• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan

Makanan pilihan monyet ekor panjang di Telaga Warna, Bogor, Jawa Barat.

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2017

Membagikan "Makanan pilihan monyet ekor panjang di Telaga Warna, Bogor, Jawa Barat."

Copied!
29
0
0

Teks penuh

(1)

FOOD PREFERENCE OF LONG TAILED MACAQUES

IN TELAGA WARNA, BOGOR, WEST JAVA

LATIF SOFIANA NUGRAHENI

GRADUATE SCHOOL

BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY BOGOR

(2)
(3)

STATEMENT ABOUT THESIS

I hereby declare that thesis entitled Food Preference of long tailed macaques in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java is original result of my own research supervised under advisory committee and has never been submitted in any form at any institution before. All information from other authors cited here are mentioned in the text and listed in the reference at the end part of the thesis.

Bogor, Desember 2015

Latif Sofiana Nugraheni

(4)

SUMMARY

LATIF SOFIANA NUGRAHENI. Food preference of long tailed macaques in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java. Supervised by KANTHI ARUM WIDAYATI and BAMBANG SURYOBROTO.

The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis = crab eating monkey) have broad geographic distribution areas and they can also live in various altitudes and habitat. Consequently, they have broad ecological plasticity to adapt to different environments, particularly in feeding ecology. These conditions make the macaques have a food preference to certain foods.

The macaques typically eat in the food patch which is generally feeding sites or food points. They would look for food patches that have abundant food in the form of an environment that supports the availability of food. In Telaga Warna, the macaques forage in three feeding sites (I, II and III feeding site) and they can find natural and artificial foods. However, there are currently environmental changes that also lead into behavior and diets changes of macaques.

This study reported that during the last two years, food preference of the long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna turned into artificial food equipped with knowing feeding site preference in a food patch.

A study of food preference was conducted in Telaga Warna Bogor, West Java Indonesia from June to September 2014 in group A (nmax = 49 individu).

Daily activity of the macaques was observed using scanning method, and food preferences were determined by recording the feeding duration and party size, at every feeding site in a food patch.

The results showed that food preferences of long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna turned into artificial food, and they spend more time at the feeding site II which have the better quality food than feeding site I and III. The changes of dietary and behaviors are influenced by changes in the environment followed by increasing in number of visitors. In Telaga Warna, this matter becomes a concern because it has a tendency to increase in number of visitors each year. Thus, it need to be considered, especially for the tourist attractions that attract visitors in large numbers, so that awareness will be raised for controlling the management of the tourist area in order to maintain the balance of nature.

(5)

RINGKASAN

LATIF SOFIANA NUGRAHENI. Makanan pilihan monyet ekor panjang di Telaga Warna, Bogor, Jawa Barat. Dibimbing oleh KANTHI ARUM WIDAYATI dan BAMBANG SURYOBROTO.

Monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis = crab eating monkey) memiliki area distribusi geografis yang luas dan mereka juga dapat tinggal di ketinggian dan habitat yang bervariasi. Akibatnya mereka memiliki plastisitas ekologi yang luas. Kondisi ini membuat monyet ekor panjang memiliki makanan pilihan untuk makanan tertentu.

Monyet ekor panjang biasanya makan di dalam food patch yang terdiri dari feeding site atau food point. Mereka mencari food patch yang memiliki makanan berlimpah di lingkungan yang dapat mendukung ketersediaan makanan. Di Telaga Warna, monyet ekor panjang mencari makan di tiga feeding site (feeding site I, II dan III) dan mereka dapat menemukan makanan alami dan buatan. Namun, saat ini terdapat perubahan lingkungan yang mempengaruhi perilaku dan pola makan dari monyet ekor panjang.

Penelitian ini melaporkan bahwa selama dua tahun, makanan pilihan dari monyet ekor panjang di Telaga Warna berubah menjadi makanan buatan yang dilengkapi dengan mengetahui feeding site pilihan di dalam food patch.

