Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti- Objective Criterion In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering




Editorial Board Members

Zaki  Ahmad,  Department  of  Mechanical  Engineering,  KFUPM,Box  #  1748, Dhaharan 31261 Saudi Arabia 

Area  of  research/interest:  Advanced  Materials,  Corrosion  and  Corrosion protection


of materials, Surface Engineering.


Rajeev Ahuja, Physics Department,Uppsala University,Box 530, 751 21 Uppsala Sweden

Area  of  research/interest:  Computational  Materials  Science,  Electronic Materials,Spintronics, High pressure, Dynamics, Melting.


Shigeru Aoki, Department of Mechancial Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan College of


Technology, 1­10­40 Higashi­Ohi, Shinagawa­ku, Tokyo 140­0011, Japan

Area of research/interest:  Random  vibration,  Seismic  response  of  mechanical system,Approximate analysis of nonlinear vibration, Utilization of vibraion.


Osama  Badr,  Mechanical  Engineering  Department,  Qatar  University,  P.O.  Box 2713, Doha,Qatar


Sayavur  I.  Bakhtiyarov,  New  Mexico  Institute  of  Mining  and  Technology, MechanicalEngineering Department, 122 Weir Hall, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801­4796, USA

Area  of  research/interest:  non­Newtonian  fluid  mechanics,  heat  and  mass transfer,rheology, metalcasting, materials processing, multiphase flows.


Fatma  Abou­Chadi,  Head  of  the  Dept.  of  Electronics  and  Communications Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt


Ching­Yao Chen, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology,University Road, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan, 640 R.O.C.


Area  of  research/interest:  Biofluid  mechanics,  thermo­fluid  mechanics, Magnetic fluids,


Computational fluid dynamics.


G.Q.  Chen,  Department  of  Mechanics  and  Engineering  science,  Peking University,Beijing  100871,China  CFD(Computational  fluid  dynamics),energy  and resources engineering,


and systems ecology.


B.T.F. Chung, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron,


Ohio 44325, USA

Nihad  Dib,  Electrical  Engineering  Department  JUSTP.  O.  Boc  3030,  Irbid  22110 Jordan

Area of research/interest:  Turbulence  Modeling,  Porous  Media,  Combustion  in Porous Media,


Numerical Methods, Finite Volume.


Mohammed  Salifu,  Associate  Professor  of  Transport  Engineering  &  Head Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Civil and Geomatic Engineering College of


Engineering  Kwame  Nkrumah  University  of  Science  and  Technology  (KNUST) University,


Post Office Kumasi, GHANA


Dimitris Drikakis, Head of Aerospace Sciences Department, Cranfield University, School of Engineering, Cranfield, Befordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom

Area  of  research/interest:  Computational  Fluid  Dynamics,  Aerodynamics, Turbulence  Gas  dynamics,  omputational  Nanotechnology,  Microflows  Biofluid Mechanics, Transport Phenomena.


M.R.  Eslami,  Department  of  Mechanical  Engineering,  Amirkabir  University  of Technology,


Hafez Ave. Tehran, 15914 Iran

Area of research/interest: thermoelasticity, plasticity, cyclic loading,


structural instability, buckling.


A.S. Al­Harthy,  Department  of  Civil,  Surveying  and  Environmental  Engineering, University


of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 Australia.

Area  of  research/interest:  Concrete  material  and  durability,  Recycling construction


materials, reliability assessment of structures. 


F.  Hayati,  Dean,  Faculty  of  engineering,  Ajman  university  of  Science  & Technology


Network, Ajman, UAE


Annette  Bussmann­Holder,  Max­Planck­Institute  for  Solid  State  Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D­70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Area of research/interest:  general  solid  state  physics  theory  and  experiment, Emphasis,


Superconductivity, ferroelectricity, nonlinear phenomena, organics


Naser  S.  Al­Huniti,  Mechanical  Engineering  Department,  University  of  Jordan, Amman 11942, JORDAN 


M.A.K.  Jaradat,  Department  of  Mechanical  Engineering,  Jordan

University of Science &Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan


S.Z.  Kassab,  Mechanical  Engineering  Department,  Faculty  of  Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21544 Egypt,

Area  of  Interest  :  Experimental  Fluid  Mechanics,Lubrication,  Energy, Environment and Pollution.


M.Y. Khalil, Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University,


Alexandria 21544 Egypt

Area  of  research/interest:  Radiation  measurements  and  applications,  Nuclear materials,Nuclear waste management, and radiation damage.


Bashar  El­Khasawneh,  Chairman,  Industrial  Engineering  Department,  JUST,  P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 Jordan 

Area of research/interest: Design  process  and  manufacturing­related  sciences and processes, advanced and parallel kinematics machine tools and mechanisms.


Y.A. Khulief, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KFUPM Box 1767, Dhahran, 31261, KSA 

Area  of  research/interest:  Dynamic  modeling  and  analysis  of  multibody systems  with  interconnected  rigid  and  elastic  Components,  Dynamics  of  impact and  intermittent  motion,  FEM  dynamic  response  analysis  of  rotating  beams  & shafts.


