The study used a meta-analysis approach that examines the results of the previous studies systematically, especially on the results of empiricalresearch using the measurement model on website quality based on the perceptions of users or consumers. Relevant publications are collected using three sources, namely springer, proquest, and google scholar. Scientific search is done using two key words are "WebQual" and "quality website". Scientific paper selected is the empirical ones published in international journals during 2000 to 2014. The period of 2000 to 2014 was chosen due to the fact that development of website quality measurement models began to emerge in the 2000s, for example, the models of E-Servqual and WebQual. In the first stage, the number of scientific papers suitable with the keywords was as many as 56 papers. After the contents were evaluated using the above criteria, the number of papers analyzed in the meta-analysis stage was 36 scientific papers. Details on the number of paper for each international journal can be seen in the table 2.
The paper was conducted with primary focus on the empirical study of survey using questionnaire formulated from the core success factors of Change Management as described by multiple Academic papers. The survey questionnaire will be distributed in both Electronic form and Paper form. The electronic version has been developed through Google Docs format, which would record the data in a spreadsheet for further analysis and statistical reporting. The distribution list and participants are predominantly Information Technology and Project Management professionals from different Government Linked companies in Malaysia. Experience in Project Management is key in contributing to successful use of the Survey. The government-linked companies in Malaysia are important driving force for most of the new and innovative projects in Malaysia. The GLCs account for a majority of the critical projects in Malaysia, and are an important driving force for the economy. Therefore, we believe the information obtained will contribute to sufficient insight on the change management practices and address the success factors for arguably the most important organizations of the country.
The challenge in managing hotel capital expenditures is that they are many grey areas and subjectivity and thus, deserves a systematic study. Consequently, this topic area has not received the attention it deserves especially in developing countries. The present paper reviews the existing literature of capital expenditure issues and proposes an empirical future research. The future study has the following objectives (i) to document the profiles of Sabah hotels including ownership pattern; (ii) to examine the practice of capital expenditure management; (ii) to determine the preferred methods of capital investment analysis; and (iv) to suggest the determinants of capital expenditure decisions in the hotel industry.
This document describes how to write a research proposal for evaluating the impact of some policy with difference-in-differences (DID) estimation. The primary targeted audience are graduate students at public policy schools. We start our discussion with what we think of as a bad research proposal. We then explain why DID estimation provides a better (if not the best) and (importantly) feasible research proposal. Section 3 discusses how to find a good research question that fits DID estimation. Section 4 describes what kind of data and policy you should look for. Section 5 briefly mentions several techniques for DID estimation. 1
Research on the application of planning to organizations has been consistent with the position that planning is useful. Comparisons between organizations that use formal planning versus those using informal planning found performance among the formal planners to be superior in ten cases and poorer in only two cases, with three ties. These results were significant (p < 0.05) and they seemed important. Serious research problems were found in these studies, so few conclusions could be drawn about how to plan and when to plan. However, it did seem important to involve key stakeholders in the planning process; and planning seemed most useful in situations involving large changes.
If, on the contrary, a corporation chooses to position itself as a corporate brand which truly excels with respect to its approach to CSR, it has to take into account the conditions that influence consumer atti- tude and behavior with respect to the marketing of CSR. Empiricalresearch mentions the following important conditions for a positive effect of CSR ini- tiatives on consumer attitude toward the company and their purchase behavior: (i) a strong reputation of the company. The stronger the reputation of the company the more positive its estimation of the companies CSR activities; (ii) a high company to issue/cause fit; (iii) a personal tie with the good cause of the CSR initiative. There is even a strong consumer-company identifi- cation in cases were the customer already has a strong identification with the good cause (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006; Bhattacharya and Sen, 2004, p. 15). These positive effects are weakened when customers believe that the product is of a mediocre quality. Then, CSR initiatives are believed to distract the company of their core business of making a good product. (iv) Further- more, most consumers are not prepared to pay a pre- mium price for social responsibility. Consumers are only willing to pay a premium price when they have a strong commitment to the good cause of the CSR initiative (Bhattacharya and Sen, 2004, p. 20). (v) Finally, proactive CSR initiatives generate more positive thoughts and attitudes than reactive initiatives. The proactive CSR initiatives are also perceived as helping both the firm and the cause, while reactive CSR initiatives are perceived as selfish and profit driven. Corporate credibility, corporate positioning, and purchase intentions are all enhanced when the initiatives are proactive (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006, pp. 51–52).
The findings from this research imply that R&D expenses affect on company’s profitability. R&D expenses do not have immediate effect on profitability, there is a time lag after which the effects of R&D investment examined with longer time lags than one year. This study been suggested that the effects of R&D expenses on company profitability also examined with longer time lags than one or two years, in order to better the causalities. Therefore, the management has to monitor and evaluate current R&D and be able to design new R&D for the future.
