A STUDY ON ENGLISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE USE OF THE ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INTERACTION IN THE IMMERSION CLASSES AT SMA NEGERI 1 KLATEN

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A STUDY ON ENGLISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS

OF THE USE OF THE ENGLISH

AS A MEDIUM OF INTERACTION IN THE IMMERSION

CLASSES AT SMA NEGERI 1 KLATEN

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Fransiska Ninditya Kusumaningrum

Student Number: 051214051

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

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Non scholae sed vitae discimus

This thesis is dedicated to:

My parents

My brother and sister

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STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or

parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the

references, as a scientific paper should.

Yogyakarta, 29 July 2008

The writer,

Fransiska Ninditya Kusumaningrum

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ABSTRACT

Kusumaningrum, Fransiska Ninditya. 2009. A Study on English Teachers’ Perceptions of the Use of English as a Medium of Interaction in the Immersion Classes at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

SMA Negeri 1 Klaten was pointed by the Central Java Government as a school which was trusted to implement the immersion class program. Immersion class was a program made by the Central Java Government to prepare an International Standard School in Central Java Province. The understanding of immersion classes was to make students learn English more effectively if they use English as a means to gain meaningful and contextual information.

This research was a survey study. The samples of this research were the English teachers who teach immersion classes at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. To obtain the data from the respondents, the writer used interview and questionnaire.

Since English is used as a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process, this study aimed to find out the English language teachers’ perceptions about the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion classes in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten.

There were two problems formulated in this research. The first problem was what the English teachers’ perceptions about the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion classes at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. The second one was why the English teachers have such perceptions about the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion classes at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten.

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ABSTRAK

Kusumaningrum, Fransiska Ninditya. 2009. A Study on English Teachers’ Perceptions of the Use of English as a Medium of Interaction in the Immersion Classes at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

SMA Negeri 1 Klaten ditunjuk oleh Pemerintah Provinsi jawa Tengah sebagai sebuah sekolah yang dipercaya untuk menyelenggarakan kelas imersi. Kelas imersi merupakan sebuah program yang dinuat oleh Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Tengah untuk mempersiapkan rintisan Sekolah Berstandar Internasional di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Kelas imersi mengandung pemahaman bahwa siswa dapat belajar Bahasa Inggris lebih efektif bila mereka menggunakan bahasa tersebut sebagai alat untuk memperoleh informasi yang bermakna dan kontekstual.

Penelitian ini merupakan sebuah survei. Sampel dari penelitian ini adalah guru – guru Bahasa Inggris di SMA Negeri 1 Klaten yang mengajar kelas imersi. Untuk memperoleh data yang diperlukan, penulis menggunakan dua instrumen yaitu wawancara dan kuesioner.

Penelitian ini membahas dua masalah. Yang pertama mengenai persepsi guru Bahasa Inggris terhadap penggunaan Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar dalam proses kegiatan belajar mengajar di kelas imersi SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. Yang kedua mengenai alasan mengapa guru – guru memiliki persepsi seperti itu.

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LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN

PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma : Nama : Fransiska Ninditya Kusumaningrum

Nomor Mahasiswa : 05 1214 051

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Uni-versitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul :

A STUDY ON ENGLISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE USE OF THE ENGLISH

AS A MEDIUM OF INTERACTION IN THE IMMERSION CLASSES AT SMA NEGERI 1 KLATEN

beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, me-ngalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun mem-berikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal : 04 September 2009

Yang menyatakan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank Jesus Christ for His blessings and guidance,

so I can finish my undergraduate thesis. His plans are always the best for my life.

I am deeply indebted to Mr. Drs. Concilianus Laos Mbato, M.A. for the

advice, support, and criticism in finishing my thesis. My deepest appreciation goes to

Mr. F.X. Ouda Teda Ena, S.Pd., M.Pd. for his big support, so I could finish this

thesis. I also thank Sanata Dharma University and all PBI lecturers for giving

opportunity to develop myself.

My deepest love and gratitude go to my mother, Florentina Kiswandarti, my

brother and sister, Nikolaus Hendy Bimo Hendrawan and Bernadetta Yoshinta

Kusumawardhani, and my best man I have ever had, Daniel Binar Kumoro, for their

support and never ending love. My special gratitude goes to Radix Wikanto and

family for the support and pray.

I also give my special gratitude to SMA Negeri 1 Klaten teachers, Mrs. Dra.

Widi Astuti, Mrs. Etty Suryandarwati P., S.Pd., and Mrs. Dra. Sulistyowati for giving

me help and support while I was conducting my research.

My special thanks go to my best friends, Monica Ella Harendita, Kanina

Pramesi, Ayoe Risna Hanna Kusuma, and Ignatius Indra Kristianto for the times we

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1. The English Language Teachers’ Perception Based on the Interview…………31

a. English Language as a Medium of Interaction Based on an English

2. The English Language teachers’ Perception Based on the Questionnaire...35

3. Discussion………...39

a. The use of English Language as a Medium of Interaction Motivated both Teachers and Students in Improving Their English Language Skills…...…39

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B. The Reason Causing the English Language Teachers Have Such Perception about

the Use of English Language as the Medium of Interaction in Immersion

Class...41

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION

A. Conclusion...44

B. Suggestion...46

REFERENCES………....47

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1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the research background, problem formulation, and

problem limitation of the research. In addition, this chapter also discusses the

objectives, benefits, and definition of terms of this research.

