An Analysis of Theme and Motif in Hemingway''s Novel "The Old Man and The Sea

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First of all, I would give my praise and deep gratitude for For Jesus Christ, my great Lord many times I thought I would not be able to finish this thesis but he was always there to raise my up. Nothing I can do without him. He is my true friend above all the friends I have. Great rejoice I feel, every time I remember the thorns of the rose that you gives to my life. For it makes me stronger.

I also would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciations to many people who have give support to me to finish this thesis in the following records. 1. Dra. Swesana Mardiah Lubis M. Hum the head of English Department 2. Drs. Yulianus Harefa ME tesol, the secretary of English Department

3. Special thanks for my supervisor Drs. Razali Kasim M.A and Co- Supervisor Drs. Yulianus Harefa ME Tesol for their helpful guidance.

4. My beloved father and mother. I praise God for He has given than to me. And for their support and attain, especially for their never ending prayers, cares and endless love they had given to me, not only during my studying period and completing this thesis, but also their motivation and encouragement for better future

5. And thank to my lovely brothers and sisters




membahas tentang tema dan motif novel The Old Man and The Sea yang ditulis oleh

penulis yang bernama Ernest M Hemingway. Permasalahan dalam pembahasan dalam novel tersebut yaitu mengekspresikan tema dan motif perjuangan seorang lekaki tua melawan alam untuk membuktikan keberadaan dirinya dalam masyarakat.

Dalam menganalisa tema dan motif novel tersebut penulis menggunakan metode sastra bandingan yang mengambil bagian dalam kajian tematik yang berfokus pada tema /motif dan metode pendekatan intrinsic, dalam hal ini dapat dilihat didalam karya sastra itu sendiri, seperti plot, karakter serta latar.

Data yang berfungsi untuk memenuhi fakta diperoleh dengan penelitian untuk memenuhi fakta diperoleh dengan penelitian di perpustakaan. Segala referensi yang mendukung dan memberi informasi mengenai analisa ini di kumpulkan dan diseleksi, termasuk di dalamnya biografi sang penulis.

Dari hasil penganalisaan, beberapa temuan dan kesimpulan dapat diambil, dimana dapat dilihat bahwa kegigihan dan keuletan yang dimilki seorang lelaki tua melawan alam untuk membuktikan keberadaan dirinya dalam masyarakat.


Pada Bab II dipaparkan tentang hubungan antara tema dan motif serta beberapa makna tentang tema dan motif yang sebenarnya.

Sedangkan pada Bab III, pemahaman analisis tema dan motif dalam novel

“The Old man And The Sea” di jabarkan secara mendalam, sedangkan ringkasan

novel tersebut dapat dilihat dalam lampiran.



ABSTRACT ... iii



1.1.The Bacground of the Study ... 1

1.2. Problems of the Study ... 3

1.3. Objectives of the Analysis ... 3

1.4. Scope of the Study ... 4

1.5. Significance of the Study ... 4

1.6. The Method of the Study ... 4

1.7. Review of Related Literature ... 5


2.2 Motif ... 9

CHAPTER III : THE ANALYSIS OF THE NOVEL In this Novel There are Some Particular Ideas (Motif). These Motif among Others Are: 3.1 Other Fishermen’s Attitude toward Santiago ... 12

3.2 Strong Frienship Between Manolin and Santiago ... 16

3.3 The Struggle Against Nature ... 20

3.4 Dignity and Personal Pride... 28



4. 1 Conclusions ... 33 4. 2 Suggestions ... 34






membahas tentang tema dan motif novel The Old Man and The Sea yang ditulis oleh

penulis yang bernama Ernest M Hemingway. Permasalahan dalam pembahasan dalam novel tersebut yaitu mengekspresikan tema dan motif perjuangan seorang lekaki tua melawan alam untuk membuktikan keberadaan dirinya dalam masyarakat.

Dalam menganalisa tema dan motif novel tersebut penulis menggunakan metode sastra bandingan yang mengambil bagian dalam kajian tematik yang berfokus pada tema /motif dan metode pendekatan intrinsic, dalam hal ini dapat dilihat didalam karya sastra itu sendiri, seperti plot, karakter serta latar.

Data yang berfungsi untuk memenuhi fakta diperoleh dengan penelitian untuk memenuhi fakta diperoleh dengan penelitian di perpustakaan. Segala referensi yang mendukung dan memberi informasi mengenai analisa ini di kumpulkan dan diseleksi, termasuk di dalamnya biografi sang penulis.

Dari hasil penganalisaan, beberapa temuan dan kesimpulan dapat diambil, dimana dapat dilihat bahwa kegigihan dan keuletan yang dimilki seorang lelaki tua melawan alam untuk membuktikan keberadaan dirinya dalam masyarakat.


Pada Bab II dipaparkan tentang hubungan antara tema dan motif serta beberapa makna tentang tema dan motif yang sebenarnya.

