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Academic year: 2017



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While talking about bioterrorism it is important to emphasize the note of the

influence it would have on the security and protection of the individuals, in the

first line, and through them to the security of the national state and region. How

important these questions became state the fact that most of the policymakers

today are emphasizing the protection against external threats such are terrorism

and pandemics as the most crucial ones. The national and individual securities are,

in that sense, linked to the understanding of the health security, which involves

ensuring that the outbreak of contagious and virulent disease can be contained

locally. In the Asia Pacific region that outbreak, so far, presumed the spread of

avian flu by birds, with the possibility that the virus could gain a form that would

allow it to be transmitted from human to human. Palmore, a mathematics

professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the director of the

university's Program in Arms Control, Disarmament and International Security

confirmed those predictions, "Of course, the spread of AIDS has been and

continues to be a major concern worldwide," he said, "but an even greater threat,

with regard to international security, may well be avian influenza,"69 or bird flu.

The next chapter will try to explain the manner and mechanisms ASEAN used

as an regional organization to deal with those threats and possible effects they can

have on the human, national and regional security.


5.1. ASEAN development

While Europe was more oriented toward national economy and independency,

due to the fact that in her history, differently from Asia, she didn‟t suffer because

of the colonialism, the main characteristic of Asia is that she ended having low

regional institutions, much bigger territory than Europe with much more cultural

and ethnic diversity on it. With the exception of Japan, China and Thailand, all

Asian countries are postcolonial and under the influence of western imperialism.

Long history of war between Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and process

of decolonization made the system of weak states which soon became dominated

by foreign powers, “as the region was a main frontline in the superpower

rivalry.”70 Those countries will stay under the influence of ideological fights of

communists and anti-communists which will divide China, Korea and Vietnam.

Similar situation we have in Indonesia during 1965 fight against communism or

during the occupation of East Timor in 1975; in Burma, Philippines and

Cambodia with civil wars, from which today we have just questions over the

confrontation between Cambodia and Thailand and the issues of South China Sea

as non-solved.

With the situation of US deployments in 1962 and 1963 and military bases in

Vietnam (by US and Soviet Union), Philippines (by US), and Thailand (by US),

Indonesia was the first one to switch from confrontation with its neighbors to

“policy of promoting regional political stability in order to underpin region wide


economic development projects.”71 That idea found it‟s roots in establishing


Association of Southeast Asian Nations - ASEAN as an organization with the

goal to “promote regional peace and stability; to promote active collaboration and

mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural,

technical, scientific and administrative fields; to maintain close and beneficial

cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar

aims and purposes”72. Ideals were shared by the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok

Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia,

Philippines, Singapore and Thailand on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand.

Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995,

Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999,

making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

But, the creation of ASEAN, didn‟t change the fact that states remained

divided into two groups: communist bloc, oriented toward Soviet Union which is

dominated by Vietnam and includes and Laos and Cambodia, and second one,

anti-communist, which is oriented toward west.

One of the main goals of that divided world is to bring to the reality an

ASEAN Community, by 2015. Its realization would put the accent on the security

of more than 600 million citizens. The way that is going to be done depends on

the meaner terrorism is going to be dealt with.

71 Buza B., Wae er O., , Regio s a d po ers. The stru t

ure of inter atio al se urity , Cambridge University Press, p.134


The Asean Declaration (Bangkok Declaration), Bangkok, 8 August 1967,


The way terrorism is going to be dealt with is influenced by the importance

each member state is giving to the terrorism issues. As a phenomena that is in

South East Asia correlated to the Islamic movements, terrorism was present

during the times of resistance in XIX century against westernized control and

protests against colonial government. During colonization Islam was a tool of

rising awareness of the role of the individuals in society and human equality, but

tool in the form of wars, rebellion, protests against government in the attempt to

establish Islam-based country. Even after the colonization, by the research report