A. Research Background

Language is a means of communication in many fields, such as: trade,

economic, politic, and education. According to Shannon and Weaver (2008,

http://iperpin.wordpress.com/tag/shannon-weaver/), as part of social behavior,

communication is any means by which one person or creature brings about a change

in the knowledge or behavior of another person or creature. The word

“communication” comes from a Latin word, “commonness”. Communication is definable as a mutual exchange between two or more individuals which enhances

cooperation and establishes commonality. Besides, communication is also seen as

dynamic, not static, and as depending on the negotiation of meaning between two or

more persons who share some knowledge of the language being used.

In educational field, language which is a means of communication is used to

share and transfer knowledge from teachers to pupils. In the teaching and learning

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the materials which are taught to the students. As stated by Boinger that language is

not only necessary for the formulation of thought, but is part of the thinking process

itself (Boinger, 1975: 236), the teaching and learning process which happens in the

schools will not going on well if neither the teachers nor the students do not have

capability in using language to communicate.

Language is more than just a means of communication in the teaching and

learning process. The use of language affects the purpose of the teaching and learning

process. The language used by the teacher in teaching class could affect how well the

students understand the materials. Students would get better understanding if the

teacher uses good language delivering materials. Good language in this case means a

language used by the teacher which can be understood well by the students.

Therefore, language can be one of the measurements in the success of the teaching

and learning process.

English has become a language which is mostly used in the world. English is

recognized as a world language which is used by people to communicate in order to

get information on what is happening in the world. For that reason, people are trying

to be able to acquire English skills in order to fulfill the demands of the global world.

In Indonesia, English is taught as a foreign language because the mother tongue of

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It offers a chance that for advancement in their professional lives. They will get a better job with two languages than if they only know their mother tongue. English has a special position here since it has become the international language of communication (Harmer, 1991:1).

In some Indonesian senior high schools, English is taught as a subject lesson

based on the relevant curriculum. Nevertheless, English is not merely a subject lesson

anymore nowadays. English has become a need for the students in gaining

knowledge. One of the evidence that English plays an important role in educational

field is the emerging of classrooms which use English as the medium of interaction in

some Indonesian senior high schools. This kind of classrooms is usually known as

international classes or immersion classes.

SMA Negeri 1 Klaten was one of the schools in Central Java Province which

was appointed by the local government to be an International standard school in

Central Java. In achieving the status of international standard school, there was a

program that the school should implement, which was called immersion class. In

Central Java Province, immersion class is a first step program to achieve an

International Standard School. Immersion class is a class which the medium of

interaction is using English. The implementation of immersion class in Central Java

province was a result of a comparison study between Culture and Education

Department of Central Java Province (Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Jawa Tengah) and Australia government in Queensland, Australia on July – August 2002. Therefore, in some senior high schools in Central Java, immersion class is

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Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah, 2008). Immersion class program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten has been started in the academic year of

2006/2007. This year becomes the first graduation of immersion class in SMA Negeri

1 Klaten.

In immersion class of SMA Negeri 1 Klaten, English is not just merely a

subject lesson, but also a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process.

By using English as the medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process,

the students are expected to increase their ability English skills, written and orally. In

the case of learning English as a foreign language, immersion program contains an

understanding that the students can learn English effectively when they use the

language as a means to communicate in the contextual and meaningful information.

From the use of medium of interaction, immersion class is different from

regular classes which have already existed before; however the materials given to the

students are similar because both immersion classes and regular classes are in the

same curriculum. Nevertheless, the practice of immersion class in some Indonesian

senior high schools does not fit to its main purpose. One thing that covers the major

problems in immersion program is the use of English as the medium of interaction in

the teaching and learning process.

On one side, the immersion class students experience that their non-English

teachers do not use English as the medium of interaction in the teaching and learning

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motivated in the teaching and learning process. Thus, the use of English as a medium

of interaction is not functioned yet to be applied in immersion program. As stated in

the book of “English in the World Today” that:

In foreign language situations of this kind, therefore, the hundreds of thousands of learners of English tend to have an instrumental motivation for learning the foreign language. The teaching of modern languages in schools has an educational function, and the older learner who deliberately sets out to learn English has a clear instrumental intention: he wants to visit England, to be able to communicate with English-speaking tourists or friends, to be able to read English in books and newspaper (Unknown, 1998).

On the other side, the English teachers are suspicious of the students’ ability

in receiving knowledge that they teach. Therefore, the ability of teaching that the

teachers have is really needed in this case. Moreover, the English skills of the

teachers are also important for the persistence of immersion program. Hence, this

research is conducted to find the perceptions of the English teachers in using English

language as a medium of interaction in immersion program.

B. Problem Formulation

This research develops the problems that emerge in the practice of immersion

students in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten, especially from the English teachers’ point of

view. Thus, the problems are formulated into two questions:

1. What are the English language teachers’ perceptions of the use of English

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2. Why do the English teachers have such perceptions of the use of English

language as a medium of interaction in immersion class?

C. Problem Limitation

This research concerns on the English teachers’ perception in using English as

a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process in immersion classes of

SMA Negeri 1 Klaten.

D. Research Objectives

This research is aimed to find the solutions on the problem of using English as

a medium of interaction in immersion class. Besides, this research is also aimed to

provide a reality in the practice of immersion classes in senior high school.

Furthermore, the objectives of this research will be pointed as below:

1. To find the perceptions of English teachers of the use of English as a

medium of interaction in immersion class.

2. To find the reasons why the English teachers have such perceptions of the

use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class.

