Identification and Mapping of the Tree and Nest of Sumatran Orangutan

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Analisis Karakteristik Pohon Dan Sarang Orangutan Sumatera (Pongo Abelii) Di Bukit Lawang Kabupaten Langkat (Analysis of the Trees and Nest Characteristics of Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo Abelii) in Bukit Lawang, Langkat District)

Analisis Karakteristik Pohon Dan Sarang Orangutan Sumatera (Pongo Abelii) Di Bukit Lawang Kabupaten Langkat (Analysis of the Trees and Nest Characteristics of Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo Abelii) in Bukit Lawang, Langkat District)

Berdasarkan penelitian Dalimunthe (2009), menyatakan bahwa Orangutan di Bukit Lawang masih banyak memanfaatkan dan memperbaiki sarang yang sudah cukup lama dibuat, hal ini disebabkan karena masih baiknya ketahanan sarang, apalagi jenis pohon yang dijadikan tempat bersarang di daerah ini tergolong kuat yang didominasi pohon dari jenis Dipterocarpaceae. Menurut Rijksen (1978), Orangutan seringkali memperbaiki sebuah sarang lama, sarang- sarang tersebut dapat digunakan selama dua malam atau lebih, sedangkan ketahanan sarang Orangutan dapat bervariasi dari dua minggu sampai lebih dari satu tahun. Biasanya ketahanan sarang Orangutan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, yaitu kondisi atau kualitas sarang itu sendiri, kerusakan yang ditimbulkan oleh alam, seperti angin dan curah hujan yang berkaitan dengan ketinggian sarang serta kerusakan
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Pola Aktivitas Orangutan Sumatera (Pongo Abelii) Pada Struktur Dan Komposisi Vegetasi Hutan Di Pusat Pengamatan Orangutan Sumatera Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser (Activity Pattern of Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo Abelii) in the Structure and Composition of For

Pola Aktivitas Orangutan Sumatera (Pongo Abelii) Pada Struktur Dan Komposisi Vegetasi Hutan Di Pusat Pengamatan Orangutan Sumatera Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser (Activity Pattern of Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo Abelii) in the Structure and Composition of For

Forest act as a habitat which is one of the main elemen in orangutan lives. Increasing rate of forest degradation in recent years considerable influence on the orangutan population growth, its looks from the orangutan population decline significantly in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to the preservation of orangutans through habitat management, and ecological and quantitative aspect of orangutan become interest of this study. The PHWKRGRORJ\ ZKLFK XVHG LQ WKLV UHVHDUFK DUH WKH GLUHFW REVHUYDWLRQ RI GDLO\ DFWLYLWLHV RUDQJXWDQ¶V DQG YHJHWDWLRQ DQDO\VLV in the forest spots that have been passed by the orangutan. The result of this research shows that orangutan average active starting at 07.33 WIB and start to make a nest for sleep approximately at 18.15 WIB with an average length of daily activity orangutan approximately 10 hours 42 minutes. Daily activity averange of orangutan for proportion duration are 15,03% for feeding, 36,59% for moving, 44,82 % for resting, and 3,56% for nesting and for frequencies are 24,09% for feeding, 32,95% for moving, 37,76% for resting, and 5,2%% for nesting. The composition of forest vegetation consists of 24 species of trees, 15 species of poles, and 20 species of saplings which identified overall approximately 88,53% of food plants. PPOS forest area has an index of species diversity (Sannon Wiener index) 2.717 species of trees, 2,235 species of poles, and 2,554 species of saplings.
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IDENTIFIKASI JENIS POHON SARANG DAN PAKAN ORANGUTAN (Pongo pygmaeus) DI ARBORETUM  NYARU MENTENG, PALANGKA RAYA  (Identification of Trees as Nest and Food of Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) at the Arboretum of Nyaru Menteng, Palangka Raya) : Fouad Fauzi1,2, Pe

IDENTIFIKASI JENIS POHON SARANG DAN PAKAN ORANGUTAN (Pongo pygmaeus) DI ARBORETUM NYARU MENTENG, PALANGKA RAYA (Identification of Trees as Nest and Food of Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) at the Arboretum of Nyaru Menteng, Palangka Raya) : Fouad Fauzi1,2, Penyang1,2, Nisfiatul Hidayat1

orangutan untuk mendeteksi jenis pohon yang kuat dan berkayu tahan lama. Mereka biasanya mengambil jenis-jenis seperti Bangkirai, lanan dan lainnya, walaupun pada keadaan sangat darurat orangutan dapat menggunakan jenis pohon apa saja, seperti Acacia mangium dan Albizia atau sengon (Chandradewana, 2011) bahkan hasil penelitian Ecositrop Kalimantan Timur pada tahun 2012 menemukan sarang orangutan di pohon kelapa sawit, hutan tananam industri dan kawasan rehabilitasi bekas tambang yang dihijaukan.