“Motivation and root causes of terrorism”, it remained the manner of expressing

radical ideological-religious beliefs, sense of communal solidarity, mob mentality,

revenge-seeking, situational, and separatist motives. In the case of Indonesia its

roots were poverty and social inequality caused by monetary and financial crisis

in 1997-1998; in Thailand those were separatists movements in the southern

provinces that were using bombs during their fight; in Malaysia the main issues

were students coming from the Middle East, with no intention of studying but

recruiting new members of terrorist groups, members that are mainly influenced

by propaganda, medias, or growing up in a religious communities, although there

are also ones involved in separatism and political terrorism; Philippines are

dealing with several causes of terrorism: “communist insurgency, different groups

of rebels in Southern Philippines (Bangsamoro), violent crimes related to the local

and electoral politics.” 73

73 Neil J. Mel i , 7, Co fli t i “outher Thaila d: Isla is , Viole e a d the state i the


Those were the reasons why most of the theories are concentrating just on a

few states within ASEAN when they are talking about terrorism. Those are also

the reason why just a few states within ASEAN are putting an effort in dealing

with terrorism. But, no matter of being present in only a few, terrorism still

remains the issue that can jeopardize the final ASEAN Community 2015 goal of

all member states.

The first important step toward that goal was the moment of signing the

ASEAN regional Convention on Counter-Terrorism, 13 January 2007. That

Convention made ASEAN as the first regional group in the world with a

comprehensive convention countering terrorism, followed by the establishment of

the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC) and Senior

Official Meeting on Transnational Crime (SOMTC). With the similar role

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and ASEAN Defense Ministerial Meeting

(ADMM) and ADMM Plus were made.

Creation of the AMMTC, SOMTC, ARF, ADMM and ADMM Plus were

signs that ASEAN is walking the right road, leading toward the necessary

cooperation in the fight against terrorism. But after only Indonesia, the

Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam being countries from the organization that

submitted information on their implementation of the national WMD controls,

international community started thinking that the counter-terrorism agenda

doesn‟t have the same importance among all ASEAN members. Concern is that


safe, peaceful and stabile region, free of terrorism threats. Not if continues

functioning without stronger and institutionalized enforcement structures,

mechanisms of verification or official sanctions for uncooperative members.

5.2. ASEAN region in a fight against bioterrorism

ASEAN is solving regional problems and issues via the Summit between

government representatives, commonly Ministers of specified sectors. Those

meetings are held every three years with the venue organized in alphabetical

order, with the same program: ASEAN leaders having an internal organizing

meeting and the conference, together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN

Regional Forum. Due to the fact that members of the ASEAN are one of the

world‟s least developed countries, ASEAN has asked for the help, in contributing

its goals, of the other countries and organizations around the world. After these

meetings and conferences being held, the next steps in the Summit program are

meetings with ASEAN Dialogue Partners: China, Japan and South Korea and a

separate meeting with the two other, Australia and New Zealand. Each two years

between the formal meetings, informal meetings are also held.

Issues of terrorism are one of the main concerns during those meetings, but

not the main ones since the countries are still dealing with the bigger challenges

left as a heritage of colonization. The important stand on the issue is that ASEAN

sees terrorism as an issue that cannot and should not be associated with any

religion, nationality, civilization or ethnic group. As was stated, ASEAN member

states are all approaching the issue in a different manner. The Thai Prime minister


common bandits”.74 That opinion was changed in 2003 when few of JI terrorists

were arrested and charged for planning a terrorist attack on a number of embassies

and tourist centers in Bangkok. Several attacks occurred during 2004, followed by

the years during which Thailand become a place of strong terrorists basis, gun

market used by terrorists and a meeting location of JI activists.

While not having any bigger terrorism attacks on its territory, Malaysian

special task force is dealing with terrorism by arresting, having intelligence

programs and programs of de-radicalization and re-education.

Brunei is maybe one of the only countries that still doesn‟t have terroristic

threat or radicalism. The research report “Motivation and root causes of terrorism”

believes that this is because of the existence of the dual legal system: one for

Muslims (Sharia law) and non-Muslim population (civil court), economic stability

based on the oil production, welfare system covering social benefits and

centralization in society, religion and state. But still, they did adopt anti-terrorism

legislations – the Anti-Terrorism Order from 2011.