E. Research Benefits

The benefits of this research can be useful for all the roles of educational

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a. English Teachers of Immersion Program:

The result of this research can provide the perceptions of English

teachers in using English as a medium of interaction in teaching immersion

class. Afterwards, the English teachers can also reflect their practice teaching

and are expected to improve their teaching skills, especially in using English

as a medium of interaction in teaching speaking to immersion class’ students.

b. Immersion Program Students:

It is expected for the students to know their English teachers’

perceptions in using English as a medium of interaction in teaching speaking

to immersion class students. The students are expected to reflect their English

skills covering listening, reading, speaking, and writing, in the case of outside

the immersion class. Besides, the result of this research could improve the

English skills of the students of immersion program.

c. Senior high schools

For some senior high schools either which is implementing or is going

to apply immersion class, this research can give a broaden view on the use of

English as a medium of interaction. Besides, this can be used as a reference to

evaluate the implementation of immersion class in Indonesia senior high

schools commonly, and for Central Java especially. Moreover, the schools can

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d. Culture and Education Department of Central Java Province:

This research also gives benefits for the government in educational

field which proposes such program for the development of educational field in

Indonesia. Through this research, the government can provide solution in the

problems faced in immersion class. Therefore, immersion class hopefully can

be well improved in Indonesia.

F. Definition of Terms

a. Perception

According to Robbins, perception is a process by which individuals

organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to

their environment (Robbins, 2005: 134). Besides, Altman (1985: 85) also

defines perception as the way stimuli are selected and grouped by a person so

that they can be meaningfully interpreted. In other word, perception is a kind

of person’s point of view of reality through mental process.

Perception is used to give response to the event which happens in the

surroundings. As stated by Borger and Seaborn (1966: 55) that perception is

an awareness of the environment, through which a person processes incoming

sensory data in some way in order to arrive at a useful impression of his

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perception is a mental and cognitive process that enables us to interpret and

understand our surroundings.

In this study, perception refers to a process or a way by which the

English language teachers organize and interpret the use of English language

as the medium of interaction in international class program at SMA Negeri 1

Klaten. Furthermore, perception is used to understand the English language

teachers’ point of view of the phenomenal educational condition in

international class program for senior high school students. In this study, the

researcher wants to identify the English language teachers’ view, observation,

response, and understanding towards the use of English language as the

medium of interaction in international class program.

b. Medium of Interaction

According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, medium of interaction is media used to deliver something to other person. In this case,

English as the medium of interaction means that English language is a

language used to teach certain subject lesson.

c. Immersion Class

According to the book of Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di

Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2008: 6), immersion class has a concept that the

students can learn English more effectively if they use the language as a

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not just merely a subject lesson, but also as a medium of interaction in

teaching and learning process of other subject lessons. Immersion class gives

more opportunities for the students to use English in class interaction which is

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter discusses the theories used as the references for the study of this

research. This chapter consists of theoretical description and theoretical framework of

related literature. Moreover, the theoretical description consists of the perception,

factors influencing perceptions, factors creating perceptual difficulty, perceptions of

ideal teacher in Indonesia, perceptions of the teachers-in-practice, and also the

international class program in School Based Curriculum.

A. Theoretical Description

1. Perception

Perception is an awareness of the environment, through which a person

processes incoming sensory data in some ways in order to arrive at a useful

impression of his surroundings. In this case, Borger and Seaborn (1966: 105) would

like to explain that perception is a process of someone’s mentality. The process itself

means the information caught by someone is interpreted according to the situation

which happens in his surroundings. Kreitner and Kinicki (1992: 126) state that

perception is a mental and cognitive process that enables us to interpret and

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According to Robbins, perception is a process by which individuals organize

and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

(Robbins, 2005: 134). Besides, Altman (1985: 85) also defines perception as the way

stimuli are selected and grouped by a person so that they can be meaningfully

interpreted.

2. Factors Influencing Perceptions

Perceptions make someone need to interpret the situation and condition

happen in his surrounding based on his point of view. Everyone has different sight in

commenting something each other. Therefore, people have different perceptions in

identifying an event. According to Altman (1985; 86-91), there are four factors which

influence someone’s perception. Those are:

a. Selection of Stimuli

People have so many stimuli in their brain; however people cannot absorb all

of those stimuli into opinion. People need to go for the appropriate stimuli to

be what is called view. Selection is the process of focusing only on a small

number of stimuli. The reason why people perceive things differently is

because each person selects specific cues and filters or screens, out of others.

For example, a student may be so intently doing a task that he or she is

obvious to the noises caused by the environment around. The distractions are

screened out of his/her awareness and do not interfere with the students’

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b. Organization of Stimuli

After information has undergone the screening process, it must be arranged to

become meaningful. The mind tries to be order out of the disorganized

onslaught of sensory data by selecting particular items and putting them

together in a meaningful way that is based on experience.

c. The Situation

A situation affects what one person perceives. Perceiving a situation

accurately is also related to how well a person organizes behavior to

situations.

d. Self-concept

Self-concept is the way we feel about and perceive ourselves. The way we see

ourselves affects our perceptions to the world around us. Students might see

themselves as well-liked, honest, patient, or intelligent, or as all of the

foregoing. This self-concept is important because students’ mental pictures of

themselves determine most of what we perceive and do.