Penelitian tentang makanan pilihan ini dilakukan di Telaga Warna Bogor, Jawa Barat Indonesia dari bulan Juni sampai September 2014 pada group A (nmax

= 49 individu). Aktivitas harian monyet ekor panjang diamati menggunakan metode scanning, dan makanan pilihan yang ditentukan dengan mengetahui durasi makan dan ukuran partai, di setiap feeding site didalam food patch.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa makanan pilihan dari monyet ekor panjang di Telaga Warna berubah menjadi makanan buatan, dan mereka lebih banyak menghabiskan waktu di feeding site II yang memiliki kualitas makanan lebih baik daripada feeding site I dan III. Perubahan dari pola makan dan perilaku dipengaruhi oleh berubahan lingkungan yanhg diikuti oleh pertambahan jumlah pengunjung. Di Telaga Warna, hal ini menjadi perhatian karena memiliki kecenderungan peningkatan jumlah pengunjung setiap tahun. Dengan demikian, perlu diperhatikan, terutama untuk tempat-tempat wisata yang dapat menarik pengunjung dalam jumlah besar, sehingga akan membangkitkan kesadaran untuk mengendalikan pengelolaan kawasan wisata untuk menjaga keseimbangan alam.

(6)

© Copy Right by IPB, 2016

All rights reserved

It is prohibited to cite all or a part of this thesis without referring to and mentioning the source. Citation is permitted for the purpose of education, research, scientific paper, report, or critism writing only; and it does not defame the name and honour of Bogor Agricultural University.

(7)

A Graduate Thesis

in partial fulfilment of Master Science degree in Animal Biosciences Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science

FOOD PREFERENCE OF LONG TAILED MACAQUES

IN TELAGA WARNA, BOGOR, WEST JAVA

GRADUATE SCHOOL

BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY BOGOR

2016

(8)
(9)
(10)

PREFACE

Alhamdulillah I thank to Allah SWT for all His blessings so that this thesis is successfully completed. The title of this thesis is Food Preference of long tailed macaques in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java.

I want to send my gratitude to my supervisors Dr Kanthi Arum Widayati and Dr Bambang Suryobroto for all guidance and encouragement as well as invaluable academic advices for the whole period of my study and research, and to my examiner for the generous support and great discussion. Thanks to Telaga Warna as research sites, BKSDA West Java to have given permission for this research, Pak Aki, Pak Dadang, Pak Inyong and the entire stakeholder that has helped in providing information and data collection for this research. Special thank to my parents and my family for your love and support, to all people in Zoo Corner, BSH 2012, 2013, for their supports for my study.

I hope this paper be useful.

Bogor, December 2015

(11)

CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES vi

LIST OF FIGURES vi

INTRODUCTION 1

MATERIALS AND METHOD 2

Sample 2

Method 2

Data Analysis 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4

Results 4

Daily activity 4

Food preference 5

Discussion 8

CONCLUSION 10

REFERENCES 10

APPENDIX 12

(12)

LIST OF TABLES

1 Daily activities of long-tailed macaques in 2014 and 2012 5 2 Natural food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A 6 3 Artificial food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A 8 4 The number of visitors in Telaga Warna Nature Recreational Park

2012 and 2014 8

LIST OF FIGURES

(13)

INTRODUCTION

The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis = crab eating monkey) have broad geographic distribution areas in the tropics of Southeast Asia, covering the southern part of Bangladesh, continent of Southeast Asia, Malayan Peninsula, Sunda Archipelago, Nichobar Islands, and the Philippines. In Indonesia, M. fascicularis are distributed in Kalimantan, Sumatra, Riau, Bangka-Belitung, Banyat, Karimata archipelago, Anabas, Tambelan, Natuna, Simalur island, Nias, Java, Bali, Matasuri, Bawean, Maharua, Timor, Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa and Flores (Fooden 1995).

M. fascicularis couldlive in various altitudes from lowland forest near the sea to the highest mountain forests. They also may be found in several places with an altitude above 1000 meters above sea level, for example in Malaysia they are found at an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level, 1800 meters above sea level in Borneo, 2000 meters above sea level in Sumatra and Java (Fooden 1995; Fooden 2006). Habitat of M. fascicularis includes mangrove forests, lowland tropical forests, coastal areas and also near residential areas (Hock and Sasekumar 1979; Wheatley 1989). Consequently, they have broad ecological plasticity to adapt to different environments. This plasticity is reflected in differences of life history, reproductive strategy, sizes of groups and feeding ecology (Hadi et al. their behavior according to its abundance. This indicates they are omnivorous, but consume mainly leaves, seeds and fruits (Son 2003, Wheatley 1980, Yeager 1996, Stewart et al. 2007).