Kazuhiko  Kudo,  Laboratory  of  Micro­Energy  Systems,  Division  of  Human Mechanical  Systems  and  Design,  Graduate  School  of  Engineering,  Hokkaido University, Japan

Area  of  research/interest: Radiative  heat  transfer  analysis,  transient  analysis on surface tension.


A.  A.  Mohamad,  Director  of  Graduate  Studies,  Dept.  of  Mechanical  and Manufacturing Engineering,

Area of research/interest:  Fluid  Flow,  Heat  and  Mass  Transfer,  Computational fluid dynamics, computational methods, Porous media, Lattice Botlzmann Method, Molecular Dynamics simulations, Modeling. Multi­phase flows.


A.  A.  Mowlavi,  Physics  Department,  School  of  Sciences,Tarbiat  Moallem University of Sabzever;P.O. box 397,Sabzevar, Iran.

Area of research/interest: Nuclear and Medical Physics.


Ihab  Obaidat,  Department  of  Physics,  UAE  University,  PO  Box  17551,  Al­Ain, UAE 

Area  of  research/interest:  semiconductor  band  engineering  and semiconductor   interfaces.


H.M.  Omar, Department  of  Aerospace  Engineering,  KFUPM,  P.O.  Box  #  1794, Dhahran, 31261 Saudi Arabia 


Industrial  and  Applied  Control,  Active  Vibration  Control,  Intelligent



and  casting  simulations,  structural  shape  optimization,  artificial  intelligence techniques.


Huihe QIU, Department of Mechanical Engineering,The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon Hong Kong

Area  of  research/Interest:  Transport  phenomena  in  microscale  multiphase flows,mciro sensors and actuators, optical diagnostics and instrumentation.


K.  R.  Rajagopal,  Forsyth  Chair  Professor,  Department  of  Mechanical Engineering,Texas  A&M  University,  3123  TAMU,  College  Station  TX  77843­3123, U.S.A


D.  Ramkrishna,  Associate  Head  School  of  Chemical  Engineering,  Purdue University,


IN 47907­2100 USA transfer,  Computational  Fluid  Dynamics  modeling  of  combustion,


Design  of combustion and heat transfer systems.


Ismail  Shahin, Electrical  and  Computer  Engineering  Department,  University


of Sharjah, P. O. Box 27272, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Area of research/Interest:


Ashraf  Shikdar,  Department  of  Mechanical  &  Industrial  Engineering,  S.Q. University,P.O  Box 33, Al­Khod 123 Oman 

Area of research/Interest:  Ergonomics/  Human  Factors,  Worker  performance, Occupational Health and Safety.


S.A. Soliman,  Electrical  Engineering  Department,  University  of  Qatar,


P.  O.  Box 2713 Doha Qatar

Area  of  research/Interest:  Applications  of  State  Estimation  to  Electric  Power Systems,  Fuzzy  and  Neural  System  Applications  to  Electric  Power


Systems, Reactive Power Control.


Jinho  Song,  Thermal­hydraulics  and  Reactor  Safety  Research  Division,


Korea Atomic  Energy  Research  Institute,  P.O.  Box,  105,  Yusong,  Taejon  ,


305­600, Korea

Area  of  research/Interest: Multi­phase  fluid  mechanics  and  heat  transfer, nuclear reactor safety,


and power plant operation and design.


H.H. El­Tamaly, Chairman of electrical engineering Dept.,Faculty of Engineering, Elminia University, Egypt.

Area of research/Interest: Electrical power engineering, Photovoltaic


systems, wind energy systems, power electronics. 


Bassam A.  Abu­Nabah, Department  of  Aerospace  Engineering  and


Engineering Mechanics, College of Engineering, The University of Cincinnati, USA

Area  of  interest:  Applied  Mechanics,  Non­Destructive  Testing  Techniques,  Residual Stresses.


B.M. Vaglieco, Istituto Motori, via G.Marconi, 8­80125­ NaplesItaly

Area  of  research/Interest:  Combustion  process  and  pollutant  formation  in internal combustion engines and combustion diagnostics by optical techniques


Dimitri V. Val, Dept. of Structural Engineering and Const. Manag., Faculty of


Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion ­ Israel Institute of Technology,


  Haifa 32000, Israel

Area  of  research/Interest:  structural  safety  and  reliability;  analysis,  design, and  assessment  of  reinforced  concrete  and  steel  structures;  probabilistic  risk assessment and management.


Guo­Xiang  Wang,  Department  of  Mechanical  Engineering,  The  University  of Akron,


AkronOH 44325­3903 USA

Area  of  research/Interest:  Heat  and  Mass  Transfer,  Materials Processing,Solidification Theory and Application.