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Identification of freshwater prawns from the dam and streams around the University of Riau, Pekanbaru By :

Identification of freshwater prawns from the dam and streams around the University of Riau, Pekanbaru By :

Hal ini sesuai dengan pendapat Soetomo (2000) yang menyatakan bahwa pada umur yang sama biasanya udang jantan memiliki tubuh yang lebih panjang dari udang betina [r]

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Distribution and population structure of the juvenile of Diospyros celebica Bakh. under the canopy of their mother-tree

Distribution and population structure of the juvenile of Diospyros celebica Bakh. under the canopy of their mother-tree

The distribution pattern and population structure of Diospyros celebica under the conopy of their mother- tree stand were studied in the experimental forest of Hasanuddin University at Maros District. One hectar rectangular plot was established in the secondary natural forest dominated by D. celebica. All individuals of D. celebica found in the plot were recorded their diameter at hight 130 cm above ground level. Individual less than 130 cm in hight were categorized as seedling and measured their total hight from ground level. Analyzes using Morisita’s Distribution Index ( I δ ) resulted in the distribution pattern of D. celebica was clumped for all life-stages (seedling, sapling, pole and tree). Distribution pattern of seedling was found to be not significanly correlated to the slope, but was positively and significantly correlated with the level of canopy cover of their mother-tree stand. Abundance of seedlings were found under the canopy of the mother trees. However, as the individuals grow taller the correlation became weaker, until then the correlation became negative at the tree stage. This study also indicated that for all life-stages, more individual of D. celebica were found on the habitat with steeper slopes, but the correlation was not significant. The abundant number of seedling indicates that this species has a good ability in the natural regeneration process.
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Study of Single and Ensemble Classifiers of Classification Tree and Support Vector Machine

Study of Single and Ensemble Classifiers of Classification Tree and Support Vector Machine

A classifier is such a rule that can be used to group an object into predetermined group or classs based on its attributes. There are two types of approach to develop a classifier rules are a parametric and a nonparametric. Parametric method requires certain assumptions to obtain the best classification but not all assumptions are met so that makes it difficult for researchers. The violation of the assumptions might lead to the lack of the effectiveness and the validity results. Recently, people pay more attention to non parametric classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Classification Tree (CT) to overcome the violation of the assumptions of parametric method.
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Chemical Composition and Identification of Antioxidant Compounds from the Extracts of Tambelo (Bactronophorus thoracites)

Chemical Composition and Identification of Antioxidant Compounds from the Extracts of Tambelo (Bactronophorus thoracites)

penelitian tentang efek patologis yang ditimbulkannya. Antioksidan alami diperoleh dari hasil ekstrak bahan alami. Antioksidan alami dalam bahan pangan diperoleh dari: a) antioksidan berupa senyawa endogen yang terdiri dari satu atau lebih senyawa yang terdapat dalam bahan pangan, b) antioksidan yang terbentuk akibat reaksi selama pengolahan, c) antioksidan yang merupakan senyawa eksogen yaitu dengan penambahan antioksidan yang diisolasi dari sumber alami (Pratt 1992). Adapun antioksidan yang terdapat di dalam bahan alami meliputi golongan senyawa turunan fenolat, turunan senyawa hidroksinat, kumarin, tokoferol (Sidik 1997). Penggunaan bahan antioksidan baik alami maupun sintetik dalam bahan pangan, harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu yaitu: a) tidak beracun dan tidak mempunyai efek fisiologis, b) tidak menimbulkan flavor yang tidak enak, rasa dan warna pada lemak atau bahan pangan, c) larut sempurna dalam lemak dan minyak, d) efektif dalam jumlah yang relatif kecil menurut rekomendasi Food and Drug Administration dosis yang diizinkan dalam bahan pangan adalah 0,01-0,1% dan e) tidak mahal serta selalu tersedia (Coppen 1983; Ketaren 1986).
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Chemical Composition and Identification of Antioxidant Compounds from the Extracts of Tambelo (Bactronophorus thoracites)