What is important to emphasize here is that it is true that terrorism has origins

in individual states and its effecting its individuals first, but at the same time has

transnational effects. Fighting terrorism in a region go a new dimension when the Heads of State of ASEAN adopted the ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to

Counter Terrorism on November 2001 in Brunei Darussalam. With this

74 Neil J. Mel i , 7, Co fli t i “outher Thaila d: Isla i

sm, Violence and the state in the


Declaration it could be seen that ASEAN has “great incentive to be cautious and

view the problem of terrorism in term of domestic, not region wide,

implications”.75 By the Declaration mechanism such are: strengthening national

mechanisms to combat terrorism; deepening cooperation among ASEAN‟s law

enforcement agencies in combating terrorism; “enhancing

information/intelligence exchange to facilitate the flow of information, in

particular, on terrorists and terrorist organizations, their movement and funding,

and any other information needed to protect lives, property and the security of all

modes of travel”76; strengthen cooperation between the ASEAN Ministerial

Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC) and other relevant ASEAN bodies

such are the ASEAN + 3, the ASEAN Dialogue Partners and the ASEAN

Regional Forum (ARF).

The problem with the previously mentioned is that they are related to the fight

against terrorism, but, except in just mentioning, none of them is relating to the

bioterrorism in more specific manner. Even they did adopt UNSC Resolution

1540, related to the WMD, little attention is given to the section related to the

bio-weapons. Nuclear and chemical weapons still remain bigger issues. All that‟s

being said shows that ASEAN did accomplish what it was its purpose as a

regional organization – to be an arena in which its members are debating how to

address certain issues of the common interests or need they are not capable of

75 Cho , J. T., ,

ASEAN Counter-terrorism Cooperation since 9/11 , Asian Survey, 45(2), p.302-321

76 Pushpa atha “., , A“EAN Efforts to Co at Terroris ,


fulfilling on their own. Accent should be put on the fact that, although it can

influence the security off all the states, not all of them are putting the same

importance on the mentioned issues. This is why functioning of the ASEAN is

based on the principle of the functional approach where the states are organizing

themselves as the new threats arise. It would be proved later, in the chapter

discussing about the health systems and cooperation in the region.

5.3. Beyond ASEAN

In 1992, the ASEAN Heads of State and Government came to the conclusion

that if ASEAN wants to bring to the politically and economically safe region it

should make stronger ties with its neighboring countries and the countries in

Asia-Pacific region. Those ties should be based on the dialogues. Two years later, the

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was established. One of its main goals is to bring

to the “foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security

issues of common interest and concern; and to make significant contributions to

efforts towards confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific



Since 1994 until today ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was able to gathered

27 countries interested in making those goals real: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei

Darussalam, Cambodia, Canada, China, European Union, India, Indonesia, Japan,

Democratic Peoples‟ Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia,

77A“EAN Regio al Foru , ARF O je ti es ,


Myanmar, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,

Russian Federation, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, United States,

and Vietnam.

When it was created, the ARF was meant to use more of those action oriented

mechanism in the attempts to deal with the security issues in the region, including

terroristic ones. Especially because its cooperation so far was more oriented

toward sharing information about the terrorists between the countries. The 9/11

terrorist attacks led the ARF shift its focus from inter-state conflicts to

transnational issues. At its annual ministerial meeting on 30th July, 2002 the ARF

adopted a series of measures targeting terrorist financing. These measures

included: freezing terrorist assets; implementation of international standards;

international cooperation on the exchange of information and outreach; technical

assistance; and compliance and reporting. The ARF also formed an

Inter-Sessional Group ISG on counter- Terrorism and Translational Crime (co-chaired

by Malaysia and US). ARF meeting in Cambodia held on 17 June 2003 added

another transnational challenge: maritime security. Reflecting this new focus,

Singapore Foreign Minister Jayakumar urged the ARF to “go beyond regional

matters to global issues.”

Based on that experience and for those purposes, The 9th ASEAN Regional

Forum, Inter-Sessional Meeting on Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crimes,


today are growing and are supported by strong financial linkages”78

and that there

is a need for strengthening regional dialogue on counter-terrorism and

transnational crimes, without jeopardizing human rights. In the time when even

AIDS is seen as the cause which can cause military conflict and have negative

influence on the regional stability, ARF also presumes that, among illicit drugs,

infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, human trafficking and smuggling and more

others, terrorism is one of the biggest non-traditional security threats to ASEAN‟s

efforts to achieve regional integration, bringing to the confirmation that, what‟s

once being said that world peace was maintained by the theory of mutually

assured destruction; now we are trying to create peace by mutual dependence is

now maybe more true than ever.