Huimin  Xie,  Dept.  of  Engineering  Mechanics,  Tsinghua  University,  100084 Beijing, China

Area of research/Interest: Experimental Mechanics, optical metrology.


Mohamed Younes, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, UAE University, P.O. Box 17555, Al­Ain, UAE 

Area  of  research/Interest:  Internal  Combustion  Engines  Fuels,  Internal Combustion Engines Cooling, CFD Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines.


Ahmed  Sahin,  Professor  of  Mechanical  Engineering  King  Fahd  University  of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia


Samir Medik, Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department King


Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals PO Box 155, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia Meamer  El  Nakla,  Mechanical  Engineering  Department  King  Fahd  University  of Petroleum and Minerals  P.O. Box 323, Dhahran 31261, KSA


Adel  Taha  Mohamed  Abbas, Associate  Professor  of  Computer  Aided  Design  & Manufacturing    Mechanical  Engineering  Department,  College  of  Engineering  King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 11421,




Abdul  Razak  Rehmat,  Associate  Prof.  Department  of  Polymer  Engineering  , Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ,Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Prof. Abdullah M. Al­Shaalan, EE  department  College  of  Engineering


P.O.  Box 800 King Saud University  Riyadh­11421 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Mir Iqbal Faheem , Professor & Head Dept. of Civil Engineering Deccan College of Engineering & Technology Darussalam, Near Nampally Hyderabad (AP)500001 India

M.  Venkata  Ramana  ,  Microscopy  and  Nano  Tech  Laboratory  Dept.  of Metallurgical


and  Materials  Engineering  Indian  Institute  of  Technology  Madras Chennai 600 036, India


Srinivas ManthaDean ­ School of Engineering & Technology and Professor ­ ECE Department,  Centurion  University  of  Technology  and  Management,


R.  Sitapur, Uppalada, Paralakhemundi, Gajapati Dist, Orissa. 761 211 India.


Damodar  Maity, Civil  Engineering  Department  Indian  Institute  of  Technology Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India ­ 721302.  West Bengal Kharagpur  721302  India  Area  of  research/Interest:Damage  Assessment  of  Structures;  Seismic Resistant


of  Structures;  Fluid­Structure  Interaction;  Sloshing;  Concrete  Gravity Dam.


Sellakkutti  Rajendran,  School  of  Mechanical  and  Aerospace  Engineering, Nanyang


Technological University Nanyang Avenue, Singapore

Area  of  Interest:  Finite  Element  Method,  Meshless  Method,  FE­Meshree Methods,Mechanical Vibrations


Giriprasath  Gururajan,  Bartlesville  Technology  Center,ConocoPhillips  Company Oklahoma, Bartlesville, USA.

Area  of  Interest:  Polymer,  Vibrational  Spectroscopy,  Electrospinning,  Polymer  characterization.



Marcos University Drive, San marcos, TX 78666, USA.  

Mohammad  Luqman, Chemical  Engineering  Department  King  Saud  University

Chemical Engineering Department, Riyadh,  Saudi Arabia

Area  of  Interest:  Polymer  Nanocomposites  ,Polymer/Plastic,  Ionomers,

Nanocomposites,  Blends,  Water  Treatment,  Plasticizers,  Additives,  Electroactive Materials,  Smart  Materials,  Fuel  Cell,  Lithium  Ion  Battery,  Sensors,  Actuators, Artificial Muscles, Membranes, Conducting Polymer, Biocompatible,Drug Delivery.  

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chee­Ming Chan, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti

Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

Area  of  Interest: Sustainable  Development,  Soils,  Foundations,  Geomaterials,

Ground Improvement, Engineering Education, Leadership, Higher Education  

Dr.  P.  Rathish  Kumar,  Civil  Engineering  Department,  National  Institute  of Technology (NIT) Warangal­506 004, Andhra Pradesh, India

Area  of  Interest:  Alternate/New  Building  Materials,  Recycling  of  concrete,  Self

Compacting  Concrete,  Structural  Dynamics,  Earthquake  Engineering,  Structural Health Monitoring, Ferrocement and Fibrous Concretes.


Mohammad  Valipour,  Department  of  Irrigation  and  Drainage  Engineering, College of Abureyhan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran­1675755936

Area  of  Interest:  Surface  and  pressurized  irrigation,  Drainage  engineering,

Relationship  between  energy  and  environment  Agricultural  water  management, Mathematical  and  computer  modeling  and  optimization  Water  resources, Hydrology,  Hydrogeology,  Hydrometeorology,  Hydro  informatics,  Hydrodynamic Hydraulic, Fluid mechanics, Heat transfer in soil media of  the  Deparment,  Manakula  Vinayagar  Institute  of  Technology, Kalitheerthalkuppam, Madagadipet, Puducherry, India

Area of Interest: Neural Networks, Image Processing, Artificial Intelligence, Data

Mining & Data Warehousing, Computer Networks  

Dr.  Kishorereddy,  Associate  Prof.  Electrical  Engineering,  Adama  Science  & Technology University, Narayanapuram (v&p), Sathupally (MD), Khammam (DT), Andhra Pradesh, India

