STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION: A Case Study at One of Public Senior High Schools in Tanjungpandan Belitung.

Teks penuh

(1)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.7 The Factors that can Influence Someone’s Perception ………. 16

(2)

as a Medium of Instruction (Group 1) ……….. 31

4.1.2.3 Classroom Interaction Based on Teachers’ Interview Results ……….………. 67 Table 4.2 The Language Used by the Teachers as a Medium of Instruction Based on Students’ Interviews and Classroom Observations Data… 30 Table 4.3 Students’ Perception on the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction Based on Interview Results (Group 1) ……… 40

Table 4.4 Students’ Perception on Each Aspect Based on Interview Results (Group 1)……… 41

Table 4.5 Students’ Perception on the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction Based on Interview Results (Group 2)……… 43

(3)

of Interaction to the Classroom Interaction Table 4.10 The Influence of the Use of English as a Medium of

Interaction to the Classroom Interaction Based on

Classroom Observation in Group 2 ……….. 65 Table 4.11 The Number of English Extra Lesson Taken

by Students in Each Group ……….. 68 Table 4.12 Students’ Perception Categories Based on

Students’ Journal Analysis of Group 1 ……… 78 Table 4.13 Students’ Perception Categories Based on

Students’ Journal Analysis of Group 2 ………. 82 Table 4.14 The Language Used by the English Teacher During

Classroom Observation (Group 1) ……… 84 Table 4.15 The Language Used by the English Teacher During

Classroom Observation (Group 2) ……… 88 Table 4.16 The Students’ Perception on the Use of English

as a Medium of Instruction Based on Interview

and Journal Analyses Result ……… 94 Table 4.17 The Students’ Perception on the Use of English

as a Medium of Instruction Results in Accordance

with the Aspects of Perception ……… 95 Table 4.18 Classroom Interaction of Students who have Positive

Perception on the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction …… 97 Table 4.19 Classroom Interaction of Students who have Positive

(4)

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan untuk Siswa ….……… 118

Appendix B Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan untuk Siswa ….……… 122

Appendix C Format of Journal Writing ……… 124

Appendix D Classroom Observation Sheet ……….. 125

Appendix E The Language Used by English Teachers as a Medium Of Instruction in the Classroom Based on Students’ Interview Results ………. 127

Appendix F The Students’ Perception Based on Students’ Interview Results (Group 1) ………. 129

Appendix G The Students’ Perception Based on Students’ Interview Results (Group 2) ………. 131

Appendix H The Students’ Statements about the Influence of the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction to the Classroom Interaction Based on Students’ Interview (Group 1) ……… 133

Appendix I The Students’ Statements about the Influence of the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction to the Classroom Interaction Based on Students’ Interview (Group 2) ……… 136

Appendix J Students’ Perception on the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction Based on Journal Writing (Group 1)……….. 139

Appendix K Students’ Perception on the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction Based on Journal Writing (Group 2)……….. 143

Appendix L Classroom Observation Notes (Group 1) ………. 147

Appendix M Classroom Observation Notes (Group 2) ………. 153

Appendix N The Interview with the Teacher of Group 1 ………. 158

(5)

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

The teaching and learning of English in Indonesia has been the center of

attention among researchers because of the burning issues, such as the lack of English

exposure, that require solutions. One of the problems is lack of English exposure in

the society. English has been taught as a foreign language subject in any educational

levels in Indonesia. Musthafa (2005: 2) mentions that in learning Indonesian language

and regional languages, Indonesian students are exposed naturally to the language

since it is used in their social environment. The problem appears when they learn

English because of the low intensity of exposure of it in society. This argument is in

accordance with what Hariyanto (1997: 111) said that some students are successful in

speaking English when they are still going to school. Then, when they have

graduated, the ability soon vanishes as they hardly get exposures to English. Dubin

and Olsbtain (1987: 30) say that in a natural setting, teachers usually are native

(6)

decision-use the target language as much as possible. In this case, classroom is an appropriate

place for them to use the target language. The lack of English exposure for students

can be minimized since they are actively involved in the process of teaching and

learning in the classroom.

In relation to the use of English in the classroom, Nunan (1999: 87) says that

students in foreign language classrooms are rarely encouraged to make use of their

language skills in the real world. The only practice they have is in class. This, of

course, is not surprising in foreign language contexts in which opportunities to use

the language is limited. His statement indicates that teacher, as a language model,

should expose English as much as possible. Therefore, the students have a great

opportunity to imitate and mime (see Broughton, et al.: 1980) and finally they can

produce English as the target language being taught in a classroom.