Chemical Composition and Identification of Antioxidant Compounds from the Extracts of Tambelo (Bactronophorus thoracites)

penelitian tentang efek patologis yang ditimbulkannya. Antioksidan alami diperoleh dari hasil ekstrak bahan alami. Antioksidan alami dalam bahan pangan diperoleh dari: a) antioksidan berupa senyawa endogen yang terdiri dari satu atau lebih senyawa yang terdapat dalam bahan pangan, b) antioksidan yang terbentuk akibat reaksi selama pengolahan, c) antioksidan yang merupakan senyawa eksogen yaitu dengan penambahan antioksidan yang diisolasi dari sumber alami (Pratt 1992). Adapun antioksidan yang terdapat di dalam bahan alami meliputi golongan senyawa turunan fenolat, turunan senyawa hidroksinat, kumarin, tokoferol (Sidik 1997). Penggunaan bahan antioksidan baik alami maupun sintetik dalam bahan pangan, harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu yaitu: a) tidak beracun dan tidak mempunyai efek fisiologis, b) tidak menimbulkan flavor yang tidak enak, rasa dan warna pada lemak atau bahan pangan, c) larut sempurna dalam lemak dan minyak, d) efektif dalam jumlah yang relatif kecil menurut rekomendasi Food and Drug Administration dosis yang diizinkan dalam bahan pangan adalah 0,01-0,1% dan e) tidak mahal serta selalu tersedia (Coppen 1983; Ketaren 1986).
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Impacts of soil compaction and tree stum

Impacts of soil compaction and tree stum

On 1 June 1993 three seedlings of each species were ran- domly collected for ectomycorrhizae analysis from each treatment plot by trenching beyond the width and depth of the existing root system with a tile spade. Root systems of excavated seedlings were gently washed free of soil and then subsampled into three 2.5-cm-wide cross sections from upper, middle, and lower root portions (5–10 cm, 15–20 cm, and 25–30 cm below the root collar). Active tips were tallied as non-mycorrhizal (tips had root hairs, were clear/translucent or lacked hyphal mantle) or ectomycorrhizae (tips mantled by hyphae) when observed through a stereo microscope (2–5× magnification). Differentiation of ectomycorrhizae types was based on mantle structure, color, surface appear- ance, branching morphology, degree of swelling, length and characteristics of rhizomorphs or emanating hyphae. Morphological types found in this study are described in Amaranthus et al. (1996).
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ANCAMAN TERHADAP POPULASI ORANGUTAN SUMATERA (Pongo abelii Lesson)*) (Threats to The Population of Sumatran Orangutans/Pongo abelii Lesson)

ANCAMAN TERHADAP POPULASI ORANGUTAN SUMATERA (Pongo abelii Lesson)*) (Threats to The Population of Sumatran Orangutans/Pongo abelii Lesson)

Orangutan Sumatera dapat dijumpai di hutan hujan tropis dataran rendah dan/ atau daerah dataran tinggi perbukitan yang kering. Menurut Meijaard et al. (2001), rata-rata kepadatan orangutan Su- matera pada habitat hutan dataran rendah dan rawa gambut 6,1 individu/km 2 dan pada tanah alluvial sepanjang sungai 3,9 individu/km 2 . Namun demikian, saat ini kawasan konservasi yang luasnya menca- pai 18,4 juta ha atau hampir 10 % daratan Indonesia dan menjadi habitat utama bagi orangutan tersebut telah mengalami keru- sakan akibat perambahan liar karena sumber kayu dari hutan produksi semakin langka dan kebutuhan lahan semakin me- ningkat. Sebagai contoh, beberapa ka- wasan konservasi sebagai habitat orang- utan di Sumatera Utara seperti Cagar Alam Dolok Sibual-buali dan Suaka Alam Lubuk Raya sebagian telah ter- fragmentasi oleh berbagai aktivitas dan pembangunan sarana kehidupan manusia lainnya.
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identification of ghalui and ghralui gene

identification of ghalui and ghralui gene

159bp and 52bp. Most of buffalo animals investigated in this study are genotyped as LL. As were tested buffalo DNA, amplified fragments were digested with AluI endonuclease and gave two digested fragments at 159bp and 52bp (Figure 3). As a result of the presence of the restriction site at position 52^53 (AG^CT) for the PCR product, this result supported by Biswas et al., (2003) and Othman et al., (2012) in their studying on Indian and Egyptian buffaloes as well as cattle consequently.
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Changes of soil properties and tree perf