Area of Interest: electronics and communication, vlsi design, signal processing


Dr.  Najm  Obaid  Salim  Alghazali,  Department  of  Civil  Engineering,  Babylon University, Hilla, Babylon, Iraq

Area  of  Interest:  Hydraulic  Structures,  Hydraulics,  Engineering  Hydrology,

Groundwater  Hydrology,  Dams  Engineering  (Concrete,  Earth,  etc.),  Water Resources  Statistics,  Dimensional  Analysis,  Hydraulics  Modeling,  Seepage  under Hydraulic  Structures,  Water  Storage  Tanks,  Simulation  and  Modeling,  Irrigation, Optimization, General Water Resources Engineering, Numerical Methods and Finite Elements in Civil Engineering.


Dr. Shrikant Tiwari, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering  &  Technology  (FET),  Shri  Shankaracharya  Technical  Campus,  Block No.  15/B,  Street  No.  29,  Sector­07,  Bhilai  Nagar,  City:  Bhilai,  District:  Durg, Chattisgrah, India

Area  of  Interest:  Biometrics,  Image  Processing,  Computer  Vision,  Computer

Graphics, Pattern Recognition  


Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

Area  of  Interest:  Data  Mining,VLSI  Physical  Design,Computer  Networks, Embedded systems. 


Sushant  K.  Singh,  Doctoral  Assistant,  Earth  and  Environmental  Studies Department,  Montclair  State  University,  New  Jersey,  USA,  1  Normal  Avenue, Montclair State University , 358N ML, Montclair, 07043, New Jersey, USA

Area  of  Interest:  Environmental  pollution,  Environmental  management, Environmental  toxicology,  Environmental  decision­making,  Environmental  policy, Waste management, and Sustainability Science.


Dr  Umashankar  S,  School  of  Electrical  Engineering,  VIT  University,  Vellore, Tamilnadu, India

Area  of  Interest:  Power  electronics  applications  in  wind  and  solar  energy, electrical drives and control, smart grid and power quality


R.  Manikandan,  ICT  Department,  School  of  Computing,SASTRA  Universtiy, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

Area  of  Interest:  Data  Mining,VLSI  Physical  Design,Computer  Networks, Embedded systems




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        International Journal of Applied Engineering

Research (IJAER)



Volume 9, Number 23  (2014)  






CBACCN: Constraint Based Community discovery Complex Networks pp. 18115­18127

Soumita Seth , Debnath Bhattacharyya, Tai­hoon Kim

Association Itemsets Discovery Considering Strategic Importance: WAARM pp. 18129­18139

Jin Gyu Shin, Doug Won Choi

Electronic Resource Management using Cloud Computing for Libraries pp. 18141­18147

R.S.M. Lakshmi Patibandla and K. Santhi Sri

The Effect of Creativity Education in Korean ‘Model Schools’ on Creativity pp. 18149­18158

Kyung­hwa Lee, Kyoung­hoon Lew

A Study on Optimization Algorithm for Data Driven Architectural Design pp. 18159­18166

Jin Ho Park  And Woo­Hyoung Lee

Development of Standard Work Process Model for Defect Consulting onKorea Apartment Housing

pp. 18167­18174

Junmo Park Woo­Hyoung Lee

Study on the bearing capacity of waveform Micropile using jet grouting method pp. 18175­18182

Young­Eun Jang

A Study on the Maintenance Direction of Waterfront for Urban Regeneration: Focused on Urban­Rehabilitation Strategies and Planning Factor

pp. 18183­18190 Won Chul Lee

Analysis  of  the  current  state  in  order  to  maintain  the  function  of  the  communication buildings for maintaining function in emergency

pp. 18191­18198 Gyeongmok Nam

Explicit Reanalysis Approach due to Modification of Structural Members pp. 18199­18206

Hee­Chang Eun,Young­Jun Ahn,Seung­Guk Lee,In­Baik Lee

Comparison  of  Ultrasonographic  Architectural  Properties  of  Muscles  and  Balance  Ability Based on the Spasticity of Chronic Stroke Patients


pp. 18207­18214

Tae­Gon Kim,Gi­Do Kim,Chan­Hun Choi,Kyung­Yoon Kim

Applicable Natural Staining by Sophora japonica L.and Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht  pp. 18215­18222

Suk­Yul Jung and Su­Youn Park

Algorithm for Reduction of System Order using Fast Rationalized Haar Transforms in Time Domain

pp. 18223­18230 Joon­Hoon Park

Simplification  of  High  Order  Transfer  Function  using  General  Block  Pulse  Functions andTransforms in Frequency Domain

pp. 18231­18239

Joon­Hoon Park,Ryum­DuckOh

The Effect of Theme  Based  STEAM  Activity  Programs  on  Self  Efficacy,Scientific  Attitude, and Interest in Scientific Learning

pp. 18241­18246

Young­Tae Kong, Sun­Chen Huh, Hui­Ju Hwang

The Implementation of STEAM Program about Pollution in Senior High School pp. 18247­18254