The above statement is related to what Brown (1980: 61) says that teachers

might do well to be as deliberate, but meaningful, in his communication with students

as the parent is to the child, since input is as important to the ESL/EFL learner as it is

to the first language learner. Moreover, that input should also foster meaningful

communication. Furthermore, Harmer (2002: 67) also explains that when teachers use

their voice to produce language, it means that they have modeled the language. This

thing is a basic and important teaching skill that may influence students’ ability and

achievement in English.

In accordance with all the arguments above, a big question on students’

(7)

language in classrooms a lot, it means nothing if the students have negative

perception on it. As Brown (1984: 9) mentions that a strategy used by a teacher in

teaching will build students’ perception on the subject, strategy and the teacher.

Related to Brown argument, Harmer (2002: 128) writes that students generally

respect teachers who show their knowledge of the subject. A teacher who uses

English as a medium of instruction while teaching English shows that he or she is

professional and has a good knowledge in the subject being taught. Meanwhile,

Richards et al. (1992: 268-269) describe that perception is the recognition and

understanding of events, objects, and stimuli by sense (sight, hearing, tough, etc.).

Moreover, Baron (1995: 90) mentions that perception is the process through

selecting, organizing, and interpreting input from our sensory receptors.

Finally, in implementing their knowledge to their students, teachers have their

own style. Based on the informal interview with the headmaster of one public senior

high school and some students there, it was concluded that some teachers tended to

use English as a medium of instruction while others used Indonesian.

Based on the above explanation, this study were concerned with the students’

perception on the use of English as a medium of instruction used by the English

(8)

1.2 Research Questions

In line with the above background, this research attempts to address the

following question:

a. What are the students’ perceptions on the use of English as a medium of

instruction by their teacher in the classroom?

b. Does the use of English as a medium of instruction influence the classroom

interactions?

1.3

The Purposes of the Research

In accordance with the research questions above, the purposes of this research

are:

a. to investigate the students’ perceptions on the use of English as a medium of

instruction by their teacher in the classroom.

b. to identify whether the use of English as a medium of instruction influence

classroom interaction.

1.4

The Scope of the Research

Related to the research questions and the purposes of them, this study was

supposed to find out the students’ perception on the use of English as a medium of

instruction by their teacher in the classroom, and the influences of using English as a

(9)

1.5

The Significance of the Research

The findings of this thesis are expected to be able to:

1. Share good inputs to English teachers about the students’ perception

on the use of English as a medium of instruction while teaching

English in the classroom run and its influences to the classroom

interaction.

2. Contribute valuable information to local government, especially in

Tanjungpandan Belitung, to improve the English teachers’ ability by

giving them many chances to continue their study to higher

educational institutions.

3. Give some additional information to anyone who is interested in

(10)

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1

Introduction

Some theories related to this research, including the importance of using

English, criticism of using English only in EFL contexts, the concept of perception,

the aspects and process of perception, the role of context in perception, and the factor

that can influence someone’s perception, have been discussed in chapter two. This

chapter will provide five main sections related to methodology of the research.

Research design will be presented first, and then followed by setting, participants,

data collection, and data analysis. Each section will be discussed in detail below.

3.2

Research Design

In relation to its nature, purposes and research questions, this research

employed descriptive research design, embracing characteristics of a case study. A

case study had been chosen for several reasons. First, the result of this study would

not be attempted to generalize beyond the case (Stake, cited in Silverman, 2005).

Then, the study was only focused on investigating the students’ perception on using

English as a medium of instruction and its influence to classroom interaction at one

public senior high school in Tanjungpandan Belitung. Second, this study employed

(11)

constitutes the important aspect of a case study (Yin, 2003: 85). He also mentions that

multiple data gatherings also intent to augment the construct validity of the study

(Yin, 2003; Merriam, 1998; Travers, 2001).

The descriptive method was used to describe the data found during the

research and then tabulated. This method seems suitable to present the fact found

during the study and to interpret of how the facts related to the problem under

investigation (read Gay, 1987). Nasir (1983) states that the characteristics of

descriptive method are focused on the concentration how to solve the actual

problems. The collected data of the research will be concluded in percentage. Then,

the data will be analyzed and discussed in detail in order to answer the research

questions.

