• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan



Academic year: 2017



Teks penuh


This page was exported from - Karya Tulis Ilmiah Export date: Sun Sep 3 2:17:06 2017 / +0000 GMT


1) Major Types of Ocean Pollutiona) Oil

Ocean Pollutioni) Sources(1) Runoff: 363 million gallons/year(2) Routine Maintenance: 137 million gallons/year(3) Air Pollution: 92 million gallons/year(4) Natural Seeps: 62 million gallons/year(5) Big Spills: 37 million gallons/year(6) Offshore Drilling:15 million gallons/yearii) Effects(1) Kills marine animals(a) Destroys a seabird's ability to insulate and they die of hypothermia(b) Animals die if they swallow it(2) Damages coastal ecosystems, consequences can last decades(a) Covers coast lines destroying flora and fauna(b) It may take mangroves 50 years to recover(3) Economic impact(a) Economically important species of shell fish and fin fish are easily killed by oil pollution(b) Devastates local economies dependent on fishingb) Toxic Materialsi) Heavy Metals and slowly degrading chemicals(1) Cadmium, Mercury, Lead ii) Persistent Organic Pollutants(1) Dioxin, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)iii) Sources(1) Factory waste(2) Agriculture(3) Air pollution(4) Household cleaning suppliesiv) Effects(1) Destroy normal immune function(a) Organisms become susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia an cancer(2) Toxics can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in an ecosystem, increasing in concentration as they go up the food chain.(a) Top predators, such as orcas and tuna can have extremely high levels of toxicsc) Sewage and Eutrophication.i) Sources(1) Many cities around the world dump their sewage, either treated or untreated, into the ocean(2) Large vessels, such as cruise ships, can also add substantial amounts of sewage to the environment, particularly in pristine areas such as Southeast Alaskaii) Effects(1) Eutrophication: Having waters rich in nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae,(a) Eutrophication leads to oxygen depletion(i) Sewage increases nutrient levels in the ocean causing large algae blooms(ii) After the bloom dies, microbes decompose the algae using up all the oxygen in the water(b) Without oxygen, other organisms, such as fish, die (2) Introduces pathogens (a) Pathogens found in human waste enter the food web and may, in turn, infect people who eat fish and shellfish from the contaminated area.d) Garbagei) Sources(1) Unregulated dumping of garbage from ships and coastal communities(a) It's very hard to enforce bans on ocean dumping(2) 14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the ocean each yearii) Effects(1) Large pieces of garbage can ensnare marine animals, killing them(2) Many animals ingest the garbage, which can also kill them.(a) 267 marine species have been reported entangled in or having ingested marine debris(i) 86% of all sea turtle species, 44% of all sea bird species and 43% of all marine mammal species(3) Fouls ship motors and other marine machinery.e) Radioactive Wastei) Sources(1) Dumping of radioactive waste at sea is banned, but some is still discharged from coastal facilitiesii) Effects(1) Not well knownOn land, radioactivity causes birth defects and cancers such as leukemia


Dokumen terkait

Fokus yang banyak diteliri adalah apakah pemilih dengan latar belakang agama tertentu cenderung memilih partai atau kandidat dengan agama yang sama dengan

Sumber Pendanaan : Pekerjaan ini dibiayai dari sumber pendanaan: APBN Tahun Anggaran 2016 (Anggaran atas pelaksanaan paket pekerjaan ini masih dalam proses pengesahan DIPA. Apabila



Four days of 90% shading at the time of fruit setting (1±5 days after petal fall, DAPF) of mature `Jonagold'/M.9 apple trees was combined with the application of thinning agents

KUNCI JAWABAN BAHASA INGGRIS KELAS VIII SEMESTER GANJIL 2015 / 2016I. Can you / will you atau Could you/Would

Production of interspeci®c hybrids between Lilium longi¯orum and Lilium elegance by ovary slice culture.. Nomenclature for centromeric position

Dari pengamatan pada observasi awal, dilakukan penyebaran kuisioner untuk 5 orang operator pada masing-masing stasiun dan ditemukan beberapa stasiun kerja pada proses