Young­Tae Kong

Structural Analysis of Class Satisfaction by Internet Protocol TV pp. 18255­18261

Hyunwook Kim and Joungmin Km

Acoustic  Echo  Cancellation  Techniques  for  Far­End  Telephony  Speech  Recognition  in Barge­In Situations

pp. 18263­18271

JongHanJoo,Jung Hoon Lee,Young Sun Kim, Seung Ho Choi(Corresponding author),Se Jin Chang

Constructing an Advanced Selection Mechanism in Evolutionary Optimization pp. 18273­18280

Don­Kyu Lee, Chang­Wook Han

Study on Finding Hidden Pet Game for Children Using Motion Cognition Technology pp. 18281­18288

Hyun Yi Jung,Hyunggi Kim

Farming related Symptoms among Korean Farmers and their Quality of Life pp. 18289­18294

Myoung­Hee Kim

One­hand texting usability with iPhone 5 Touch­screen keyboard vertical position pp. 18295­18302

Calvin Jeongheon Lee,Hye Jin Kum,Hyoung­taek Lim,Frank Biocca

A Study of the Antenna Design for a 2.4Ghz/5Ghz Dual Band Wireless Communication pp. 18303­18308


PSO Based Automatic Tuning of Relevant Tuning Parameters For Model Predictive Control pp. 22313­22324


Modified  Firefly  Algorithm  For  Selective  Harmonic  Elimination  In  Single  Phase  Matrix Converter

pp. 22325­22336

P.Subha Karuvelam, Dr.M.Rajaram

An Efficient  Method  To  Automatic  Intelligent  Based  Search  Engine  In  Health  Care  Cloud Data Using C­Means With Neuro Fuzzy System

pp. 22337­22350

R.Kavitha, R.Nedunchelian

Ethical Reckoning Among Teen Populace pp. 22351­22360

Dr. K. Vasanthi Kumari,Ms. P. Suganthi,Ms. E. Sharanya

Spot  Selection  Technique  Based  Adhoc  on  Demand  Distance  Vector  Routing  (SSRP)  For Qos Improvement In MANET Using Mobility Traces

pp. 22361­22372


Network Performance Improvement Using Fuzzy Genetic Based Aodv pp. 22373­22383

N.K. Kuppuchamy R.Manimegalai

Implementation of Power Restoration Using Q­Algorithm In JADE pp. 22385­22393

Anisha. K, Rathina Kumar.K

Cooperative  Diversity  Pathsselection  Protocol  Withmulti­Objective  Criterion  In  Wireless Ad­Hoc Networks

pp. 22395­22407

Nyoman Gunantara, Nyoman Putra Sastra, Gamantyo Hendrantoro

Implementation  of  a  Sensor  Web  Service  for  Environmental  Pollution  Monitoring  using Wireless Sensor Networks –A Test Bed Approach

pp. 22409­22422

M. Bhargava Rama and K. Raghava Rao

Study  of  Tool  Wear  and  Chip  Morphology  in  Turning  Ti­6Al­4V  Alloy  under  Cryogenic Cooling

pp. 22423­22434

M. Dhananchezian , M. Pradeep kumar, S. Rajesh

A Detailed Study of Data Replication Techniques in MANET pp. 22435­22445

S.Senthilkumar and J.William

Enhancing Security of Modified RSA Algorithm pp. 22447­11455


Design of TEDS using IEEE 1451.0 standard for Sensor characterization and application, and implemented in VLSI using Verilog Model

pp. 22457­22469 D. JamunaRani

Modeling  of  Photovoltaic  Switched  Inductor  Z  Source  Multilevel  Inverter  Effective  Of Power Factor Control

pp. 22471­22488

Sam Alaric, Caroline and Suresh Manic

A Survey On Test Case Generation From UML State Chart Diagrams pp. 22489­22499

Priya. T and Dr. M. Prasanna

A Security Framework For Fault Node Detection In Wireless Sensor Network pp. 22501­22510

K. Rajasekaran and Dr. Kannan Balasubramaian

Real  and  Reactive  Power  Optimization  by  effective  placement  of  various  FACTS controllers

pp. 22511­22521

Dr. E. Nandakumar and Dr. R. Dhanasekaran

Detection  and  Prevention  of  Malicious  Nodes  ON  and  OFF  the  Route  in  Wireless  Sensor Networks

pp. 22523­22538

Muthumayil K,Manikandan S,Rajamani V

Performance  Improvement  of  Combined  Cycle  (Dual  pressure  HRSG)  Using  Mechanical Refrigeration System

pp. 22539­22550

Lord Jaykishan Nayak and Dhaneshwar Mahto

Comparative Analysis On MPPT Algorithms For Standalone PV System pp. 22551­22564

M .Muthuramalingam and P.S.Manoharan

Routing in Delay Tolerant Network using Ant Colony Optimization pp. 22565­22573

K. Sabeetha and A. Vincent Antony Kumar

Design, Implementation and Optimisation of HInfinity Controller for a Microgrid pp. 22575­22596