5.4 National sovereignty over regional security in ASEAN?

Mutual dependence was requiring from all states to fully implement the WMD

treaties and conventions. In that spirit most of ASEAN states signed the

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and

Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) and the Convention

on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of

Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction

(BTWC). But their implementation still remains underachieved.

78 Co

-Chairs’ “u ary Report , , Malaysia,


The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons report in 2006

showed only Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia and Viet Nam as countries that

developed national protection programs, Brunei and Laos as countries that have

only inspection of the imported chemical precursors and limited licensing

procedures. Myanmar and Thailand are still not reporting about their national

controls. All of those are related to the chemical weapons controls. In the field of

biological weapons those controls are almost non-existing. Biosecurity legislation

exist in Malaysia - the Poisons Act of 1952, the Prevention and Control of

Infectious Disease Act of 1988 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of

1994. But none of these are correlated to the bioterrorism.

In order to bring to the mutual benefit of bio-terrorism threat free region, the

Philippines and the US took the lead on bioterrorism and biosecurity issues, which

so far, produced ARF Bio-Risk Management Workshop in Manila, the Philippines

on 28-30 September 2010. That workshop brought to the cooperation of the

agencies fighting disease outbreaks.Following the same path, Malaysia, Indonesia

and the Philippines signed an agreement that has the cooperation of the authorities

as the main goal. Sharing the information on airline passenger lists and databases

of fingerprints, is one of the big steps, by the agreement, that is expected to be

followed by the other ASEAN members, too.

What is also being emphasized, besides strengthening of national

legislations regarding WMD, are needs for stronger export controls. That issue


on 2 July 2004. ASEAN‟s export control systems are seen as weak, except the one

practiced in Singapore. Most of the member states do participate in the workshops

or seminars concentrating on the strengthening of domestic measures within

export control system, but not so many of them is applying the knowledge gain on

those programs. Many of those programs were organized by Track II diplomacy

body, CSCAP. As an exception, Indonesia has been trying to secure nuclear

materials within its borders, but her export controls are still far from good

legislation. Same problem occurred with Thailand. the Philippines, which is in the

process of establishing a comprehensive export control regime to deal with

nuclear materials and chemical substances, but with no biological weapons

controls. Malaysia admitted that its trade regulations were driven by economic

rather than security considerations and explained that it was not a lack of capacity

that was hindering the development of a more comprehensive export control

system. The importance of good export control systems should come together

with the developing means of transportation, but also the rising issues of people

smuggling and trafficking, bringing to the possibilities of the infections being

easier transmitted.

As was said, the ARF was designed to foster constructive dialogue and

consultation on political and security issues of common interest. Through political

dialogue and confidence-building, no tension has escalated into armed

confrontation among ASEAN members since its establishment. Now, the

assumption is that the same results can be expected in the field of bio-threats. In


except ASEAN members, and bioterrorism experts from the United Nations

Office on Drugs and Crime, the International Criminal Police Organization, the

Singapore Police Force and the Hong Kong Police, one of the main conclusions

was that “the law enforcers are expected to share their experiences in preventing

bioterrorism threats and to cooperate in dealing with terrorism acts”.79

Again, in

January 2012, during the ASEAN workshop on forging cooperation among

anti-terror units in Jakarta ASEAN and Canada “agreed to take joint preventive

measures against bio-terrorism.”80

It is evident that ARF is creating reports and documents emphasizing the need

of cooperation, but with no significant follow up. That follow up should include

not just the cooperation with G8, but with all big organizations around the world.

Since now, although it emphasized the importance of the cooperation with its

neighbors and the fact that Australia is the part of the ARF, none of the ASEAN‟s

members is the member of the Australia Group (AG). AG was established in 1985

for preventing the spread of chemical weapons but in 1992 reorganized itself to

deal with biological weapons. There are presently 30 members of the Group,

including: Japan, New Zealand, and Republic of Korea, but no members from

South-East Asia. In so far work, the AG made important guidelines which

biological agent, plants, animal pathogens and biological facilities should be

controlled by domestic export control laws. What is considered to be important,


Jakarta Post, 2007, ASEAN told to prepare for bioterrorism ,

http://www.techzone360.com/news/2007/07/13/2781448.htm, [15.06.2013] 80

Press TV, ASEAN, Canada to fight bio-terrorism , 26.01.2008,


by the authors opinion, is that the group gave recommendations that legal and

financial assistance, need for the realization of those guidelines, should be

provided to the developing countries. What should be expected of ASEAN is to

get involved with the help and mechanism that are already on its disposals, and

support assistance and initiatives going on the ministerial level focusing on threats