3. Factors Creating Perceptual Difficulty

Besides the factors influencing perceptions, Altman (1985: 86-91) also

proposed the factors creating perceptual difficulty. They are as follows:

a. Stereotyping

Stereotyping is the process of categorizing people or things based on a limited

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schoolbooks or mass media or from past experience. Stereotyping makes the

decision maker simplify. Moreover, stereotyping is usually used because most

people lack of either ability or desire to deal with complex facts and

alternatives.

b. Hallo Effect

Hallo effect refers to the use of a known particular characteristic as the basis

for an overall evaluation. For example, a student who attends speaking class

and finds some interesting activity may decide that speaking class is

interesting.

c. Perceptual Defense

Perceptual defense refers to the screening out or distorting of information that

is personally disturbing or that we do not care to acknowledge. People have

tendency to choose or attend to information that supports their perspective,

and alongside to fail or ignore to perceive information that is opposite to their

opinions.

d. Projection

Projection is the attribution of our own undesirable traits or characteristics to

others. Our perceptions may be distorted by emotions we are experiencing or

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According to Mager (1968: 5), someone’s perception is reflected in his

behaviors. On one side, if someone has a positive perception toward a stimulus, he

then would possess a favorable attitude which drives him to show “moving toward”

behavior. On the other side, if someone is facing negative perception toward

stimulus, he would have a negative attitude which drives him to show “moving away

from” behaviors.

4. Perceptions of Ideal Teacher

According to the book of Perceptions of the Ideal Teacher and Teacher-In-Practice in the ASEAN (1998: 108), the perceptions of ideal teacher are explained from many aspects. This book provides the result of qualitative research done by

some teams of teachers among countries in ASEAN. Thus, the perceptions of

ideal teacher are divided into four parts, as namely below:

a. Ideal teacher

According to the book of Perceptions of The Ideal Teacher and The Teacher-In-Practice in The ASEAN (1998: 108), the concept of ideal teacher is described in terms of the aspects of socio-demographic characteristics, attributes/qualities of

the ideal teacher, most desired skills, teacher utilization and conditions of work,

most desired activities outside of teaching, and professional status of the ideal

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1) Profile of Ideal Teacher

Among ASEAN countries, the profile of ideal teachers can be identified from

the aspects of age, sex, marital status, income level, and prestige level.

Generally, the “ideal teacher” at primary and secondary levels is expected to

be younger than those who are teaching tertiary level. Besides, the sex status

that the teachers have is equal. Both male and female are accepted to be the

“ideal teacher”; however Indonesia prefers female to male teachers to teach

primary level. Similar to the sex status of ideal teacher, the marital status that

the teachers have is not too influent in being ideal teacher. Nevertheless, in

Indonesia married teachers are mostly found at the secondary level. Those are

the profiles of ideal teachers seen from the life status of the teachers, another

aspects are related each to another; income level and prestige level. Teachers

in all level expect higher income in appreciating their effort and higher

prestige level should be given to teachers in Indonesia. However, there is no

authentic data in describing these conditions and the practice of these aspects

have not yet done successfully.

2) Characteristics of Ideal Teacher

Characteristics of ideal teachers in ASEAN countries are identified from the

psychological aspects of teachers; such as: being fair, being friendly, having

good behavior, possessing leadership qualities, and being open-minded or

flexible. Those characteristics have been a measurement in identifying the

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3) Skills

There are some skills that ASEAN teachers have in practicing teaching,

especially in Indonesia. The skills elaborated in this study appeared mostly in

Indonesian teachers. The skills are maintaining order and discipline in class,

using teaching methods appropriate to the activities of the day, and fluency

and proficiency in the language of instruction or communication skills.

4) Utilization Practices and Conditions of Works

According to the result of research done in ASEAN countries, there are

thirteen characteristics of teachers-in-practice. Those are Rejects Other

Professions, Strong Sense of Responsibility, Intellectual Ability, Mastery of

Areas of Specialization, Moral Conduct and Social Values, Appreciation by

the Community of Teachers’ Work, Better Teachers for Better Equipped

Schools, Work Other than Teaching, Upward Mobility in the Teaching

Profession, Inadequate Supervision of Teacher, Evaluation of Teachers,

Promotion of Female Teachers, and Representation of Teachers’ Interest in

Teachers’ Organization.

5. Immersion Class Program in School Based Curriculum

According to the guideline book of Immersion Class Application in Central

Java Province, the implementation of immersion class in Central Java Province was a

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java Province and the territorial of Queensland, Australia in July – August 2002

(Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah, 2008).

In this context, immersion class has an understanding that students can learn

English language more effective if they use the language as a means to gain

information which is meaningful and contextual. In this case, English language is not

just as a subject lesson anymore, but as a medium of interaction in the other teaching

and learning process. Immersion class could give more opportunities for the students

to use English language in the class.

Immersion class was expected to give more opportunities for the students to

use English language in the class interaction. It was also expected that immersion

class could increase the students’ capability in using English language actively, in

both written and spoken. The implementation of effective immersion class in Central

Java Province is needed to combine the micro and macro components in its

development. On one hand, the micro elements that should be provided were the

English language competence teachers, teaching materials, students’ working sheet,

strategy evaluation, and teaching technique. On the other hand, the macro elements

that should be provided were related about the government’s policies for the sake of

the succeed immersion class program in Central Java Province.

Central Java Province Government develops immersion class program in

order to prepare the human resource capacity on an educational level to acquire

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According to the guideline book of the implementation of immersion class in

Central Java Province, there are four aims of the implementation of immersion class,

as mentioned as follows (Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah, 2008):

1. To increase the quality of education in Indonesia commonly and in

Central Java especially in order to increase the human resource to face

globalization.

2. To product the qualified and global competitive human resource through

English language acquisition.

3. Due to the Government and/or Regional Government to implement at least

one educational unity for all international standard educational level.