3.3

Setting

The research was done at one public senior high school in Tanjungpandan

Belitung at the academic year 2006-2007. There were two main reasons why this

school was chosen. First, there are 13 high schools in Tanjungpandan. The school

where the research was done is a favorite one. As a favorite school, the teachers’

(12)

research was done from March 7 to March 27, 2007. The research has been done

successfully as expected.

3.4

Participants

The participants of this research were the English teachers and the eleventh

year students of science program of a public school in Tanjungpandan Belitung. To

focus the research, purposive sampling was done. Purposive sampling allows us to

choose a case because it illustrates some feature or process in which we are

interesting (Silverman, 2005). 11 IPA 1 and 11 1PA 2 classes were taken as the

samples. The detail information about the students’ number of these classes is

presented in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1

The Students Total Number in Each Class

No Class Male Female Total

1 11 IPA 1 18 20 38

2 11 IPA 2 19 19 38

There are 76 students in the two classes and all of them were taken as the

participants of this study. These classes had been chosen based on my informal

interviewed with the headmaster and five students from each class. They mentioned

that these two classes had different English teachers and different characteristic in

(13)

instruction dominantly during teaching English in the classroom, while the teacher

who teached 11 IPA 2 tended to use Indonesian. The result of the informal interviews

was also supported by the result on classroom observations.

3.5

Data Collection

Since the study employed a descriptive research design that used multiple

technique of data collection, collecting data were done not only at the end of each

session, but also in an ongoing way (Fraenkle and Wallen, 2000: 505). Interview,

students’ journal and classroom observation were used in collecting the data of this

research. Each technique will be mentioned in this session.

3.5.1 Interview

Interviews on the students were used as the one of the sources of data.

Richards, et al. (1992: 189) mention that interview is a direct conversation between

an investigator and an individual or group of individuals in order to gather

information. Merriam (1998: 69) says that qualitative data consist of direct quotations

from respondents about their experiences, opinions, feelings, and knowledge through

(14)

problems being investigated. Based on those theories, the leading interviews form

was used to collect the data. According to Ridwan (2002: 29), leading interview is a

kind of interview that the questions are given to respondents based on list of

questions prepared by the researcher. The interviews (leading interviews) were done

to get in-depth information from respondents.

All 38 students from each class were interviewed (leading interviews form) to

investigate their perceptions on the use of English as a medium of instruction used by

their English teacher and the influences of using English as a medium of instruction

to the interaction in the classroom. The questions are provided in appendix A.

The questions were categorized into nine categories; students’ background,

preferences, anticipate, hope, defense mechanisms, students’ needs, teachers’

professionalism, others’ influence, and context, in order to find the answer of the two

research questions. To investigate the teachers’ point of view about the influence of

the use of English as a medium of instruction in the classroom, they were interviewed

by using the same type of interview (leading interview). The detail questions are in

appendix B.

To get the validity of the interview questions, they were tried out to 10

students, who were not taken as the samples of the research, from the same school.

This activity was also done to the interview questions that were given to the teachers.

The pilot teacher was the respondents’ peer teacher. After analyzed the result of the

try out, the complete interview questions were rearranged and used to interview the

(15)

3.5.2 Students’ Writing Journal

To complete the data from interviews and observation, students’ journals were

used as another instrument in this study. Genesee et al. (1996: 34) mention that

journal has a number of important benefits. First, each student can write anything

about his or her learning experiences. Second, students can openly express feeling

about their teachers, classmates, and classroom activities. Third, writing a journal

gives students opportunities to express themselves personally about their interests,

goals, and desires using the second or foreign language. Based on those three benefits

mentioned, the researcher concluded that writing journal is an appropriate technique

to collect research data. As it was done to the interview questions, the guided

questions that were used in journal writing were also tried out. These questions were

given to other students from the same class level who were not taken as the

respondents of this research. This activity was done to get the validity of the

instrument. Then, the results from the try out were analyzed and developed to get the

complete one.

In writing the journal, students were asked to write their own expression and

opinion about the teaching and learning process that had been done by them at the

(16)

the research. The detail information about the students’ journal instruction sheet is

provided in appendix C.

3.5.3 Classroom Observation

Interviews are a primary source of data in qualitative research, and so are

observations (Merriam, 1998; Silverman, 2005). Nunan (1989: 76) states that if we

want to find out about classroom it is very important for us to do direct observation.

He also says that if a researcher want to enrich his or her understanding about

teaching and learning language, he or she needs to spend time looking in classroom.

Since this research is trying to investigate the phenomenon of the use of English as a

medium of instruction in the classroom, then doing classroom observation is

appropriate.