like is bioterrorism. Leading countries in providing those assistance in the region

are Australia, Japan and the US. Why is relation with Australia also out of great

importance is security of the borders, especially with Indonesia. Concern for

Australia rises with every boat carrying illegal immigrants that are entering the

country and assimilating with local people without any health controls. For those

purposes Australia is establishing deeper cooperation with Jakarta, providing

financial support for the military and police. The same methodology was used in

the ASEAN-Canada cooperation which concentrated on workshops on preventing

bioterrorism and on cooperation among anti-terror agencies, as well as

implementation of Canada-Asia Regional Emerging Infectious Diseases such as

avian influenza and pandemic influenza.

One of the biggest surprises came at the 14th ASEAN Regional Forum, in

2007, with a suggestion to form a new regional body which will concentrate only

on disarmament and non-proliferation issues. Although the idea was welcomed in

the international community, it never came to a realization. By not realizing the

suggestion, the opinion of ASEAN as an organization of low institutionalization

and non-binding decisions, principles of consensus and non-interference,


dialogue above more concrete forms of cooperation. Although this has played an

important role in fostering trust and confidence it has sometimes left a gap

between words and deeds,”81 became much stronger. As Reuters noted, the World

Health Organization has tried to persuade Indonesia and other countries to share

their samples of avian flu (H5N1) with the international scientific community.

“Previously, Indonesia had declined to do so under a principle its government

called „viral sovereignty,‟ by which it meant that microbes found in Indonesia

belonged to the state and did not have to be shared with outsiders.”82

On one hand

this stand is confirming the strong sense of sovereignty that exists within ASEAN

states, and that stand is keeping them away from the political integration Haas

was mentioning, but not as far from Deutsch‟s security community that doesn‟t

required so formal institutions as long as they are contributing to the peaceful

transition among the states. On another hand the the stand is rising the concern

among international community. If Thailand and Jakarta were denying existence

of terrorism within its territories and then faced with bomb attacks, does it mean

that refusing to give an insight into the microbes is a denial of bio potentials that

would, eventually, lead to bio-attack?

5.5. Fighting bioterrorism with health mechanisms

As it was mentioned in the Chapter IV, in the of filed medicine, the attention

is on doctors and basic medical stuff, which are the first ones in the line of dealing


Marti J., I ple e ti g Resolutio : The Role of Regio al Orga izatio s ,

UNIDIR/2008/8, United Nations, p.61 82 Bioterroris

- A Pu li Threat: Bioterroris he a d here ,


with the already infected people, to be able to recognize the treat and make the

first step in fight against it or prevention of its further spreading.

In order to prevent developing of the situation, liberalization of health service

sector was conducted in the context of the four mode of service supply from

service providers to service users: provision of remote health services, health

tourism, presence of foreign service domestically, and export of medical

personnel. After it, according to the Trade Minister of Republic of Indonesia,

Mari Elka Pangestu, “the health sector was increasingly prepared to face ASEAN

single market”83. Standards in the health sector, agreed by ASEAN countries,

namely meant the professional standards of dental assistants and nurses, but the

problem was that compatibility of those standards enabled Indonesian physicians

or nurses to practice in other ASEAN countries, and vice versa but harmonization

of standards of nursing care, competence, educational curricula, and training as

well as developing nurses‟ capacity in providing nursing care towards a global

standard has been signed through the ASEAN Mutual Recognition Arrangement

on Nursing Services in December 2006. Now, the integration of the sector was

planed, but its implementation was delayed due to the lack of supporting scientific


After such experience, it came to the conclusion that teamwork and solid

commitment from all the members are something necessary. Strong countries

were expected to assist the weaker ones. However, ASEAN has not been capable

83 A ar A., , Di e sio s of A“EAN Cooperatio i Health De elop e t of “outheast

Asia ,


of dealing with such idea. In practice, by 2007, the strong ASEAN member

countries were getting stronger, while those weaker ones were remained at the

same position. That gap in economic growth had an impact on the creation of

health development gap among them. It was directly proportional to health care

disparities and uneven distribution of physicians, especially specialists; it

represented difficult obstacles to overcome by relatively weak countries in the

region. Therefore, several ASEAN member countries that were enable to achieve

the Millennium Development Goals in all areas of maternal mortality, the low

quality of sanitation and clean water, an increasingly uncontrolled rate of

HIV/AIDS transmission, and the rising foreign debt burdens.