A.Sheela and Dr. S.Vijayachitra

Cloud  point  extraction  of  Congo  red  dye  from  water  sample  using  Triton  X­114  as Nonionic surfactant by batch and continuous process

pp. 22597­22612

M.D.Duraimurugan alias Saravanana and Appusamy Arunagiri

Compression of Hyperspectral Images Using Maco With Radon Transformation pp. 22613­22628


International Journal of Applied Engineering Research

ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 9, Number 23 (2014) pp. 22395-22407

© Research India Publications

Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol

Withmulti-Objective Criterion In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks


Nyoman Gunantara,


Nyoman Putra Sastra,


Gamantyo Hendrantoro


Department of Electrical Engineering

Universitas Udayana, Bali


Department of Electrical Engineering

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya


Relay selection plays a very important role in wireless ad hoc networks.

Wepropose a cooperative diversity protocol as simple and easy to understand

with multi-objective cross-layer criterion by considering the condition of

source-to-destination (S-D) linkand employing amplify-and-forward (AF)

relays. The proposed protocol guarantees full diversity based on scalarization

of the two-objective criterion with root mean square (rms) normalizationto

gain fairness. The two objectivesinclude signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR)

and load variance. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol

giveshigher SNR than a single-objective protocol that does not consider the

S-D link conditions. The proposed protocol results in an improvement of 3.03

dB in SNR and is likely to result in cooperative diversity configuration

involving two parallel relays. In addition, the load variance achieved by

applying the proposed algorithmindicates more evenly distributed traffic load.


relay selection, algorithm protocol, full diversity, amplify and

forward, multi-objective criterio, rms, scalarization, SNR, load variance.




Nyoman Gunantara

multi-input multi-output (MIMO) [2] systems. Consequently, cooperative diversity can

improve the transmission quality.

To implement cooperative diversity in wireless ad-hoc networks, it needs protocol

and criteria that must be met in communication from source to destination. For

example, the authors in [3] propose a simple protocol of cooperative diversity for

configuration consisting of source-to-destination and source-relay-destination paths.

With this protocol, problems arise when the signal from the source to destination can

not be received well due to bad quality of the radio link so that the direct transmission

fails. In this case, full diversity can not be achieved and the cooperative system

performance degrades. This problem can be mitigated by checking the performance of

the source-to-destination link prior to the cooperative diversity phase, so that the

system can be enhanced to achieve full diversity, which is explored in our paper.

Relay or path selection in cooperative diversity can be done depending on various

criteria. For instance, path selection in cooperative diversity can be done based on SNR

[4] - [7], outage probability [8] - [10], mutual information [11], and symbol error rate

[12]. However, these papersimplement cooperative diversity using single-objective

criterion. It is thought thatpath selection in cooperative diversity needs to consider a

combination of multiple criteria to achieve multiple goals simultaneously. Our paper

proposes a cooperative diversity protocol with cross-layer multi-objective criterion

involving prediction of the performance from the source to the destination in advance

so that the right decision on the configuration taken can be made and full diversity can

be achieved. Multi-objective criterion used areSNRand load variance. The first are

related to the physical layer, while the second is a network layer problem [13].

Path selection in multi-objective can be achieved by using Pareto and scalarization

methods. Based on the computation time, scalarization method takes less time to

perform simulation compared with Pareto method[14]. Therefore, the completion of a

multi-objective criterion in the protocol of cooperative diversity in this research

appliesscalarization method. In thescalarization method, each objective is weighted

and normalized. Normalization with priorityscale tends to separatethe primary objects

and ignore other objects[15]. In this paper, normalization is made to the root mean

square (rms) to provide fairness among theobjectives.

As previously stated, the best path pair in our study is obtained based on a criterion

consisting of twoobjectives, namely SNRand load variance. SNR values obtained with

proposed algorithm is found to provide improvement of 3.03 dB over the

single-objective protocol proposed in [3]. Our algorithm also guarantees full diversity of the

proposed protocol.

Section II of this paper describes the formulation of the three-objective problem.

Section III describes model of the ad-hoc network and protocols used in our study.

Section IV describes theparameters and simulation results and closed with conclusions

in SectionV.

Formulation of Multi-Objective Criterion


Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti-Objective


two criteria and scalarization for the combinationis explained below. There are five

possible outcomes of path selection, namely D only, R-D only, D and R-D,

S-R1-D and S-R2-D, and no connection. The possibilities of path selection results can be

seen in Fig. 1.