According to the guideline book of the implementation of immersion class in

Central Java Province, there are four aims of the implementation of immersion class,

as mentioned as follows (Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah, 2008):

1. To increase the capability of using English language for both teachers

and students.

2. To increase the graduated students’ competency in acquiring

technology.

3. To develop the school’ potency and human resource to create the

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According to the guideline book of the implementation of immersion class,

the teaching and learning process of immersion class was similar to regular class. One

major thing that was different was on the use of English language as a medium of

interaction in the teaching and learning process (Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah, 2008).

B. Theoretical Framework

This is a study on the teachers’ perception about the use of English as a

medium of interaction in immersion class. The main goal of the implementation of

immersion class based on the guideline book given from the government was to make

students could learn English if they used English language as a medium of interaction

in daily life.

In this research, the writer would like to find the English teachers’ perceptions

of the use of English itself as a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning

process of immersion classes. In finding the perceptions of the English teachers, the

researcher used the theory of perception as stated by Altman, who stated that

perception is about someone’s awareness which through the process of incoming

sensory data (Altman, 1985: 85). Perception is also a mental and cognitive process

that enables people to interpret and understand the surroundings (Kreitner and

Kinicki: 1992: 126). Furthermore, the researcher also applied the factors which

influencing perception as stated by Altman (1985: 85-91) that there were four factors

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stimuli, the situation, and self-concept. There were also some factors which creating

perceptual difficulty of people, such as: stereotyping, hallo effect, perceptual defense,

and projection.

In finding the solution of the research problems about the English teachers’

perception of the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class, the

researcher used the guideline book of implementing immersion class program in

Central Java Province. From the guideline book, immersion class has a concept that

the students can learn English more effectively if they use the language as a means to

gain meaningful and contextual information. In this case, English is not just merely a

subject lesson, but also as a medium of interaction in teaching and learning process of

other subject lessons. Immersion class gives more opportunities for the students to

use English in class interaction which is expected to improve the students’ ability in

English, both written and oral.

Based on the guideline book published by the Central Java government, the

researcher tried to find out the English teachers’ perceptions about the use of English

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methodology that is used to find the answers of the

problems written in the first chapter. It consists of research method, research

participants, research instruments, data gathering techniques, data analysis technique,

and research procedure.

A. Research Method

As stated in the first chapter of this research, the problem that the researcher

formulated was the perception of English language teachers in using English

language as the medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process of

immersion program. Therefore, a qualitative approach was applied in this study.

Qualitative method is described as an approach used to gather data systematically, but

the data were purely descriptive and therefore not numerical (Sprinthall, 1991: 110).

This research aimed to gather information about the use of English in

immersion class. Therefore, descriptive research was applied in this study. According

to Best, descriptive research describes and interprets what is which concerns on the

conditions and relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, points of view,

or attitudes that are held; processes that are going on; effects that are being felt; or

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designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomena as well as

measuring a single variable (Ary, 1979).

In order to solve those two problems in the first chapter, a survey research was

applied where the perceptions of a group were needed to find the result of this

research. As stated by Wiersma that a survey research often took the form of a

questionnaire that was sent out to a group of people of particular topic. It was used to

measure group’s attitudes, opinions, and perceptions (2005: 165). Hence, this

research used both of instruments to gather the information about the research object.

By applying a survey research, the substantial amounts of information can be

collected in a relatively short time however the number of people who response to

questionnaires, especially when it is mailed, is often low (Ary, 1990: 28).

This research involved a case study on the use of English as a medium of

interaction in immersion class program. The case study was intensive and

longitudinal study which analyzed carefully a single case or a limited number of

typical cases. A case study may use the case of an individual, a type, a group, or an

institution where the analysis is detailed and complete (Best, 1970: 120). Besides,

according to Gomm, Hammersley, and Foster (2000), a case study is an investigation

of a relatively small number of cases, sometimes just one.

B. Research Participants

Since it was included in a descriptive research, sampling was needed to get

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researcher. As stated by Walter R. Borg that sampling means selecting a given

number of subjects from a defined population as representative of that population

(1983: 240). In this case, purposive sampling, homogenous sampling variation one,

was applied in gathering the data. Homogenous sampling selects a subgroup that

considered homogeneous in attitudes, experiences, and so on (Ary, 2002).

The participants of this research were all of the English teachers at SMA

Negeri 1 Klaten who teach English lesson either in immersion classes program or

regular classrooms. There were seven English teachers who teach English in SMA

Negeri 1 Klaten. However, there were only 5 teachers who teach immersion program

of SMA Negeri 1 Klaten and the respondent of this research were only three because

of one and another things to consider.

C. Research Instruments

In carrying out a research, instruments are needed to gather the data in

reaching the final result of the research. Therefore, the researcher uses two

instruments to gather the data, namely interview and questionnaire. The use of

questionnaire and questionnaire will be elaborated in this paragraph below:

1. Interview

In this study, the researcher used interview as the primary instrument in

gathering the data. Interview is an instrument which allows flexibility since the

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questions when needed (Ary et al, 1990). According to John W. Best in his book

“Research in Education” (1970: 186), interview is, in a sense, an oral questionnaire. Interview is used in order to get the more complete data than only using questionnaire

as the instrument. Respondents prefer to talk face to face to write on a piece of paper

in giving information. In this research, the researcher used a tape recorder as a tool in

interviewing the respondents. The reason why the researcher used a tape recorder was

because the interviews recorded in tape might be replayed as often as necessary and

the data recorded in the tape recorder could be saved more appropriately than the data

was saved in the notes taking way.