When it comes to the case of Asia Pacific region, it appears that infectious

diseases and poverty continue to affect health related human security. Within the

domain of human security, health security emphasizes on taking preventive

measures to protect people from infectious diseases, so the regional health

community is focusing its effort on cooperation of pandemic preparedness and

response. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) established the Health

Task Force in October 2003 to handle the health related threats. Later, it brought

the “Health Security Initiative” and the “2005 Enhancement of APEC Work on

Preventing, Preparing for and Mitigating the Effects of Avian Influenza and

Influenza Pandemic Initiative.”

Most common infectious diseases over the ASEAN region are HIV and AIDS,

tuberculosis, malaria, and dengue. But, in 2003, they faced with the issues of the


April 2003 worked collectively to make sure that the region became SARS-free. It

was the first region in the world to respond to SARS on a region-wide effort.

ASEAN tried to expand that cooperation to China, Japan, and South Korea. In

2004, that contributed to the ASEAN+3 Health Minister‟s Meeting which created

the ASEAN+3 Health Ministers hotline, the ASEAN+3 List of Contact Points for

Communicable Diseases, and the ASEAN Disease Surveillance.net website. But

after it, H5N1 became the most urgent pandemic to be noticed and monitored.

According to the WHO, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand had the most cases in

the region so the good surveillance on global and regional levels become critical

and required the preventive measures which will, collectively, ensure human

security of their own people. But, the general impression is that readiness, in both

developing and developed countries, is still not enough. This situation meant that

health security is now becoming really concerned with health care and health

policy as well for the health system in times of emergency, such are pandemics.

Yes, most of the countries in Asia do have pandemic preparedness plans and

coordination with each other, but the attention has to be put on operability and

effectiveness. For this reason, all regional organizations should share information,

make coordination of responses, control outbreaks through International Health

Regulation network and help in capacity-building. It is necessary to be understand

that “national health security is a state in which the Nation and its people are

prepared for, protected from, and resilient in the face of health threats or incidents

with potentially negative health consequences.”84



The SARS outbreak in April 2003, caused social and economic impacts in

many countries in the ASEAN region, posing challenges to international public

health, threatened regional and global prosperity, confidence and stability. The

epidemic showed the need for more effective and coordinated response at the

regional level. In the cooperation of Member Countries, and WHO, ASEAN they

were able to combat the spread of the disease and is now a SARS-Free region.

Yogyakarta Declaration, signed on April 2002 by the Health Ministers of

ASEAN countries, declared HEALTHY ASEAN 2020 in order to make the

Southeast Asian region as a center for health development and to entirely ensure

the creation “of a physically and mentally healthy ASEAN community, living in

harmony in an environment of safe Southeast Asia region”85.But, unfortunately,

until today, health development in ASEAN region had limited progress for most

of the countries.

Local health security was aimed by the ASEAN plus 3 Health Ministers

Special Meeting against SARS in Malaysia, in April 2003, APEC Health

Ministers Meeting, in June 2003 in Thailand. Product of all of them was

agreement to share diseases information and to collectively take actions to apply

the same principles on health check for immigration.

In the ASEAN Commemorative Summit in December 2003, the

Japan-ASEAN Tokyo Declaration and the Japan-Japan-ASEAN Plan of Action were

promulgated, in which the leaders agreed to “enhance cooperation in the areas of

Services, p. 1

85 Anwar A., 2011, Di e sio s of A“EAN Cooperatio i Health De elop e t of “outheast


disarmament and non-proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery, and

related materials.” Moreover, at the meeting of BWC state parties in December

2003, Japan distributed the English translation of its national BWC

implementation law as a reference for those countries that have not yet enacted

their own national implementation law.