The macaques typically eat in the food patch which is generally feeding sites or food points. The size of the food patches and patch productivities food can greatly affect the group size limits either in group monospecific or heterospesific in various food patch (Perez 1996). The macaques would look for food patches that have abundant food in the form of an environment that supports the availability of food.

(14)

2

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Sample

This research was conducted in Telaga Warna, Sub-district Cisarua, District of Bogor and Cianjur, West Java Province, Indonesia. The research area is located at the longitude 10711’05”E to 10720’00”E and latitude 642”23’S to 643”24’S, based on map from Center for Conservation of Natural Resources (BKSDA), West Java. The study area consists of the Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam, Bahasa Indonesia) and Nature Recreation Park (Taman Wisata Alam).

Nature Reserve is a natural state that has a specific plants, animals, and ecosystems or particular ecosystem that needs to be protected and development occurs naturally. Meanwhile, the Nature Park is a nature conservation area with the main purpose of tourism and outdoor recreation by Presidential Decree (Peraturan Pemerintah No. 68 Tahun 1998). Thus, in Telaga Warna there are developments related to the tourist area. The management of the park has built five of ten planned bungalow in 2014. Visitors take advantage of the bungalow terrace to relax and feed the monkeys.

Preliminary study was conducted every weekend on June 7 – 28, 2014 in order to habituate with the macaques. Data was collected in July until September 2014 from 06:00 am - 05:00 pm. Observation was terminated when the rain started. Each individual was identified by differentiating their faces, hair colors, body sizes, shapes of head and body, and scars in their body. There were two groups of long-tailed macaques that inhabit the study site, troop A (nmax = 49

individuals; 11 adult males, 12 adult females, 2 sub adult males, 5 sub adult females, 14 juveniles and 5 infants; nmin = 30 individuals; 10 cencuses) and troop

B (nmax = 21 individuals; 2 adult males, 6 adult females, 2 sub adult males, 2 sub

adult females, 6 juveniles and 3 infants; nmin = 17 individuals; 9 censuses). The

observation was focused on troop A.

Method

Daily Activity

(15)

forest near tea plantation where visitors are just passing through so contacts between macaques with visitors were rare. Feeding site II is located in tourist visiting area around a lake. Tourists usually come in family or with friends for a picnic, playing the raft, playing flying fox, or just sitting around the lake. Feeding site III is located on forest at mountain cliff so humans almost never visit it.

Figure 1. Research location and home range of Troop A long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna. Food patch is consisted of feeding sites I, II and III. The map of home range was taken from GPS Visualizer.

Food items consist of natural and artificially provided foods. Food available in the home range were defined as natural foods, whereas, foods given manually by human or left-over of tourist meals or macaques got it in the trash pots were categorized as artificial foods. Some foods obtained from trash sometimes cannot be recognized so they were included in uncategorized garbage. Natural food is obtained from the forest in feeding site I, II and III, whereas artificial food is obtained only in feeding site II.

Data Analysis

Daily Activity

Daily activity of the macaques was analyzed using software R 3.0.3. Food Preference

A method to determine food preferences of the long-tailed macaques had been devised by Hadi et al. (2007). Food preferences were determined by recording the feeding duration and party size, at every feeding site in a food patch.

(16)

4

Feeding duration (session of an observation period x = 1 to m) on a food item is the time the first individual consumed part of the food item (i) to the time when the last individual stopped to feed or leave the feeding site. The feeding durations (T) of a particular food were accumulated for all sessions of an observation period (that was, month):

For every session, number of individuals that formed a party in feeding site were varies, hence the maximum size was usedto represent the troop. The average party size of each session (Ni) calculated by:

The proportion of food item i that was consumed by the troop in an observation period was defined as foraging activity P:

Part of the plant eaten by macaques was collected and recorded, and then was made into herbarium. Sample of plants were found then matched with local names that have been recorded previously. Whereas, the non-identified samples would be identified further by using Backer and van den Brink (1965) as reference.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results

Daily activity

Troop A spent their time mostly on moving 30.7%, eating 30.7% and resting 24.27%. It is similar with the results of Nila et al. (2014) who did research in 2012, found that moving was 39 %, eating was 33.5% and then resting 12.2% respectively (Table 1). But in 2014, showed percentage is much different for moving individual (26.3%) and moving as a group (4.37%), it indicates macaques

Ni= M

(17)

spend more time in the same place. The changes in daily activity, especially the activity of eating and moving, might be influenced by development of bungalows. Food preference

Long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna spent more time at the feeding site II. In feeding site II, there was interaction between the visitors with the macaques, so in addition to their natural food, they also get artificial food from visitors. The situation makes feeding site II have better quality food than feeding site I and III. Consequently, it affects on food preferences.