If transmission rate is desired, channel capacity of 2 is required for packets sent by

S to be successfully received in D. The requirement can be expressed as follows [16]:


(1 +




Equation (1) can also be written as follows:


> 2



Figure 1: Possibilities of Path Selection Results

If this condition is not fulfilled then the direct path of S-D is deemed not eligible,



< 2



The success of communication with S-D and S-R-D configuration with AF relay

channel capacity is determined by the value of the spectral efficiency

. Channel

capacity of the AF method can be calculated by the following equation:



Nyoman Gunantara


log 1 +





log 1 +



, ,

, ,

Based on equation (4), the channel capacity can reach the optimal value if the



is also optimal. It can be concluded that to reach a value


, it requiresthe

selected relay to provide the optimal value. The best relay is given by the optimal

value . Mathematically, it can be written as [3]:


arg max

, ,

, ,


where the sign *denotes the optimal value.

Load Variance

Load variance isthe variance of traffic loads of all nodes, which isinversely

proportional to the load balance or fairness [17].In ad-hoc wireless networks, load

balance is very important because some nodes may have a greater chance to become a

relay. In a path pair where node is used as a relay thenthe traffic load of node







arethe own traffic load of and the traffic cominginto node ,


After the load of each node is known then the load variance caused by the selection

of a pair ofdiversity pathscan be reviewed for all nodes in the path pair. The load

variance value can be determined by following equation [17]






Inscalarization method, all criteria are combined into a scalar form by givinga weight

to each objective. Minimizedfunction is given a negative sign, while the maximized

function is given a positive sign. In this research,every objectiveis normalized to their

own rms value to gain fairness.

Scalarization of the above twoobjectivesbecomes:






Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti-Objective


So, theoptimalrelaycan be calculatedby the following equation:

= arg max


System Model and Protocol

In this study, each node can act as a source (S), relay (R), and destination (D).

Properties of the system model are:

Each node uses a single antenna with omni-directional radiation.

AF relaysare used in cooperative communication.

The packet delivery is half-duplex.

Transmission isdivided into direct transmission phase and one or more phases

of cooperative transmission.

Source and relayshave equal transmit power



Distance power law is used for the path loss model with influence of

lognormal shadowing [14].

Thenoise is AWGN with


We assume that in this protocol each node alternately broadcasts information on

the received powersfrom other nodes and traffic load so that everyone knowsthe

received powers of each other in the form of a table. Communication protocol is

startedby the source broadcasting initiation packets. Decisions on the quality of S-D is

determined by equation (2),whereas the best relay selection is done through equation

(5). The protocol is the result of one of three possibilities, namely diversity, no

diversity, and no connection. The cooperative diversity protocol can be explained by

the flowchart in Fig. 2.

Pseudocodefor the flow chart can be divided into three parts: the mainprogram, the

one dual-hop procedure, and the two dual-hop procedure. Starting withthe packet

broadcast by S,the S-D performance is checked. If


> 2


,then the one

dual-hopprocedure isexecuted. Otherwise, if


< 2


then the two dual-hop procedure

is selected. This process can be seen in AlgorithmI.

If the decision is made that the S-D link quality is good, i.e.,


> 2


, the route

of direct transmission and cooperative is formedthroug

1 = [ , ]


Algorithm I: Main program


S transmit



> 2



Procedure one dual-hop

Else If


< 2



Procedure two dual-hop




Nyoman Gunantara

( , : ) = [ , , ]


= 1: ,


. After that, relay selection is done

based on multi-objective criterion in equation (10). The result is either diversity



or no diversity through


. This process can be seen in

Algorithm II.

If the decision is made thatthe S-D quality is not sufficiently good, i.e.,





, then the cooperative route is formed through

( , : ) = [ , , ]


= 1: ,


. After that,the second relay selection is done based on

multi-objective criterion in equation (10). The result can be diversity through


, or

no diversity through


1, or no connection. This process can be seen in

Algorithm III.

Algorithm II: Procedure one dual-hop


//decision by


> 2


//direct route


//cooperative route

For i=1:N, i

S, i




//multi-objective criterion


, ,




+ 1




//scalarization of multi-objective criterion

= arg max



//best 1 relay

If best1relay =1 Then


Else no_diversity






path_pairs={[SD] selected_relay1}

//no diversity


Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti-Objective 22401

Algorithm III: Procedure two dual-hop


//decision by


< 2


//cooperative route

Fori=1:N, i

S, i




//multi-objective criterion


, ,




+ 1




//scalarization of multi-objective criterion

= arg max



//best 2 relays

If best2relays = 2 Then


Else If best2relay=1 Then










selected_ relay2=relay(I(2),:)


//no diversity



Nyoman Gunantara

Numerical Results

Simulation parameters are adopted from the application of WLAN in ad-hoc wireless

networks as shown in Table I. The ad-hoc network model used consists of one source,

one destination, and multiple other nodes that are possible relays. All nodes are in an

open space with an area of 100m


100m. S broadcasts a data packet to D assisted by

other nodes. In this study, 30 nodes are defined each having the same opportunity tobe

a relay.

