# ON THE WIENER INDEX OF A GRAPH | Ramane | Journal of the Indonesian Mathematical Society 110 285 1 PB

## Full text

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Vol. 18, No. 1 (2012), pp. 57–66.

1

2

### Ganagi

3

1

Department of Mathematics, Gogte Institute of Technology, Udyambag, Belgaum – 590008, India, hsramane@yahoo.com

2

Department of Mathematics, Gogte Institute of Technology, Udyambag, Belgaum – 590008, India, revankards@rediffmail.com

3

Department of Mathematics, Gogte Institute of Technology,

Udyambag, Belgaum – 590008, India, abganagi@yahoo.co.in

Abstract. The Wiener index of a graphG, denoted byW(G) is the sum of the distances between all (unordered) pairs of vertices ofG. In this paper, we obtain

the Wiener index of line graphs and some class of graphs.

Key words: Wiener index, line graph, distance, diameter.

Abstrak.Indeks Weiner dari suatu grafG, yang dinotasikan denganW(G) adalah jumlahan jarak antara semua pasangan (tak terurut) dari titik-titikG. Pada artikel ini, kami mendapatkan indeks Weiner dari graf garis dan beberapa kelas dari graf.

Kata kunci: Indeks Wiener, graf garis, jarak, diameter.

1. Introduction

Let G be a simple, connected, undirected graph with vertex set V(G) = {v1, v2, . . . , vn} and edge set E(G) = {e1, e2, . . . , em}. The distance between two

vertices vi and vj, denoted by d(vi, vj) is the length of shortest path between the

vertices vi andvj in G. The shortest vi−vj path is often called ageodesic. The

diameter diam(G) of a connected graph G is the length of any longest geodesic. Thedegreeof a vertexvi inGis the number of edges incident toviand is denoted

bydi=deg(vi) [2, 11].

TheWiener index(or Wiener number)  of a graphG, denoted byW(G) is the sum of the distances between all (unordered) pairs of vertices ofG, that is

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C12.

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W(G) =∑

i<j

d(vi, vj).

The Wiener index is a graph invariant that belongs to the molecules structure-descriptors called topological indices, which are used for the design of molecules with desired properties .

Ifµ1 ≥µ2≥. . . ≥µn be the eigenvalues of Laplacian Matrix  of a tree

T, then [10, 12]

W(T) =n

n−1

i=1

1 µi

.

For details on Wiener index, see [4, 10, 14].

The line graphL(G) of a graph Gis a graph such that the vertices ofL(G) are the edges ofG and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their cor-responding edges inGshare a common vertex . The concept of line graph has various applications in physical chemistry [7, 9].

LetF1 be the 5-vertex path, F2 the graph obtained by identifying a vertex

of a triangle with an end vertex of the 3-vertex path, and F3 the graph obtained

by identifying a vertex of a triangle with a vertex of another triangle (see Fig. 1).

t t t t t

F1

★★★ ❝

❝❝

t t

t t t

F2

★★★ ❝

❝❝ ❝ ❝ ❝

★ ★ ★

t t

t t t

F3

Figure 1

Theorem 1.1.  If diam(G)≤2 and none of the graphs F1,F2, F3 of Fig. 1

is an induced subgraph of Gthendiam(L(G))≤2.

Recently there has been an interest in understanding the connection between W(G) andW(L(G)).

Theorem 1.2. For every tree T onn verticesW(L(T)) =W(T)− (

n 2

)

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Theorem 1.3. If Gis connected graph with nvertices andm edges then

W(L(G))≥W(G)−n(n−1) +m(m+ 1) 2 .

Theorem 1.4. IfGis connected unicyclic graph withnvertices thenW(L(G))≤ W(G)with equality if and only if Gis a cycle of lengthn.

Theorem 1.5. LetGbe a connected graph with minimum degreeδ(G)≥2 then W(G)≤W(L(G)). Equality holds only for cycles.

Graphs for whichW(G) =W(L(G)) are considered in [3, 5].