In doing this research, observation were conducted for four meetings for each

classroom. Each meeting was 90 minutes. Classroom observation were used to

observe the tacit understanding and also see directly the interaction process between

the English teachers and the students during teaching and learning process in the

classroom (Alwasilah, 2003: 155). Merriam (1998: 69) adds that detailed descriptions

of respondents’ activities, behaviors and actions will be recorded in observation.

To do an accurate classroom observation, the classroom interaction

observation form developed by Allwright (1988: 54) was used. There are four

(17)

comprehensible one. The researcher can write all activities in a classroom, including

verbal and nonverbal ones. By doing this, he or she can take tacit behavior of

respondent. Second, teachers and students’ behavior in the classroom can be analyzed

and used as a vital feedback for them. Third, using this classroom- interaction

observation form is quite simple. The researcher may record teaching and learning

activities by using recording tools, and then he or she can analyze them after the

activities run. Fourth, the researcher can give the teachers or students questions

related to the activities done in the classroom. These four advantages became the

basic reasons why classroom interaction observation form develop by Allwright was

chosen as the tool to analyze students perception on the use of English as a medium

of instruction and its influences to the classroom interaction. The detail about this

classroom-interaction observation form is provided in appendix D.

The notes of what was said by both the teacher and the students in the

interactive setting (Yin, 2003: 92) were taken. To support the notes during

observation, any words produced by the teachers and their interaction with their

students while teaching and learning process run in the classroom was taken by using

tape recorder. To get comprehensive data of classroom interaction, the writer asked

(18)

3.6

Data Analysis

Data analyses in this study were conducted over the course of the research

program and after the research program. Ongoing data analyses and interpretations

were based on data mainly from observation. Furthermore, the data that were

analyzed in the conclusion of the research were those obtained interviews and

students’ writing journal.

The data from the interviews were transcribed and subsequently categorized

and interpreted to answer the research questions. During the transcription stage,

students’ names were replaced with symbols. The transcriptions in the first stage

interview were confirmed to the participants to make sure that they were exactly what

they said and meant. Kvale (1996: 161) mentions that this step aimed to give the

participants an opportunity to reply whether they really meant what the researcher

transcribed. Furthermore, to use the research time efficiently, the transcriptions of the

second stage interview were not be sent back to the participant.

All interview data were analyzed in steps. The first one is to put interview

questions into their categories. Then the data from the interviews were subsequently

presented in a condensed body of information and interpretation (see Yin, 2003;

Travers, 2001; Merriam, 1998). Finally, the data about students’ perceptions on the

used of English as a medium of instruction were categories into positive and negative

(19)

The data from students’ journal were used to investigate their direct

expression of their feeling about teaching and learning process, their opinion about

the teacher’s teaching performance, including the language he or she used. All the

collected data from these journals were categorized based on the purposes of the

research. Students’ feelings and opinions, which were reflected to the journals, then

selected to be tabulated, based on its categories. Finally, these data were analyzed to

support the finding in interviews and classroom observations.

Data from classroom observation were analyzed to find out the influences of

the use of English as a medium of interaction to the classroom interactions. The

finding data were also used to support the data from interview and students’ journal

writing that investigate the students’ perception on the use of English as a medium of

instruction. The data collected from the classroom observation were coded in the

observational sheets. Then, information found during the observation were analyzed

and interpreted in order to find the answers of research questions.

A data source triangulation (Alwasilah, 2003; Yin, 2003) which is usually

used in case study, then made, to make a contrast and comparison off all the data

obtained from different sources, i.e. documentary reviews, classroom observation,

(20)

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1

Conclusions

This study was supposed to find out the students’ perception on the use of

English as a medium of instruction by their teacher in the classroom, and the

influences of using English as a medium of instruction to classroom interactions.

From the results and findings in previous chapter, several conclusions can be drawn.

First, regarding students’ perception on the use of English as a medium of

instruction, most students from both groups have positive perception. Based on data

from students’ interview, 35 out of 38 (92.10%) students had positive perception.

This data was supported by the journal data. The result was the same in that 35 out of

38 (92.10%) students had positive perception on the use of English as a medium of

instruction. It indicated that only 3 students or 7.89% students in this group had

negative perception. In-group 2, 32 out of 38 (84.21%) students had positive

perception. The rest of it or 6 students (15.78%) had negative perception. The data

from students’ journal showed that 32 out of 36 (two students were absent) or 88.88%

students had positive perception on the use of English as a medium of instruction.

Meanwhile, 4 students or 11.11% of them had negative perception.