According to Walter R. Borg, the advantages of using interview as the

instrument of a research is that it permits the researcher to follow-up leads and thus

obtain more data and greater clarity. The interview situation usually permits much

greater depth than the other methods of collecting research data. Nevertheless, the

flexibility, adaptability, and human interaction that are unique strengths of the

interview also allow subjectivity and possible bias that in some research situations are

its greatest weakness (1983: 436 – 437).

There were two stages of interview used in this study by the researcher. The

first stage was about the English language teachers’ perception on immersion class

program in senior high school, in this case is in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. The second

one, the researcher interviewed the English language teachers of their perceptions in

using English language as the medium of interaction in immersion class program in

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2. Questionnaire

The secondary instrument in this research was questionnaire. According to

Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (1990: 424) there are two types of questionnaire, namely

structured and unstructured questionnaire. On one hand, structured questionnaire or

closed form questionnaire is a form of questionnaire which has been provided the

questions and answers of the items. The respondents only have to choose the best

options based on their opinion of the questions provided. On the other hand,

unstructured questionnaire or open form questionnaire is a form of questionnaire

which there is no questions and answers provided in the questionnaire form. In this

type of questionnaire, the respondents are free to give response on the topic given.

In this study, the researcher used both of structured and unstructured

questionnaires. The first form of questionnaire provided some questions and answers

that the respondents, in this case the Immersion class English language teachers of

SMA Negeri 1 Klaten, had to choose the best options based on their opinions about

the use of English language as the medium of interaction in international class

program. There were twelve (12) questions provided by the researcher related to the

use of English language as the medium of interaction in Immersion class. The second

form of questionnaire was unstructured questionnaire in which there were three (3)

open form questionnaires that the respondents were free to answer the questions. The

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D. Data Gathering Technique

The first technique used in gathering the data was holding interview with the

English teachers who taught immersion class at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. The interview

held more than once in order to get more complete data from the respondents.

Besides, the interview was conducted by the system of one by one interviewee to

make good approaches to the interviewees. The use of recorder helped the researcher

in recording the data from the interview section. It was also possible for the

researcher to replay the recording as many as needed.

Afterward, the second instrument was used to get the more complete data by

giving the open form questionnaire to the respondents. The questionnaire was given

to the English teachers of immersion program at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten when the

interview had been finished. The data from the questionnaire later would be analyzed

in the form of descriptive data.

E. Data Analysis Technique

The data analysis of this research was gotten from two data gathering

techniques both interview and questionnaire. The data result taken from interview

was interpreted into the descriptive data. Each data result taken from interview was

explained in the narrative form. Therefore, the data result taken from the interview

covered the opinions of the English teachers of Immersion class.

The first technique of data analysis was analyzing the data gathered from

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also recorded the data in a note. The second technique was going on the result of the

questionnaire. The questionnaire was a form of structured questionnaire where the

researcher had provided five (5) points of agreements. The range of the agreements

was from strongly agree to strongly disagree. There were five score numbers for the agreements; 5 is for strongly agree, 4 is for agree, 3 is for uncertain, 2 is for disagree, and 1 is for strongly disagree.

F. Research Procedure

The research procedure of this study was going on some steps. The first step

done by the researcher was finding the English teacher who taught immersion

program at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. Afterwards, the researcher got the other English

teachers in order to get other perceptions in using English as a medium of interaction

in international class program.

The first instrument used in getting the data was interview. Interview was

used as the first instrument because it could be a good approach for the researcher in

getting the data from the teacher. After getting the data from the English teachers, the

researcher interpreted the data in the descriptive form. Afterwards, the questionnaire

sheet was distributed to the respondents. By getting the second instrument result, it

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Here is the diagram of the description of the research procedures summary:

In gathering the data, interview was first conducted to gather the more

complete data than questionnaire sheet. The interview was conducted one by one

interviewee. The questionnaire sheet was distributed to the respondent and it should

be submitted on the week after the interview has conducted. After gathering all the

data from both interview and questionnaire, the researcher then analyzed the data

based on the data gathered from the instruments. Conducting interview

Distributing the questionnaire sheet

Analyzing the obtained data

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30

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This research is conducts a survey research to find out what the English

teachers’ perception in using English as a medium of interaction in immersion

program. This chapter describes the research findings and discussion of the survey

research. This chapter accounts for the findings of two major problems of the

research as stated in the first chapter. Therefore, there are two parts covered in this

chapter. The first part is the English teachers’ perception in using English as a

medium of interaction in immersion program. The second part is the reason why the

English teachers have such perception about the use of English as a medium of

interaction in immersion class.

The instruments used in gathering the data were two instruments, interview

and questionnaire. The interview did not hold in the same time for each respondent

because the researcher had to fix the schedule to the respondents. The questionnaire

was given to the respondent on June 26, 2009 and the result of the questionnaire was

gathered on the date when each respondent was interviewed.

A. Data Presentation

There were two instruments which were used by the researcher in finding the

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English as a medium of perception in immersion class. The first result came from the

interview and the second one came from the questionnaire.

1. The English Teachers’ Perception Based on the Interview

The result findings of the research problems were gotten from the interview

which was done by the researcher. In the interview, there were three teachers who

were interviewed by the researcher. Those interviewees were all teaching immersion

class program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten who were spread in three classes, X class, XI

class, and also XII class. Here are the data presentations gathered from interview

which are described one by one according to the perception of each respondent.

