Dula a| + ziwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| + ziwa

Takwane c| nona

Chwabo a| ziwa

Lolo(Valade?) a| id iwa

Manyawa Munguluni b| &u ela

Nyanja/Chichewa a| dziwa

Manyawa Munguluni a| t e a Nyanja/Chichewa b| s'k¡

DISQUALIFIED: several word lists used “to break”, which is a synonym for “to leave” in Portuguese.

122 to lie down deitar-se

Lolo of Derre Center a| g ona t*i Lolo of Dula a| g ona t*i Lolo of Nyanzaza a| g ona t*i

Takwane a| k onant i

Chwabo a| g onant i

Lolo(Valade?) a| 0g ona t i Manyawa Munguluni d| wit*ua Nyanja/Chichewa a| g nn¡

Lolo of Derre Center a| t el**a

Lolo of Dula a| t el**a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| t*el**u

Takwane a| t el**a

Chwabo a| t el**a

Lolo(Valade?) a| t*el**¡ Manyawa Munguluni a| t*el**a Nyanja/Chichewa d| kw¡tira

Marenji a| t 'liwa

Cocola a| t*el**a

Sena c| kazari

Lomwe a| t el**a

124 to play jogar (c bolo)

Lolo of Derre Center c| voka

Lolo of Dula g| poÕja Nyanja/Chichewa b| sew'ra

Marenji d| vot5a

Cocola d| vot5a

Sena e| sinz'ka

Lomwe f| ovia

125 to pour derramar

(32)

126 to press, squeeze espremer

Manyawa Munguluni a| wet a Nyanja/Chichewa f| knk¡

Marenji c| t*ut*umula

Cocola c| t*ut*umula

Sena d| kweja

Lomwe a| wet a

128 to push empurrar

DISQUALIFIED: multiple senses between lists: push, shove, etc.

129 to say dizer

Lolo of Derre Center b| mwandela

Lolo of Dula b| mwandela

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| mwandela

Takwane b| mwa dela

Chwabo e| mpa0g‹

Lolo(Valade?) b| mwand‹la

Manyawa Munguluni b| m u lela Nyanja/Chichewa g| n'n¡

DISQUALIFIED: multiple senses between lists: scratch, itch, pinch

131 to see ver

Lolo of Derre Center a| ona

Lolo of Dula a| ona

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ona

Takwane a| ona

132 to send (somebody) enviar

Lolo of Derre Center c| va!ed**a

Lolo of Dula b| rumi!a

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| rumi!a

Takwane b| rum a

Chwabo b| rum ‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| mamwand‹da

Manyawa Munguluni b| rum a Nyanja/Chichewa b| tum ¡

Manyawa Munguluni b| ni!a Nyanja/Chichewa d| wnnets*a

Marenji b| ni!a

Cocola b| ni!a

Sena c| pa0giza

Lomwe b| niha

134 to sing cantar

Lolo of Derre Center a| imba

Lolo of Dula a| imba

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| imba

Takwane a| i ba

Chwabo a| i ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| omba

(33)