In 2012 Nila et al. (2014) reported, natural food (60.1%) was consumed more than artificial foods (39.9%). While the results of this study showed that macaques consumed natural food (39.8%) (Table 2A) and consumed a lot of artificial foods (60.2%) (Table 2B). The change of dietary patterns and the types of food consumed are associated with the increasing number of visitors (Table 3).

Table 1 Daily activities of long-tailed macaques in 2014 and 2012

Category 2014 (%) 2012 (%)

The long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna spent much time to feed natural food on stalk of grass (Axonopus compresus) which is only found in feeding site II. At the time of the fruit season (July-August) the macaques ate a lot of fruits mainly from sarai (Caryota mitis) and pasang (Lithocarpus sundaicus). They also consumed part of nangsi (Villebrunea rubescens) that is, flower, young leaf, and young bark. Some individuals extracted water from the bulb of orchid (Chelonistele sulphurea) and fiddlehead of fern (Nephrolepis biserrata). Some individuals also eat animal that is insect.

(18)

6

Table 2A Natural food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A Species

Monthly Totals 66.208 26.317 26.908

(19)

7 Table 2B Artificial food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A

(20)

8

Table 2B Artificial food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A

Food item

Table 3 The number of visitors in Telaga Warna Nature Recreational Park 2012 and 2014

The macaques would look for food patches that have abundant food. If all patches were large and had enough productivity, they could accommodate all group members (Perez 1996). The change of environment gave effect to diet of macaques. The construction of bungalows reduced feeding site. Nevertheless, productivity of food increased due to the increasing number of visitors.

The most widely natural food eaten was stalk of grass which was only found in feeding site II. It is an effort to get protein from stalk of grass (Nila et al.

(21)

frugivorous with 66.7% of their food were fruits. The macaques in Telaga Warna also consumed part of nangsi (Villebrunea rubescens) which was the flower, young leaf, and young bark. Some macaques also extracted water from the bulb of orchid (Chelonistele sulphurea) and fiddlehead of fern (Nephrolepis biserrata). Some individual of the troop of long-tailed macaques were recorded to eat insects. In the feeding site I, the macaques obtained grasshoppers and larvae of pests tea from tree leaves and tea plantation. They captured insects stuck to the trunks of large trees in the feeding sites II and III and grasshoppers in the grass at the feeding site II.

The long-tailed macaques ate natural foods most widely in July, which was the month of fasting. The number of visitors slightly decreased and macaques spent more time in the forest (feeding site III). But when feeding site III showed a reduction in the preference, they were switched to feeding site I. This possibility happened during the fruit season cihampelas that only existed in feeding site I, macaques had a high preference to eat them.

In addition, the macaques received many artificial foods from visitors. The most given artificial food were peanut and banana, the same foods were reported in 2012 by Nila et al. (2014). Similar with Telaga Warna, the most frequent dietary artificial item of macaques in Ciung Wanara West Java (Yudanegara 2006) and Ubud Bali (Wheatley 1989) was peanuts. The visitors could buy the peanuts easily from vendors near the study sites (Nila et al. 2014). The long-tailed macaques consumed uncategorized garbage (7.157%) and noodle (0.367%) from trash. During the observation, there were the constructions of bungalows around the observation area. Carpenter planed timber and the waste was eaten by juvenile macaques was 0.056%. The wood used to build the bungalows included the wood from kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), bengkiray (Shorea spp.), and johar (Senna siamea).