In the sequel, in this paper we obtain some more results on the Weiner index of line graphs. Also, we obtain Wiener index of some class of graphs.

2. Wiener Index of Line Graphs

Theorem 2.1. Let G be a connected graph with n vertices, m edges and di =

deg(vi). If diam(G)≤2 and G does not contain Fi, i= 1,2,3 (of Fig. 1) as an

induced subgraph then

W(L(G)) =m2−1 2

n

i=1

d2i.

Proof. The number of vertices of L(G) is n1 = m and the number of edges of

L(G) ism1=−m+12∑ni=1d2i .

Ifdiam(G)≤2, then 

W(G) =n(n−1)−m (1)

From Theorem 1.1, since diam(G) ≤ 2 and G has no Fi, i = 1,2,3 as its

induced subgraph thendiam(L(G))≤2. Therefore from Eq. (1),

W(L(G)) = n1(n1−1)−m1

= m(m−1)− [

−m+1 2

n

i=1

d2i

]

= m21

2

n

i=1

d2

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Corollary 2.2. IfGis a connectedr-regular graph onnvertices withdiam(G)≤2 and none ofFi,i= 1,2,3 (of Fig. 1) as an induced subgraph ofGthen,

W(L(G)) = nr

2(n2)

4 .

Proof. SinceGis an r-regular graph on nvertices, the number of edges ofGis m=nr/2 anddi=deg(vi) =r. From Theorem 2.1,

W(L(G)) = m2−1 2

n

i=1

d2i

= (nr 2

)2 −1

2

n

i=1

r2

= n

2r2

4 − nr2

2 =

nr2(n2)

4 . ✷

Lete= (uv) be an edge of a graph Gwhereuandv are the end vertices of e. The degree of edgeeis defined asdeg(e) =deg(u) +deg(v)−2.

Theorem 2.3. LetGbe a connected graph with vertex setV(G) ={v1, v2, . . . , vn}

and edge setE(G) ={e1, e2, . . . , em}. Letdi=deg(vi). Then

W(L(G))≥

n

i=1

di(di−1)

2 +m(m−1)−

m

i=1

deg(ei).

The equality holds if and only ifdiam(G)≤2 and none of the three graphs of Fig. 1 is an induced subgraph ofG.

Proof. Ifdi =deg(vi) then for each vertexvi there are di edges incident tovi.

These di edges form a complete graph on di vertices in L(G). Which contributes

di(di−1)/2 to the W(L(G)).

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W(L(G)) ≥

Ifdiam(G)≤2 and none of the three graphs of Fig. 1 is an induced subgraph ofG, then from Theorem 1.1,diam(L(G))≤2. Therefore as explained above, the distance betweeneand the remainingm−1−deg(e) vertices inL(G) is 2. Therefore

W(L(G)) =

Conversely, the first part of Eq. (2) contributes the distance betwen the adjacent edges and the second part contributes the distance 2 between non adjacent edges. For this letei andejbe nonadjacent edges inG. Sinced(ei, ej) = 2 inL(G),

there is an edgeek adjacent toei andej inGand none of the three graphs of Fig.

1 is an induced subgraph ofG,diam(G)≤2. HenceGis required graph. ✷

IfGis anr-regular graph thendi=r,deg(e) = 2r−2 and m=nr/2, so we

have following corollary.

Corollary 2.4. If Gis a connectedr-regular graph onnvertices thenW(LG))≥ nr2(n2)/4with equality if and only ifGis anr-regualr graph with diam(G)2

and none of the three graphs of Fig. 1 is an induced subgraph ofG.

Theorem 2.5. If T is a tree with vertices v1, v2, . . . , vn and di = deg(vi), i =

edges incident to it. These edges form a complete graph on di vertices in L(T).

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(

di

2

)

=di(di−1)

2 , i= 1,2, . . . , n. (4)

. . . . ❅

❅ ❅ ❅

❇ ❇ ❇ ❇

❅ ❅ ❅ ❅

❇ ❇ ❇ ❇ . . . .