135 to sit down sentar-se Lolo of Derre Center a| g arat i

Lolo of Dula a| g arat i

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| g arat i

Takwane a| k 'rat i

Chwabo a| k ilat i

a| g ilat i

Lolo(Valade?) a| k at i

Manyawa Munguluni a| k arat i Nyanja/Chichewa a| k*ala***

Marenji a| k arat*i

Cocola a| g arat i

Sena a| k ala***

Lomwe a| k irat i

136 to sleep dormir

Lolo of Derre Center a| gona***

Lolo of Dula a| gona***

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| gona***

Takwane a| konanti

Chwabo a| gona***

Lolo(Valade?) a| gona*ti

Manyawa Munguluni a| gona*** Nyanja/Chichewa a| gnna***

Marenji a| gona***

Lolo(Valade?) a| nu k a

Manyawa Munguluni a| u0 k a Nyanja/Chichewa a| nunk* a

Marenji a| nu k a Nyanja/Chichewa b| l¡pula

Marenji c| t*ap*a****

Cocola c| t*ap*a****

Sena b| pula

Lomwe c| t*ap*a****

139 to split rachar (lenha) Lolo of Derre Center a| p a rula

Lolo of Dula a| p a rula

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| p a rula

Takwane a| p*a rula

Chwabo a| p a rula

Lolo(Valade?) a| p a rula

Manyawa Munguluni a| p*a rula Nyanja/Chichewa c| w¡z¡

Marenji a| p*a rula

Cocola a| p*a rula

Sena a| p andula

Lomwe b| t ala

140 to stand up levantar-se Lolo of Derre Center a| venj a

Lolo of Dula a| venj a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| venj a

Takwane a| venj a

Chwabo a| v'nj a

Lolo(Valade?) b| $eati

Manyawa Munguluni a| venj a Nyanja/Chichewa d| imirira

Lolo of Derre Center b| ba

Lolo of Dula b| ba

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| ba

Takwane a| ija

Chwabo a| i ‹

Lolo(Valade?) b| ba

Manyawa Munguluni a| i a Nyanja/Chichewa b| ˜a

Marenji b| ba

Cocola b| ba

Sena b| ba

(34)

142 to suck chupar

Manyawa Munguluni d| nu la

Nyanja/Chichewa h| j¡0¡

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| z imba****

Takwane a| & i ba****

Chwabo a| v i b‹****

Lolo(Valade?) a| d imba****

Manyawa Munguluni a| w i ba**** Nyanja/Chichewa b| tup¡

Marenji a| z imba****

Cocola a| z imba****

Sena a| pswimba****

Lomwe a| w i pa****

144 to swim nadar

Lolo of Derre Center a| ambel'la

Lolo of Dula a| ambel'la

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ambel'la

Takwane b| raba

Chwabo a| !a belela

Lolo(Valade?) a| ambelela

Manyawa Munguluni b| raba Nyanja/Chichewa d| b¡dira

Marenji a| samberera

Lolo(Valade?) b| poÕja

Manyawa Munguluni b| voÕ a Nyanja/Chichewa b| poÕ a

Marenji a| vot5a******

Cocola a| vot5a******

Sena b| poÕja

Lomwe d| tik‹

146 to dry secar

Lolo of Derre Center a| um a

Lolo of Dula a| um a

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| um a

Takwane a| um a

Chwabo a| um ‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| umia

Manyawa Munguluni a| um a

Nyanja/Chichewa a| um a

Lolo(Valade?) a| o0ga

Manyawa Munguluni b| lo da Nyanja/Chichewa c| j¡nk*ula

Marenji a| ˆo ka

Cocola a| u0ga

Sena a| lo0ga

Lomwe b| lo ca

148 to get wet molhar

Lolo of Derre Center a| Õjet* a Manyawa Munguluni b| nan a Nyanja/Chichewa e| Õnw¡

Marenji c| vuega

Cocola a| Õj't* a

Sena d| tot'sa

(35)