Artificial food increased significantly in August, when the Idul Fitri public holidays. Many visitors came from domestic and abroad to have a picnic. This continued until September, which indicated that long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna was still dependent on the visitors. The same thing happened in Ubud Bali, and Padangtegal Bali (Wheatley 1989; Fuentes et al. 2007). Wheatley (1989) noted that the provisioning in Ubud increased of number of human provisioned food due to the increasing visit of tourists in the decade of 1980s; the same case can also be said to Pangandaran. According to Hadi et al. (2007) in Ubud and Padangtegal are national tourism that could attract large number of visitors annually.

(22)

10

Regarding the existence of these issues, this time Macaca fascicularis has been categorized as of “Least Concern” in the IUCN/SSC 2008 Red List of Threatened Species (Eudey 2008). This matter has become a concern, especially for the tourist attractions that can attract visitors in large numbers so that it can lead to conflicts between human with macaques. Thus, awareness needs to be raised for controlling the management of the tourist area in order to maintain the balance of nature. Telaga Warna needs strict rules to prohibit feeding of the macaques by visitors. In this case, however their welfare should depend heavily on nature, thus it is very important to control the environment in Telaga Warna.

CONCLUSION

Food preferences of long-tailed macaques in Telaga Warna turned into artificial food because of changes in the environment followed by increasing in number of visitors.

REFERENCES

Altman J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour

49:227-265.

Backer CA, van den Brink RCB. 1965. Flora of Java. Vol II. Groningen: NVP Noordhoff.

Eudey AA. 2008. The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis): Widespread and Rapidly Declining. Primate Conservation 23:129-132.

Fooden J. 1995. Sytematics review of Southeast Asian Longtail Macaques,

Macaca fascicularis (Raffles [1821]). Fieldiana: Zool 81:1-270.

Fooden J. 2006. Comparative review of Fascicularis-group species of Macaques (primates: Macaca). Field Zool 107:1-43.

Fuentes A, Shaw E, Cortes J. 2007. Qualitative assessment of macaque tourist sites in Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia and the upper rock nature reserve, Gibraltar. Int J Primatol 28:1143-1158.

Hadi I, Suryobroto B, Perwitasari-Farajallah D. 2007. Food preference of semi-provisioned macaques based on feeding duration and foraging party size.

Hayati J Biosci 14:13-17.

Hock LB, Sasekumar A. 1979. A preliminary study on the feeding biology of mangrove forest primates, Kuala Selangor. Malay Nat J 33:105-113.

Macarthur R, Levins R. 1964. Competition, Habitat selection, and Character displacement in a Patchy Environment. Zoology 51:1207-1210.

(23)

Nila S, Suryobroto B, Arum K. 2014. Dietary variation of long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java. Hayati J of Biosci 21:8-14.

Peres A. 1996. Food Patch Structure and Plant Resource Partitioning in Interspecific Associations of Amazonian Tamarins. Intl J Primatology

17:695-723.

Son VD. 2003. Diet of Macaca fascicularis in mangrove forest. Vietnam Laboratory Primate News 42:1-5.

Stewart AE, Gordon CH, Wich SA, Schroor P, Meijaard E. 2007. Fishing in

Macaca fascicularis: A Rarely Observed Innovative Behavior. Intl J Primatology 29:543-548.

Wheatly BP. 1980. Feeding and ranging of East Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In: Lindburg DE (ed). The Macaques: Study in Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Wheatley BP. 1989. Diet of Balinese temple monkeys, Macaca fascicularis. Kyoto Univ Overseas Res Rep Stud Asian non-Human Primates 7:62-75.

Wheatley BP, Putra H. 1994. The effects of tourism on conservation at the monkey forest in ubud, Bali. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 49:245-257.

Yeager CP. 1996. Feeding ecology of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 17:51-62.

(24)

12

Appendix 1 Plant natural species and parts consumed by Macaca fascicularis troop A

Food item (spesies) Vernacular name Fam Part eaten

(25)

13

Food item (spesies) Vernacular name Fam Part eaten

Location Average

(%)

Maximum Party Size

Nature Reserve Nature Recreational

Park

Chelonistele sulphurea Anggrek Orc BB V V 0.060 10

Insect body V V 0.752 6

Moss moss V V 0.002 4

Fern fiddlehead V V 0.002 2

Soil soil V V 0.036 3

Poa = Poacea, Urt = Urticaceae, Are = Arecaceae, Fag = Fagaceae, Mag = Magnoliaciae, The = Theaceae, Ela = Elaeocarpaceae, Orc = Orchidaceae,