The research related to correlations between the structure ownership with the firm’s value is a discussion about corporate governance which is still has contradictory conclusion and mixed result. It’s indicates open question that need emperical evidence. T he influence concentrated Ownersjp to firm’s still brought conflict of interest so role of analyst following can be stated as an alternative of corporate governance mechanism (Lang et al. 2004). The objective of this research are to examine interacting effect between concentrated ownership with analyst following and interacting effect between concentrated ownership with investor protection toward firm’s value in five Asian companies. Asia is chosen because it has unique characteristic, that is ownership structure in Asia more concentrated on their families board of governance is weak (Choi, 2003),
a moderating affect the quality of the audit / inspection. Examiner apparatus must comply with the code of conduct that govern the behavior of officials in carrying out the practice of his profession well with fellow team members as well as to the object of examination. Code of conduct governing the professional responsibility and professional behavior and technical standards for an auditor / inspector in carrying out his profession (Mulyadi, 2009). The quality of the results of the examination conducted by the examiner wanted the supervisory authorities a clean, dignified, orderly and regularly carry out their duties and functions in accordance with the provisions and norms. Not infrequently scandal cases including several cases in Klungkung regency administration is associated with ethics and behavior examiner apparatus beyond norms and rules that apply. This study aimed to get empirical evidence about the ability of the examiner moderating influence ethical competence, work experience and independence of the Inspectorate checks the quality of Klungkung
This research aims at finding empirical evidences whether academic achievement in Statistics is correlated with help-seeking behavior and academic attitude. The subjects of the research consist of 57 students of Psychology Department, Surakarta Muhammadiyah Universsity. The data-collecting method is questionnaire and the sampling technique is population study. The data-analyzing technique includes Regression Analysis and Product Moment Correlation. The findings of this research are as follows: (1) both help-seeking behavior and academic attitude play a role in the achievement ( R 2 = 0,111 p
Research about effect corporate governance on the relationship between the financial performances against the company's value has a lot to do. Sri Rahayu (2010), examined the influence of Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance and the relationship between financial performance and corporate value. Corporate governance is proxy by managerial ownership, financial performance is proxy by ROE, corporate value proxy by Tobin's Q. The result shows that the ROE no significant effect on company value, while Corporate Governance is proxy by managerial ownership is able to moderate the relationship between ROE and Tobin's Q.
This research is the development of research Carningsih (2009), but that will be examined in this study is the ROE as a proxy variable of financial performance, because ROE is one of the most important variables are seen investors before they invest. ROE is also a basic test how effective the company's management to use investor money compared to the ROA which only measures a company's efficiency in generating returns from its assets (Clure, 2009). And in Carningsih (2009) use CG as moderate variable but in this study researcher use CG as Dependent variable. This study will analyze the automotive and components companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange between 2007-2012, so the results can be generalized and can present all existing manufacturing companies. This was due to the rapid increase in global sales of motor vehicles. It is based on news published by Indonesian Online Business (2009) who preaches the ground transportation industry or the automotive industry is one field that is growing rapidly in Indonesia. In 2008 the contribution of the automotive industry reached 8.2% of gross domestic product which is the biggest contributor to the category of manufacturing industry reached 27.4%. That's what puts the automotive industry as one of the three industries that are expected to drive the growth of national industry and economy of Indonesia.
On balance, the empirical results of investigations into LIFO adoption announcements during the 1970s and 1980s were inconclusive and puzzling. Researchers found little evidence of a positive mean excess stock return at the initial disclosure of actual or potential LIFO adoptions.Lanen and Thompson (1988) model the stock price reaction to a voluntary accounting change, such as LIFO adoption.They show that if investors rationally anticipate voluntary accounting changes, then the sign of the association between the stock price reaction at the announcement date and firm-specific characteristics (measuring the expected cash flow effects of the change) are difficult to predict.Later Kang (1993) argued that LIFO adoptions should be accompanied by negative stock returns because the decision to adopt LIFO is rational if a firm on FIFO sees unexpectedly higher future inflation for its input prices.In other words, the adoption of LIFO signals optimizing in the face of unexpectedly bad news about long-term input price inflation.Hand (1993) tested Kang’s theory using firms that announced they were considering adopting LIFO and then resolved that uncertainty by either adopting LIFO or remaining on FIFO.Hand’s results, after including controls for Lanen and Thompson’s arguments on prior probability of adoption, were broadly consistent with the major predictions of the Kang model.In particular, firms that resolved the LIFO adoption uncertainty by adopting LIFO (remaining on FIFO) experienced reliably negative (positive) mean excess returns at the resolution of uncertainty date. Thus, Kang and Hand appear to have provided a reasonable explanation for the earlier empirical findings of a negative stock price reaction to the announcement of LIFO adoption.
Ahmadi, Freyedon & Salavati, Adel & Rajabzadeh, Ebrahim SURVEY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION IN KURDISTAN PROVINCE Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research Business. Vol 4, No.1 (235-246)
This research use research method consist of normative law research that having descriptive character by using law approach, political approach, historical approach and comparability approach. Data in this research are secondary data with library research as an instrument. The technique to analyse data use qualitative method through categorize problems based on problems that is researched by taking conclusion based on logical idea.
This chapter explains data related to the research such as models, measurement, data collection methods, population of the research, the criteria of the sample, and data analysis method. The definition of each variable also will be stated in this chapter.