149 to vomit vomitar Lolo of Derre Center a| raveja

Lolo of Dula a| raveja

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| raveja

Takwane a| raveja

Chwabo a| Üapika

Lolo(Valade?) a| ra$e a Manyawa Munguluni a| rapeja Nyanja/Chichewa c| s¡nz¡

Marenji a| raveˆa Nyanja/Chichewa a| 'nd a

Marenji a| end a

Cocola a| 'nd a

Sena b| famba

Lomwe a| '£ a

151 to want querer

Lolo of Derre Center a| funa

Lolo of Dula a| funa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| funa

Takwane a| funa

152 to bathe(ysf) tomar banho Lolo of Derre Center a| amba

Lolo of Dula a| ! amba Nyanja/Chichewa a| s¡mb¡

Marenji a| amba

Cocola a| amba

Sena a| samba

Lomwe a| r a pa

153 to wash(a pot) lavar Lolo of Derre Center a| uwa

Lolo of Dula a| uwa

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| uwa

Takwane a| !u a

Chwabo c| fula

Lolo(Valade?) a| u a

Manyawa Munguluni a| su a Nyanja/Chichewa d| 5¡p¡

Lolo of Derre Ctr. b| lini

Lolo of Dula b| ludi

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| lidi

Takwane e| zulu

Chwabo d| **munÇuˆi

Lolo(Valade?) b| livi

Manyawa Munguluni d| **mu dori Nyanja/Chichewa a| jimba luz i

Marenji b| lidi

Lolo(Valade?) b| imbo!i

Manyawa Munguluni a| mo&a

Nyanja/Chichewa c| modzi

Marenji b| m o!i

Cocola b| m o!i

Sena c| potsi

(36)

156 two dois Lolo of Derre Center a| bili

Lolo of Dula a| bili

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| bili

Takwane a| bili

Lolo of Derre Center a| t aru

Lolo of Dula a| t aru

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| t aru

Takwane a| Ü aru

Chwabo a| Ü aru

Lolo(Valade?) a| r aru

Manyawa Munguluni a| t*aru

Nyanja/Chichewa a| t atu

Lolo of Derre Center a| na i

Lolo of Dula a| na i

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| na i

Takwane a| na i

Chwabo a| na i^

Lolo(Valade?) a| na ii

Manyawa Munguluni a| na i Nyanja/Chichewa a| n¡ ji

Marenji a| na i

Cocola a| na i

Sena a| na i

Lomwe a| na i

159 five cinco

Lolo of Derre Center a| t anu

Lolo of Dula a| t anu

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| t anu

Takwane a| t*anu

Chwabo a| t anu

Lolo(Valade?) a| t ano

Manyawa Munguluni a| t anu Nyanja/Chichewa a| s ¡nu

Marenji a| t anu

Cocola a| t anu

Sena a| 5 anu

Lomwe a| t anu

160 six seis

DISQUALIFIED: phrasal, “1 + 5”

161 seven sete

DISQUALIFIED: phrasal, “2 + 5”

162 eight oito

DISQUALIFIED: phrasal, “3 + 5”

163 nine nove

DISQUALIFIED: phrasal, “4 + 5”

164 ten dez

Lolo of Derre Center a| k umi

Lolo of Dula a| k umi

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| k umi

Takwane a| k umi

Chwabo a| k umi

Lolo(Valade?) a| k umi

Manyawa Munguluni a| k umi Nyanja/Chichewa a| k*umi

Marenji a| k*umi

Cocola a| k umi

Sena a| k umi

Lomwe a| k umi

165 all todos

Lolo of Derre Center a| eteni

Lolo of Dula a| eteni

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| eteni

Takwane a| at'ne

Chwabo a| t'ni

Lolo(Valade?) a| ot‹ne

Manyawa Munguluni a| at'ne Nyanja/Chichewa b| nns'

Marenji a| 'teni

Cocola a| at'ne

Sena a| s'ni

(37)

166 dirty sujo

Lolo of Derre Ctr. b| t ak al******a Lolo of Dula b| t ak al******a Lolo of Nyanzaza b| t ak al******a

Takwane b| t ak an******a

Chwabo a| opigi&ea

Lolo(Valade?) b| t ak al******a Manyawa Munguluni e| onanara Nyanja/Chichewa f| rits*iro

Marenji b| t*ak*al******a

Cocola b| t*ak al******a

Sena b| t5ak uÕjanjasa

Lomwe 0 susu (Pt borrow?