The dramatic situation happened again in 2009 when Influenza A/H1N1 in the

whole Asia-Pacific region claimed a lot of victims, proving that it is not just the

issue of the Southeast Asia, but that can easily transmit and become the issues of

the whole Asia-Pacific. The same flu was noted in the other parts of the world,

too. Palestine, Norway, and Yemen, together with reported US states, Minnesota

and South Carolina, showed that they are not immune. At their 8th meeting on

June 21 2006 in Yangon, the Health Ministers of the ASEAN countries pledged to

make every effort necessary to ensure that their communities were prepared to

address bioterrorism.86 Until now, pandemic preparations and strategies are on a

much higher level that bioterrism ones are. It is understandable that Japan had

much stronger laws and strategies of dealing with the issues, since Tokyo attack

made them aware of the danger. It is understandable that Australia has one of the

strongest border controls since, being an island a bioattack can be devastating

toward her population, economy and politics. ASEAN never dealt with a

bioterrorism attack, but has much wider territory, more difficult to control in the

case an attack happens.


People daily, ASEAN health ministers meeting opens in Myanmar ,




6.1 Conclusion

As a phenomena that‟s been present on the national and international level,

terrorism is there to stay. By progressing from a role that it had as a mechanism of

the civilian obedience and simple forms of separatists movement, with

globalization it became one of the weapons the international community is the

most afraid of. Bioterrorism is a form of that threat. But as a threat that is not as

obvious and with the results that can effect nations and region on a much longer

and wider scale, it is a threat everyone should be prepared for. Because it is

oriented toward disabling economies, security and stability of a country by using

agents whose results are not as loud and visible in emphasizing the goals of the

actors that are using them, it is authors personal belief that terrorism will still have

advantage as a more effective mean of fight. Since it is believed that terrorism (or

any other form of it) can‟t be related to any religion, nation or ethnicity, it is also

believed that bioterrorism in the ASEAN region has much smaller possibilities of

being used as a mechanism of fight of the local terroristic groups, mainly because

the purpose of their fight are the ideological differences present in the region, and

as such are not motivated by the hate toward other nations or individuals. It would

be more appropriate to presume that as such bioterrorism would have been a

method much more used during the World War II and the genocide Germany did


Capacities for organizing and realizing a bioterroristic attack are high in

developed as well as less developed countries. Countries with enough of technical

support and capabilities are the source of bioterroristic threats in the same sense

the countries with agriculture background are. Even the effects of losses in GDP,

economy, tourism or industrial and man power sectors are having the same

impacts, no matter in which country is bioweapon used. That is why the system of

the good surveillance, sharing and updating information and experiences, as well

as good border and health systems are equally important everywhere in the world.

ASEAN did made a huge step in the fights against terrorism. Although it

still is more oriented toward recognizing the bioterrorism as a global threat, there

are no bigger steps in this regard. But, if by fighting terrorism means reducing the

possibilities of terroristic attack, it should be that, by doing, that possibilities of

bioterroristic activities are also reduces. All the declarations, agreements and

activities ASEAN is a part of, are still not well implemented. On one side it does

match the main character of the just advisory organization, but on another still

keeps its member states far from the reality: that their common safety depends on

the safety in the each states individually.

6.2 Recommendations

The objectives and significance of the thesis were never to developed new

concept or mechanism for fighting bioterrorism threats, note in the ASEAN or any

other regional organization. But, after researching the characteristic, actors, main


ASEAN regional organization in fighting those threats, the following is


a. Just because it still didn‟t have proved case of the bioterrorism act on

its ground doesn‟t mean that the ASEAN should feel far from the

threat. Because of the long effects it can have on the individual,

national, economic and political stability and safety it should be the

treated as such: possible risk;

b. Accomplishments of the signed declarations, agreements, seminars and

workshops should be implemented in the national law about

producing, transferring and using bioweapons; the law about

monitoring the scientific fields; implementation of the stronger borders


c. Once established, national laws should be implemented by establishing

the proper organ/organization/institution for the each branch of the


d. Medical community (hospitals, medical stuff, organizations) should be

prepared for bioterrorism – epidemic – response: grants/loans should

be granted for trainings, education, drills, etc.;

e. Since there were attempts of establishing contact with the institutions

relevant in understanding these new, still not enough researched issues,

it is recommended that those institutions showed be more open toward


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