To simulate load variance calculation, it is assumed that besides the source sending

data to the destination there are five other nodes simultaneously transmit data to

theirrespectivedestinations. As a result, there are some nodes having a better chance to

be a relay because they have relatively lower traffic load. In our example, five pairs of

source and destination nodes use paths 4-12-31, 7-11-25, 10-19-23, 16-12-2, and

25-20-6. It is assumed that the sources, namely, node 4, 7, 10, 16, and 25 transmit data

respectively at 3, 8, 7, 2, and 11Mbps. While the other nodes are assumed to have

random load of 2, 7, 12, or 17.


: Power receivedby Dfrom S is calculated by D and then fed

back to S


: Computed by each possible relay R and further checked by


***) : Computed from (9).



is calculated by each R and

checked by S, while



is calculated by D and checked by

each R.

Figure 2:

Flow Chart of Cooperative Diversity Protocol


Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti-Objective 22403

The optimal relay pair selected in this simulation are (1-19-32) and (1-21-32) with

SNR of 29.47 dB obtained using the proposed protocol was. The SNR obtained from

the single-objective protocolas in the paper [3], which does not consider the condition

of SD,is 27.53 dB, whereas the SNR for S-R-D configuration only is 25.03dB, and that

for S-D only is 13.27dB.Whereasthe load variance is 48.36 Mbps


.The selectedpath

pair can be seen in Fig. 4.

Table 1: Parameters of Simulation


: Value

Path loss exponent ,

: 4





Figure 3: Ad Hoc Network Model

Simulationis performed 1000 times with a random position and load to every node

to determine the distribution of each objective and compareit to the single-objective

algorithm, the direct transmission (S-D) and the dual-hop (S-R-D).



Nyoman Gunantara

Fig. 5. From Fig. 5, it can be explained that the SNR value from the proposed method

(marked "MO" in the figure) ranges from 21.01 to 47.05 dB.For comparison, the SNR

for the single objective protocol not considering to the S-D condition (marked "SO")

ranges from 18.09 to 40 dB.The median difference of SNR between the

proposedmulti-objective and the single-objective algorithm is 3.03 dB.For the S-R-D

path onlyconfiguration, the SNR ranges from10 to 34.01 dB.While for S-D path only,

the SNR ranges from-10 to 23.06 dB with the probability of SNR value above 0 dB

being 88.0 %.These results suggest that the proposed protocol produces the largest

SNR values among the others.

Figure 4:

Best Path Pairs

The CDF of load variance from the simulation is given in Fig. 6. The load variance

from the use of the proposed protocol ranges from39.23 to 51.17 Mbps


. As a

comparison, load variancesare also shown for the single-objective protocol and for the

S-D path only configuration. Load variance produced by the single-objective

rangesbetween 38.52and 51.74 Mbps


. While the value of load variance for the case

of S-D path only is fixeddue to the absence of changes in the traffic load on each

node. Fig. 6 shows the value of load variance with the proposed protocol issmaller

than that with the single-objective. It is because the traffic load resulting from the

proposed protocol is more evenlydistributed with the application of multi-objective

criterion than the traffic load of the nodes with a single objective protocol.


Cooperative Diversity Pathsselection Protocol Withmulti-Objective


Figure 5: CDF of SNR

Figure 6: CDF of Load Variance


Based on the analysis of simulation results of the proposed cooperative diversity

protocol, several conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the selection of the best path pair

can be done based on a multi-objective cross-layercriterion. In our case, there are two

objectives involved, namely, SNRand load variance by applying multi-objective

optimization with scalarization. Secondly, the SNR with the proposed algorithm that

considers the condition of the direct S-D link is higher than that resulting from the

single-objective algorithm that does not consider the condition of S-D. In this case,

SNR improvement of 3.03 dB is obtained. Lastly, load variance that results from the

proposed protocol is smaller than that resulting from the single objective protocol.

-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Load Variance (Mbps2)



Nyoman Gunantara

Itindicates that communication with the proposed protocol results in traffic load that is

more evenly distributed.


The research work of N. Gunantara has been supported by a HibahBersaing

2014Contract No. 103.63/UN14.2/PNL.01.03.00/2014from the Indonesian Ministry

of Education and Culture.



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Figure 1: Possibilities of Path Selection Results

Figure 1:

Possibilities of Path Selection Results p.16
Figure 2: Flow Chart of Cooperative Diversity Protocol

Figure 2:

Flow Chart of Cooperative Diversity Protocol p.21
Table 1: Parameters of Simulation

Table 1:

Parameters of Simulation p.22
Figure 3: Ad Hoc Network Model

Figure 3:

Ad Hoc Network Model p.22
Figure 4: Best Path Pairs

Figure 4:

Best Path Pairs p.23
Figure 5: CDF of SNR

Figure 5:

CDF of SNR p.24
Figure 6: CDF of Load Variance

Figure 6:

CDF of Load Variance p.24


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