(sujo))

167 dry seco

Lolo of Derre Center a| **** uma

Lolo of Dula a| **** uma

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ****;uma

Takwane a| **** uma

Chwabo a| **** um‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| ****!uma

Manyawa Munguluni a| **** uma

Nyanja/Chichewa a| **** uma

Lolo of Derre Center a| zala

Lolo of Dula a| zala

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| zala

Takwane a| &ala

Chwabo a| éala

Lolo(Valade?) a| dala

Manyawa Munguluni a| &ala Nyanja/Chichewa c| dz¡dz¡

Marenji a| zala

Cocola a| zala

Sena a| t5ala

Lomwe b| ovona

169 good(thing) boa/bom

Lolo of Derre Center b| jap ama

Lolo of Dula b| jap ama

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| jap ama

Takwane b| jap ama

Chwabo a| ziv‹

Lolo(Valade?) b| jap ama

Manyawa Munguluni b| jap ama Nyanja/Chichewa d| ˜winn

Marenji b| **p*ama

Cocola b| jap*ama

Sena c| adidi

Lomwe b| **p ama

170 left (hand) esquerdo

Lolo of Derre Center e| orumana

Lolo of Dula e| orumana

Lolo of Nyanzaza e| orumana

Takwane c| o0 ot*u

Chwabo a| nemara

Lolo(Valade?) b| konozweli

Manyawa Munguluni c| onjet u Nyanja/Chichewa d| **m¡nz'r'

Lolo of Derre Center a| od<ana Lolo of Dula a| od<ana Lolo of Nyanzaza a| od<ana

Takwane a| od<a**

Chwabo g| o£ a**

Lolo(Valade?) a| mad<u** Manyawa Munguluni a| od<a** Nyanja/Chichewa a| m¡n<¡** Takwane a| &i djindji

Chwabo e| gwe

Lolo(Valade?) a| $ind<i d<i Manyawa Munguluni c| &owada

Nyanja/Chichewa f| mbiri

Marenji b| vit‹t5i

Cocola a| vind<i d<i

Sena d| zin ji

(38)

173 new novo

Lolo(Valade?) b| ip i a

Manyawa Munguluni a| e 5 a

DISQUALIFIED: multiple forms: “rotate”, “wrap up”, “round”, etc.

175 black cor preta

Lolo of Derre Center a| ***jodimba

Lolo of Dula a| ***jodimba

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| ***jodi ba

Takwane a| *** ri ba

Chwabo a| *** ri ba

Lolo(Valade?) a| *** dimba

Manyawa Munguluni a| *** ri ba Nyanja/Chichewa b| Èa

Marenji a| kod<odimba

Cocola a| ***jodimba

Sena c| pswipa

Lomwe a| *** ri ba

176 red cor encarnada

Lolo of Derre Center a| fila

Lolo of Dula a| fila

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| fila

Takwane a| fila

Lolo of Derre Center a| it5ena

Lolo of Dula a| it5ena

Lolo of Nyanzaza a| it5ena

Takwane a| t5'na

Chwabo a| cen‹

Lolo(Valade?) a| t5‹na

Manyawa Munguluni b| jawela Nyanja/Chichewa b| j 'ra

Marenji b| wela

Cocola b| wela

Sena a| t5'na

Lomwe b| jawela

178 fat(thing) gordo

Lolo of Derre Ctr. d| ruva

Lolo of Dula d| ruva

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| oluk ula*******

Takwane d| oruva

Chwabo a| okuma

Lolo(Valade?) b| oluk* manu0ga

Manyawa Mungulun c| onen'va Nyanja/Chichewa c| nen'pa

Marenji d| oruva

Cocola d| ruva

Sena a| kuma

Lomwe c| onenava

179 large(thing) grande

Lolo of Derre Center a| indimua

Lolo of Dula b| *iluk ulu

Lolo of Nyanzaza b| *iluk ulu

Takwane c| e lubali

Chwabo a| 'nÇumu‹

Lolo(Valade?) b| *iluk*ulu Manyawa Munguluni c| enlubali Nyanja/Chichewa b| ** k ulu

Marenji b| ˆuluk ulu Manyawa Munguluni a| k u ve a

Nyanja/Chichewa d| fupika

Marenji a| k wiviˆa

Cocola a| k wiv a

Sena c| viva

Gambar

Table 2 – Overall
Table 5 – Chuwabu scores divided by
Table 6 – Takwane RTT scores

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