Second, concerning the influences of the use of English to the classroom

(21)

occurred, because the language used as a medium of instruction in both groups was

greatly different. The teacher in group1 used English dominantly. Meanwhile the

English teacher in-group 2 used Indonesian dominantly as a medium of instruction in

the classroom. This difference reflected to the classroom interactions.

Based on the classroom observation results, in-group 1, most students were

active, serious, and enjoyable during teaching and learning process in the classroom.

They also have highly appreciative to the teacher. This data was supported by

findings from students’ interview that 35 out of 38 (92.10%) students felt positive

influences on the use of English as a medium of instruction to the classroom

interaction. Only 3 out of 38 (7.89%) students felt the negative influence. The data

above was also in accordance with the results from teacher’s interview. She said that

most of the students in her class were active and serious. They also appreciated her

very much.

In-group 2, based on the data from classroom observation, the students were

tended to be inactive, not serious, and not enjoyable during the teaching and learning

process. They also have low appreciation to their English teacher. The English

teacher interview result was also supported these data. Based on the interview result,

(22)

(84.21%) students would feel positive influences and 6 out of 38 (15.78%) students

would feel negative influences.

Based on the conclusion above, the researcher can say two important things.

First, although one may assume that the use of Indonesian will enhance the

comprehension of the material, the result of the research shows a different fact: the

students who study English in the class where English is used dominantly have better

comprehension then the students who study in the class that Indonesian is used

dominantly. It occurs because the use of Indonesian may decrease the challenge for

students in studying English. As a result, they underestimate the English subject and

the teachers, which may influence their comprehension on the material being studied.

Second, knowing and fulfilling the students’ needs are very important for the teachers

while teaching in the classroom. Challenges and opportunities to use English in the

classroom are parts of the students’ needs. These may influence the classroom

interaction and finally the students’ comprehension.

5.2

Suggestions

From the conclusions above, there are some suggestions that are noted. First,

for the next study, it will be better if the study can be conducted with longer time in

order to give contribution in another context. This study only took four times

classroom observations in each class. Others phenomenon could be found if the

(23)

of classes involved in this study, it would be good if the class used as the samples

were more than two. Therefore, the finding could be more various.

Second, related to the English teachers, it will be good for them to use English

as a medium of instruction, because students need to be exposed to the target

language as much as possible. By doing so, both the teachers and the students may

practice their English in the classroom effectively.

Third, the teachers who have low English ability must improve it gradually.

As teachers, they are models. To become good models, they should have good

English competence and performance.

Fourth, the students need to study English well. They should not improve their

English based on their teaching and learning time in the classroom only. They should

study by themselves or with their group work. They can take an English extra lesson

(24)

Bibliography

Alwasilah, A. C. (2003). Pokoknya Kualitatif. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

Allford, D. (1999). ‘Translation in the Communicative Classroom.’ In Pachler, N. (1999). (ed) Teaching Modern Foreign Languages

At Advanced Level. London: Routledge.

Allwright, D. (1988). Observation in the Language Classroom. London: Longman.

Bamburg, J. D. (2000) Raising Expectations to Improve Student Learning.

http://greece.k12.ny.us/kr/Elearning/expectations1/2000/htm. Accessed on 10th October, 2006.

Baron, R. A. (1995). Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Broughton, G. (1980). Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.

Brown, H. D. (1980). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.

New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to Language

Pedagogy. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Brown, G. (1984). Microteaching. London: J.W. Arrowsmith Ltd, Bristol.

Butler, Y. G. (2003). Korean elementary school teachers’ concerns towards current English teaching practice: Competencies that they think they

“have” and “don’t’ have.

http://www.hiceducation.org/Edu_Proceedings/Pdf. Accessed on 10th October, 2006.

Cummins, J. and Swain, M. (1996). Bilingualism in Education: Aspects of theory,

research and practice. London: Longman.

Deckert, G. (2006). ‘The Communicative Approach: Addressing Frequent Failure.’

In English Teaching Forum on line. Vol 24.

(25)

Dubin, F., and Olsbtain, E. (1987). Course Design; Developing Programs

and Materials for Language Learning. London: Cambridge

University Press.

Emilia, E. (2005). A Critical Genre-Based Approach to Teaching Academic

Writing in a Tertiary EFL Context in Indonesia. Unpublished Research

Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Fraenkle, J.R., and Wallen, N.E. (2000). How to Design and Evaluate

Research in Education. 4th edition. Boston: Mcgraw Hill.