✉ ✉ ✉ ✉

✉ ✉ ✉ ✉ ✉ ✉

x1 x2 xdi−1 y1

y2 y dj−1

vi vj

Figure 2

Now supposeviandvjbe the vertices ofT anddi=deg(vi) anddj =deg(vj).

Letx1, x2, . . . , xdi−1 be the edges incident to vi and y1, y2, . . . , ydj−1 be the edges

incident tovj (Fig. 2). Wherexl, (1≤l≤di−1) andyk, (1≤k≤dj−1) do not

have common vertex and these are not the edges of the path between vi andvj.

The distance betweenxlandyk inL(T) is 1 +d(vi, vj).

The sum of the distances between all edges x1, x2, . . . , xdi−1 incident to vi

and all edgesy1, y2, . . . , ydj−1 incidnet tovj is

[1 +d(vi, vj)](di−1)(dj−1). (5)

Thus from Eq. (4) and Eq. (5),

W(L(T)) =

n

i=1

di(di−1)

2 +

i<j

[1 +d(vi, vj)] (di−1)(dj−1). ✷

Theorem 2.6. If T is a tree havingk vertices with degree s and remaining with degree 1. Then

W(L(T)) = ks(s−1)

2 + (s−1)

2

[(

k 2

)

+W(T′)

]

whereT′ is the tree obtained fromT by removing all its end vertices.

Proof. Thekvertices are of degreesand the remainingn−kvertices are of degree 1. Saydeg(vi) =sfori= 1,2, . . . , kanddeg(vi) = 1 fori=k+ 1, k+ 2, . . . , n. So

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W(L(T)) =

3. Wiener Index of Some Class of Graphs

The clique of a graphGis the maximal complete induced subgraph ofG.

Theorem 3.1. Let G be a connected graph with n vertices having a cliqueKk of

order k. Let G(n, k) be the graph obtained from G by removing the edges of Kk,

0≤k≤n−1. Then

pairs of vertices are at distance greater than or equal to 2 and remaining

(

pairs of vertices are at distance greater than or equal to 1. Therefore

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For the equality, ifG=Kn, then inG(n, k), d(vi, vj) = 2 ifvi, vj ∈S1 and

LetG̸=Kn, then there exists at least one pair of vertices which are not

adja-cent. Letv1, v2, . . . , vkbe the vertices of the cliqueKkofG. Letvk+1, vk+2, . . . , vk+l

be the vertices which are not adjacent among themselves inG, where 2≤l≤n−k.

LetV1={v1, v2, . . . , vk},V2={vk+1, vk+2, . . . , vk+l}andV3={vk+l+1, vk+l+2, . . . , vn}.

G(n, p, k) there arekp(p−1)/2 pairs of vertices are at distance 2 and remaining

(

n 2

)

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W(G(n, p, k) = ∑

i<j

d(vi, vj)

= (2)kp(p−1) 2 + (1)

[(

n 2

)

−kp(p−1) 2

]

= n(n−1) +kp(p−1)

2 . ✷

Theorem 3.3. Letei,i= 1,2, . . . , k,0≤k≤n−2be the edges of complete graph

Kn incident to a vertex v of Kn. Let Kn(k) be the graph obtained from Kn by

removing the edgesei,i= 1,2, . . . , k. Then

W(Kn(k)) =

(

n 2

)

+k.

Proof. Letv is adjacent tov1, v2, . . . , vk in the complete graphKn. Therefore in

Kn(k) there arekpairs of vertices which are at distance 2 and remaining

(

n 2

) −k

pairs of vertices are at distance 1. Therefore

W(Kn(k)) = 2k+

[(

n 2

) −k

]

=

(

n 2

)

+k. ✷

AcknowledgementThe author HSR is thankful to Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum, India and Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum, India, for their support through financial assistance and support through Research Grants Scheme (No. VTU/Aca-RGS/2008-2009/7198).

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