1. a. English as a Medium of Interaction Based on an English Teacher’s

Perception of X Class

The first respondent for this research was an English teacher of X class

in immersion program at SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. The respondent taught

English lesson in immersion program of X class. Based on the interview held

by the researcher, the respondent said that immersion program had helped so

much in the development of English in senior high school commonly,

especially in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. The respondent added that immersion

program could help the students in improving their English skills.

Based on the respondent’s explanation, the use of English as a medium

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improve their English skills. Since the respondent taught X class of immersion

program, she thought that the use of English as a medium of interaction in

immersion program could improve the speaking skill of the students of

immersion class, especially their pronunciation. Based on her explanation, the

students of X class immersion program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten came from

so many different junior high schools. Therefore, she needed to improve the

pronunciation of her students by correcting their pronunciation. For the first

question of the interview about how often she used English as the medium of

interaction in teaching immersion class, the respondent answered that she

used 75% of English and the rest she used other language, either Bahasa Indonesia or Javanese language. Based on her experience, she used English in that percentage because the students had not enough understood the

pronunciation of English words.

The respondent found some mispronunciation in the speaking of

immersion class students of X class. In her opinion, it might be caused by the

basic English lesson that they got from their previous schools’ level, either

elementary school or junior high school, which were different from each

other. In order to make the students pronounce the English words correctly,

the respondent gave more English instruction to the students while she was

teaching. She always had the students to consult the dictionary whenever they

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the respondent always had them to repeat the words that they had known the

correct pronunciation.

1. b. English as the Medium of Interaction Based on an English Teacher’s

Perception of XI Class

The second respondent of this research was an English teacher of XI

class immersion program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. In teaching English to

immersion class students, the respondent used the percentage of 80% English

and the other 20% used another language. The respondent used that

percentage of the use of English because she thought that English could be

more understandable if the instruction were given in English.

Based on her explanation, the use of English in immersion class,

especially in XI class could encourage the students in improving their

knowledge. In her opinion, she needed less elicitation in teaching English to

immersion class students than to regular class students. Immersion class

students could do more than what the teacher expected to do. Moreover,

immersion class students could understand the instruction given by the teacher

in English. This condition happened because the students of immersion class

were used to English in the teaching and learning process.

The use of English in immersion could help both of the teachers and

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students of immersion class tried to use English not only when the teaching

and learning process happened in the class, but they also used English outside

the class. This could be the improvement for the students in using English.

The students of immersion class could help their friends and also their

teacher, non-English teachers, when they got difficulties in using English.

1. c. English as the Medium of Interaction Based on an English Teacher’s

Perception of XII Class

The third respondent of this research was an English teacher of XII

class immersion program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. She was also the program

chairperson of immersion class in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. In teaching English

to immersion students, she used the percentage of 90% English and 10% of

other, either Bahasa Indonesia or Javanese. This condition was different from X class whose English teacher used 75% of English and 25% of other.

Based on her explanation, the use of English as a medium of

interaction in immersion program of XII class could improve the knowledge

of the students. In her experience, the students of immersion program

understood what points they should achieve in that day. The use of English as

a medium of interaction could make the students understand the instruction

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It was more comfortable using English as a medium of interaction than

other language in teaching English to the immersion students, she said. The

use of English as a medium of interaction could make the students understand

the instruction of English lesson well because it would be easier for them to

speak in English while studying English lesson than other language. The

students of immersion class were ready to use the English as the medium of

interaction when they enrolled immersion class. The basic of English is that

the students had helped much in the process of teaching and learning in

immersion class. According to the respondent, she was helped much by the

use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class because the

students were capable enough in English, especially in speaking.

2. The English Teachers’ Perception Based on the Questionnaire

The researcher also presented the data of the English teachers’ perception

about the use of English in immersion class in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten on the

questionnaire in data presentation and discussion. The researcher used questionnaire

as the supplementary information data gathering in this research in order to get more

complete data on the English teachers’ perception about the use of English as a

medium of interaction in immersion class in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. In this research,

the questionnaire was distributed to the three English teachers who taught immersion

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on the same day. It was gathered based on the date when the interviewees were

interviewed by the researcher.

The following are the descriptions of the English teachers’ responses about

the use of English in immersion class.

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8. The use of English as a medium making relationship with others and improving knowledge.

2 1

The table showed the respondents’ responses on the teachers’ perception

about the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class. The result of

the English teachers’ perception about the use of English as a medium of interaction

were only taken from the teachers’ perception on teaching English in immersion

class.

Statement number one until three asked about the implementation of

immersion class in the teaching and learning process of English lesson. Statement

number one was about the effect of the implementation of immersion class to the

teaching and learning process. In statement number one, there were two teachers who

strongly agreed and there was a teacher who agreed to the statement. In statement

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was uncertain to the statement. From those data, it showed that two third of the

respondents were strongly agreed that immersion class could give good effect for the

teaching and learning process.

In statement number four and five, there were two respondents who strongly

agreed that the use of English in immersion class could motivate both teachers and

students in improving their English skills. There was only a teacher who agreed with

the statement. In statement number six, each respondent had different answer in

responding the statement. One respondent strongly agreed, one respondent agreed,

and the other one respondent was uncertain with the statement. It showed that the use

of English as a medium of interaction could motivate both teachers and students in

improving their English skills, however they were not all agreed that it made the

teaching and learning process being interactive.