Arl = Araliaceae, Act = Actinidiaceae, Mor = Moraceae, Log = Loganiaceae, Mus = Musaceae, Mel = Melastomaceae, Myr = Myrtaceae, Com =

(26)

14

Appendix 2 Number of individual and feeding duration in each item by Macaca fascicularis troop A

Food item Jul Ags Sep

Ni Ti Ni Ti Ni Ti

Axonopus compresus 11.8 359 11.1 236 8.93 303

Villebrunea rubescens 8.1 307 8.8 211 7.4 222

Caryota mitis 1.6 45 9.9 176 4.4 125

Litocarpus sundaicus 6.9 139 5.5 68 0 0

Magnolia blumer 1.5 19 1.9 48 1 24

Schima wallichii 2.1 35 4.9 69 0 0

Castanea argentea 1.3 40 2.3 29 0 0

Ficus parientalis 0 0 1.2 24 0.9 82

Sloanea sigun 1 31 1.1 25 0.4 11

Chelonistele sulphurea 1.5 37 0.5 7 0 0

Schefflera scandens 0.7 26 1.9 52 0 0

Saurauia distasosa 0 0 2.6 47 0.7 16

Ficus sp. 0 0 1.1 37 0 0

Elaeocarpus ganitrus 0 0 0.5 8 0.5 10

Fagraea ceilanica 1.6 45 9.9 176 4.4 125

Calamus reinwardtii 0.6 10 0.2 3 0 0

Musa acuminata 0 0 0.3 6 0.1 7

Castanea javanica 0.6 6 0 0 0 0

Clidemia herta 0 0 0.5 10 0 0

Ficus punctata 0 0 0 0 0.7 9

Eugenia raxiflora 0 0 0.4 5 0 0

Chromolaena odorata 0.4 5 0 0 0 0

(27)
(28)

16

Appendix 4 Artificial food which taken from trashes

Food item Average

(%)

Maximum Party Size

Uncategorized garbage 7.1574 11

Noodle 0.3671 14

Sweet potato 0.0534 9

Remahan kayu 0.0566 8

Rice 0.0191 9

Banana rind 0.0443 10

Siomay 0.0048 4

Watermelon rind 0.0060 6

Melon rind 0.0043 4

Fish 0.0011 4

Rujak 0.0199 7

Kulit petai 0.0100 7

Mizone (bottled water) 0.0004 2

Vegetables 0.0004 3

Fried chicken 0.0003 2

Pulpy orange (bottled water) 0.0001 1

Mango 0.0008 3

(29)

CURRICULUM VITAE

Gambar

Figure 1. Research location and home range of Troop A long-tailed macaques in
Table 2A Natural food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A
Table 2B Artificial food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A
Table 2B Artificial food consumed by long-tailed macaques troop A

Referensi

Dokumen terkait

[r]

525 Galih Rizki Wahyudhi Inovasi Alat Pengering Ikan dengan Energi Mandiri Guna Meningkatkan Produktivitas Accen Corporation Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember PKMT. 526 Achmad

Kemampuan ini mencakup: pengetahuan (proses perubahan), keterampilan (sebagai agen perubahan), kemampuan melaksanakan perubahan dengan menggerakkan orang dan organisasi.

Dengan adanya kerjasama tadi maka masing-masing pihak akan memiliki hubungan hukum yang akan dituangkan dalam bentuk perjanjian tertulis yang dikenal dengan

Abstrak — P royek “Grha Kuliner Khas Surabaya di Surabaya ” merupakan tempat yang menyediakan berbagai macam fungsi dan kegiatan sebagai penunjang bagi masyarakat kota

Demikian Berita Acara ini dibuat dengan sesungguhnya untuk dapat dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Kelompok Kerja 31-16 Unit Layanan

Hal pertama yang sangat terlihat dalam masyarakat Jepang atas perubahan ini menurut Aruga (1980, p. 189-190) adalah melemahnya otoritas kepala keluarga atau kachou,

Perbedaan sektor publik dengan sektor swasta dapat dilihat dari sumber pendanaan organisasi atau dalam istilah manajemen keuangan disebut struktur modal atau