Changes of soil properties and tree perf

Conventional tillage causes soil losses, runoff, structure degradation, acceleration of organic matter mineralization with consequent formation of compacted layers and negative effect on porosity along the profile (Gómez et al., 2004, 2009; Moreno et al., 2009; Pagliai et al., 2004; Rodrıguez-Lizana et al., 2008). Compacted layers decrease water infiltration which, in turn, increases runoff on slopes and waterlogging in flat areas. The effects of tillage are time dependent: after tillage porosity and water infiltration initially increase, but the loose structure does not persist due to compaction, aggregate instability, and surface sealing driven by external and internal forces (Zhai et al., 1990). It has been shown that posi- tive effects of tillage on water infiltration in the interrow are lost within eight weeks, but they last longer in the zone beneath the tree canopy in a clay-loam soil (Gómez et al., 1999). All these pro- cesses inevitably lead to plant stress, depletion in soil fertility, and increasing dependence on chemical inputs for plant protection and fertilization with potentially negative effects on yield and product quality.
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View of IDENTIFICATION AND INHIBITION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM NUTMEG ( Myristica fragrans Houtt ) AND THE APPLICATION AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT

View of IDENTIFICATION AND INHIBITION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM NUTMEG ( Myristica fragrans Houtt ) AND THE APPLICATION AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT

The purpose of this research is to determine the most effective of nutmeg meat products to inhibit the specific spoilage bacteria based on inhibitory zone and determine the power of antibacterial compounds in nutmeg meat to inhibit and kill specific spoilage bacteria based on the number of growth of spoilage bacteria. This research consists of two stages: The purpose of first stage is to determine the most effective of nutmeg meat products as an antimicrobial agent to inhibit gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with inhibition test response. The second stage of the main research continued from preliminary research that consists of three steps. The purpose of first step is to determine the best long immersion antimicrobial substances against bacteria growth in fresh meat for 0 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes and 20 minutes. The purpose of second step is to determine the correlation between the concentration of antimicrobial agent 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the microbial growth number in fresh meat stored within 5 days. The analysis was performed using total plate count method. The purpose of third step is to determine the level of concentration that is acceptable to consumers. Based on the results of research was obtained that the nutmeg meat essential oil can inhibit the growth of gram positive and negative bacteria. If concentration of antimicrobial substances are higher, so that the power of inhibit to against spoilage bacteria in fresh meat is higher. The selected concentration by organoleptic test that acceptable by consumers is 10%.
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DEVELOPMENT AND MODELLING OF UNMANNED UNDERWATER GLIDER USING THE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION METHOD.

DEVELOPMENT AND MODELLING OF UNMANNED UNDERWATER GLIDER USING THE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION METHOD.

This paper describes a comparison study for the modelling of the unmanned Underwater Glider (UG) using system identiication techniques based on two experimental set up. The experimental data obtained from lab tank test and pool test to infer model using a MATLAB System Identiication toolbox. The experimental testing of UG only considered the horizontal movement or called as auto-heading. The modeling obtained will be used to design the suitable controller for heading control. The UG will be tested on an open loop system to obtain measured input-output signals. Input and output signals from the system are recorded and analyzed to infer a model using a System Identiication MATLAB toolbox. Two models obtained based on data tabulated and verify using mathematical modelling of UG. The parameter of UG come up from the real model of UG and Solidworks software. The Underwater Lab Tank model has beter performance which has faster rise time and setling time than swimming pool model and mathematical model.
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Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI)

Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI)

Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI). The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis) and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well as pathogenicity test.
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Hemoglobin and hematocrit Levels of the Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) at the Elephant Conservation Center (ECC) of Saree, Aceh Besar

Hemoglobin and hematocrit Levels of the Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) at the Elephant Conservation Center (ECC) of Saree, Aceh Besar

This research was done to determine the levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) of the sumatran elephants captivated at the Elephant Conservation Center (ECC) of Saree, Aceh Besar. In this study blood samples were drawn from 16 sumatran elephants at the ECC using EDTA as an anticoagulant. The levels of Hb and Ht were determined using Sahli and micro-hematocrit methods, respectively. Data was analyzed using t-test. The results showed that Hb concentrations in male and female sumatran elephans were 11.74±0.58 g/dL and 11.84±0.55 g/dL, respectively. Hb levels in sumatran elephants aged 10-30 and >30 years old were 11.87±0.56 g/dL and 11.79±0.50 g/dL, respectively. There was no significant different of Hb levels (P>0.05) according to sex and age. Ht values 9% and significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in female -30 and >30 years old, 40.45±1.21% and 40.22±1.48%, respectively, were not significantly different (P>0.05). In conclusion, in the sumatran elephants Hb values were not influenced by sex and age, but Ht values were influenced by sex.
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