Statement number seven until ten asked about the use of English as a medium

of interaction in increasing the students’ capability in the four skills of English. In

statement number seven and nine, there were two teachers who strongly agreed with

the statement that the use of English language as a medium of interaction could

increase the students’ ability in both listening and speaking. In statement number ten,

there were also two respondents who strongly agreed with the statement that the use

of English could improve the students’ ability in writing, but only one respondent

who thought uncertain. Nevertheless, there was only one teacher who strongly agreed

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number eleven and twelve covered both of the teachers and students’ confidence in

the implementation of immersion class in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. On statement

number eleven, the answers of the respondent were varied from strongly agreed,

agreed, until uncertain. It showed that the teachers’ perception about immersion class

were different.

3. Discussion

Based on the data gathered from interview and questionnaire, the researcher

found that there were two major perceptions of the use of English as a medium of

interaction in immersion class. Those two major perceptions were described as

follow:

3. a. The use of English as a Medium of Interaction Motivated both Teachers

and Students in Improving Their English Skills

Based on the questionnaire, statements number four and five, two of

three respondents were strongly agree that the use of English as a medium of

interaction could motivate both teachers and students in improving their

English skills. The English skills which were improved were elaborated in the

statements number seven until ten of the questionnaire.

The condition of immersion class made the teachers used English in

conveying the materials to the students. Therefore, the immersion class

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teaching and learning process. Based on this situation, the students had a

willingness to respond the teachers’ speaking in English.

Immersion class students were trusted by their friends and non English

teachers in mastering English. They were well known in understanding

English well. Based on this situation, the non English teachers who taught

immersion class asked for their helps in correcting the mistakes that they

made while using English as a medium of interaction in immersion class.

3. b. The use of English as a Medium of Interaction Improved the English

Skills of the Students

The use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class

could improve the English skills of the students. Those skills were listening

skill, speaking skill, reading skill, and writing skill. Based on the data

gathered from questionnaire, two of the three respondents were strongly agree

to the statements that the use of English could improve the listening and

reading skills of immersion class students.

It was different from the statement which showed that the use of

English in immersion class could improve the writing skill of the immersion

class students. One of the respondents was uncertain that the use of English

could improve the writing skill of the students. However, from the data

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use of English as a medium of interaction could improve the speaking skill of

the immersion class students.

This showed that the use of English as a medium of interaction in

immersion class improved the English skills of the students. The most

improved English skill was speaking skill where the students got more

opportunities than in other skills.

B. The Reason Causing the English Teachers Have Such Perception about the

Use of English as a Medium of Interaction in Immersion Class

Based on the data gathered from the respondents about their perception in the

use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class, it can be terminated

that there are two reasons causing the English teachers have such perception about

the use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class.

The use of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class could make

the students speak in English as their teachers did. In immersion class, the teachers

used English as a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning process. In

conveying the materials given to the students, the teachers might use English. The

materials of the lesson was in Bahasa Indonesia, however, the teachers gave instruction to the students in English. By giving instruction in English, the students

were accustomed to the English sentences produced by the teacher and this condition

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The reasons causing the English teachers had such perceptions about the use

of English as a medium of interaction in immersion class were answered by using the

data gathered from the questionnaire. The researcher provided some statements that

related to the teaching and learning process of English subject. From the

questionnaire, the researcher found two reasons that caused the English teachers had

such perception elaborated in point A of this chapter.

The first reason could be answered from the statements number three until six

on the questionnaire. Statement number three said that the use of English as a

medium of interaction in immersion class made the English teacher easy to teach

English subject. Statement number four and five said that the use of English as a

medium of interaction in immersion class could motivate both the teachers and

students to improve their English skills. Those had answered that the respondents

agreed that the use of English as a medium of interaction helped the English teachers

in teaching English. Besides, on statement number six which said that the use of

English as the medium of interaction in immersion class made the teaching and

learning process became more interactive, showed that the implementation of

Immersion class program in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten had reached one of its goal in

making the teaching and learning process became interactive.

The second reason could be answered on the statement number seven until ten

of the questionnaire. Based on those statements, the respondents agreed that the use

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speaking, reading, and writing. Moreover, in the interview, two of three respondents

of this research emphasize more on the speaking practice of the students.

From the findings that the researcher has got, the researcher found that there

was a misunderstanding about the concept of immersion. Based on the book of

Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Kelas Imersi di Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2008: 5), immersion came from the word “to immerse” which had a meaning of to absorb in

deeply. English is not just merely a subject lesson, but also as a medium of

interaction in teaching and learning process of other subject lessons. Immersion class

gives more opportunities for the students to use English in class interaction which is

expected to improve the students’ ability in English, both written and oral.

Nevertheless, the English teachers of immersion class were not implementing

the immersion class I the truth meaning. The teachers were not using English as a

medium of interaction in all of the process of teaching and learning. The teachers

mixed language that was used a medium of interaction in the teaching and learning

process. The most language used as a medium of interaction was English however it

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44

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter deals with two parts, namely conclusions and suggestions. The

first part draws the conclusions from the results of the study which are related to the

problems formulated in the first chapter. The second part of this chapter deals with

the suggestions recommended for the English language teachers who teach

immersion class and future researchers.

A. Conclusion

The ultimate goal of this study was to find out the English language teachers’

perception about the use of English language as a medium of interaction in the

teaching and learning process in immersion class in SMA Negeri 1 Klaten. This

research had two problems as stated in the first chapter, they were what the English

language teachers’ perceptions of the use of English language as a medium of

interaction in immersion class are and why the English language teachers have such

perception about the use of English language as a medium of interaction in

immersion class.

From the study on the English language teachers’ perception about the use of

English language as a medium of interaction in immersion class, it was found that the

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