Feldman, R. S. (1995). Elements of Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Gazda, G. M., Frank, S. Asbury, Fred, J. Balzer, William, C. Childrs,

Richard, P. Walters. 1984. Development: A Manual for Educators

Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Gazda, G. M., Frank, S. Asbury, Fred, J. Balzer, William, C. Childrs, Richard,P. Walters. (1984). Development: A Manual for Educators.

Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Garner, W. R. (1969).’To Perceive is to know.’ , in Voices of Modern

Psychology: a collection of reading for introduction psychology .Aronson E.

(ed.). Philippines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Genesee, F. and John Upshur. (1996). Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second

Language Education. London : Cambridge University Press.

Gay, L. (1987). Educational Research (Competencies for Analysis and Education).

New York: Merrill Publishing Company.

Harianto, S. (1997). ‘Achieving a good communicative performance with

better grammatical mastery using bridge technique.’ In Sadtono, E. (1997). (Ed). The Development of TEFL in Indonesia. Malang: IKIP Malang.

(26)

Hybels, S. and Richard L. Weaver (2004). Self, Perception, and

Communication. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/html

Accessed on 5th November, 2006.

Inamullah, M. (2005). Patterns of Classroom Interaction at Different Educational Levels in the Light of Flander’s Interaction Analysis.

http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/99/02/49.htm. Accessed on 9th February, 2007.

Jordaan, W. J., Jordaan, J. J., and Nieuwoudt, J. M. (1979). General Psychology: A Psychobiological Approach.

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research

Interviewing. London: Sage Publications, Inc.

Matlin W. M. (2003). Cognition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Musthafa, B. (2005). English for Young Learners (EYL). Unpublished Module. Bandung: PPs UPI.

Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in

Education. Revised and Expanded from: Case Study Research in

Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Meyers S. L., and Neal E. Grossen. (1974). Behaviour Research: theory,

procedure, and design. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Moore, A. (1999). Teaching Multicultured Students: Culturism and Anti-Culturism

In School Classroom. California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Mussen P. (1973). Psychology: An Introduction. Toronto: D.C. Health and Company.

Mussen, P., and Mark R. Rosenzweig. (1973). Psychology: An Introduction. Toronto: D.C. Health and Company.

Nasir, M. (1983). Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.

Nunan, D. (1989). Understanding Language Classroom: A Guide

for Teacher-Initiated Action. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Ltd.

(27)

Nunan, D. (1988). The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Boston: London: Cambridge University Press.

Quinn, N. V. (1985). Applying Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Richards, J. C., John Platt, Heidi Platt. (1992). Dictionary of Language

Teaching & Applied Linguistics. London: Longman Group UK

Limited.

Richards, C. J., and Rodgers, S. T. (1986). Approaches and Methods in

Language Teaching: A Description and analysis. London: Cambridge

University Press. (TPR).

Ridwan. (2002). Variabel-variabel Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta Bandung.

Rock, I. (1975). An Introduction to Perception. New York. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Silverman, D. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research. A practical Handbook.

2nd edition.London: Sage Publications, Inc.

Schaetzel, K. and Chan Ho. (2006). ‘Tutorials: A Way of Building

Community in the Classroom.’ In English Teaching Forum on line. Vol. 41. http://www.exchanges.state.gov/forum/2006.html.

Accessed on 4th December 2006.

Slameto. (2003). Belajar dan Faktor yang Mempengaruhinya.

4th edition. Jakarta: Bina Aksara.

Sobur, A. (2003). Psikologi Umum. Bandung: CV. Pustaka Setia.

Soemantry, W. (1998). Psikologi Pendidikan:Landasan Kerja Pemimpin Pendidikan.

Jakarta: Pt. Rineka Cipta.

(28)

Tiangco, J. A. N. (2005). Using Contemporary Psychological Perspectives In Re-Understanding Taiwanese EFL Development: Observation and Implications for Tertiary Education.

http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/march 2005,index.php. Accessed on February 2006.

Wagner, V. K. (2003). Defense Mechanism.

http://psychology.About. Com/mbiogage/2003/htm. Accessed on 7th February, 2007.

William, C. S. Jr. (2003). “Using L1 in the English Classroom.” English Teaching Forum, 24, 2: 35-37.

Yin, R. K.(2003). Case Study Research; Design and Methods. 3rd edition.

Figur

Table 3.1   The Students Total Number in Each Class …………………………

Table 3.1

The Students Total Number in Each Class ………………………… p.2

Referensi

Memperbarui...