Sedangkan pada Bab III, pemahaman analisis tema dan motif dalam novel

“The Old man And The Sea” di jabarkan secara mendalam, sedangkan ringkasan

novel tersebut dapat dilihat dalam lampiran.




1.1The Background of the Study

The study of literature is not like the study of math or science or even history, because those disciplines are based largely upon fact while the study of literature is mostly based upon imagination, and it needs interpretation and analysis in order to understand literary works. But each person usually brings a different set of values and a different background to the reading.

Understanding a literary work,such as a novel, is not as easy as one may think. We need to understand the text of the literary work and some disciplines of knowledge that are related to it. It, therefore, becomes more complicated if an author mates use a discipline of knowledge, such as philosophy or psychology in his literary work. Even though, it makes the literary work more interesting because readers have to think the content deeply.


aspects of human life and the universe in its entirety including relationship between individual and society, people environment, etc.

The focus of analysis in this thesis is a novel written by an American novelist, Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea. There are various elements in a novel, such as theme, characterization, plot, setting and point of view. It is common that an analysis of a novel is focused on one of those elements, such as theme or characterization. The analysis of theme may cover various perspectives because theme is related to ideas. The ideas might be related to economic life of people, political condition of a country, or religious doctrines. Eugene H. Falk ( in Francois Jost, 1974:178 ) explains what theme and motif are,

Theme may be assigned to the ideas that emerge from the particular structure of textual, elements as actions, statements revealing states of mind or feelings, such textual elements “designate by the term motif, the ideas that emerge from motif” call theme

Ernest Miller Hemingway was a famous American writer especially in twentieth century. He was born on July 21,1822 in Oak Park, Illionis a small town in a Suburb of Chicago. And he began his career in writing as a reporter in “Kansas City Star” after he was rejected to join in the militery service.


1.2 Problems of the Study

There are some problems found in the analysis of Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and The Sea. The problems deal with the meaning of motif and theme,

because there are actually some meanings of motif and theme. But in this thesis the meaning of motif and theme is basically taken from Eugene H. Falk’s definition (on page 1). The problems are, therefore,

1. What are really some motifs in The Old Man and The Sea ? 2. What is really the theme in The Old Man and The Sea ?

3. How is the relationship between motif and theme in The Old Man and The Sea ?

1.3 Objectives of the Analysis

The writer of this thesis has some objectives in analyzing Hemingway’s The Old Man and The Sea. The objectives are among others,

1. To reveal some motifs in Hemingway’s novel 2. To reveal the theme of the above novel

3. To disclose the relationship between motif and theme in The Old Man and The Sea

1.4Scope of the Study


specific. That is why the writer will limit her analysis only to discuss one element of the novel, that is theme and motif.

1.5 The Significance of the Study

Ernest Hemingway is a very well-known writer, therefore, reading and understanding his works is very important, especially for the students of English literature. The significance of the study on one of his works will be very helpful for the readers of this thesis. It means that by reading this thesis, the readers will understand Ernest Hemingway’s idea which is conveyed through the novel.

1.6 The Method of the Study

The method of literary approach that the writer uses in analyzing her thesis is intrinsic approach. It is also called textual analysis intrinsic approach deals with an attempt to analyses literary works focusing only on the text of the literary works, this approach doesn’t need the help of outside sources, such as philosophy or psychology, in the analysis of literary works. As Wellek and Warren say in their book Theory of Literature that the natural and sensible starting point for works of literature themselves (1977: 139). It means that it is important to analyze in order to get good interpretation of the literary work.


1.7 Review of Related Literature

To support the idea of the analysis the writer has used some books which are absolutely relevant to the framework of analysis, in this case the writer found some useful theories related to basic principles to support the idea of the analysis. The main theory can be found in several books :

1. Rene Wellek and Austin Warren, Theory of Literature

This book provides the theory of literature. According to this book, there are two kinds of approach in analyzing literary works. They are intrinsic and extrinsic approaches. Intrinsic approach emphasizes its analysis merely text of the concrete work of literature. On the other hand, extrinsic approach relates the literary work to the other subjects or disciplines of knowlegde such as biography, philosophy, psychology, sociology, history etc.

2. X. J. Kennedy, An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama




After reading a work carefully, with mind and spirit full open to actions, events, people, places, times, sounds, images, words and patterns, a reader mat well fell overwhelmed. What does it all mean? What is the point? What am I supposed to get from this? What is the lesson here? What is the author trying to say?. These questions often come insistently to us, giving us the sense that even though the work evoked a definite response, something has been left undiscovered. The theme becomes an answer for all the questions.

There are many definitions about theme. Theme is the central unifying element of the story which ties together all of the other elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, point of view, etc used by the author was writing. Blaze O. Bonazza, Emil Roy and Sandra Roy in their book entitled Studies in Fiction say that:

The theme of a story is the generalization about human life that can be drawn from the outcome of the conflict and from the support provided by tone, attitude, atmosphere, setting and symbolism or allegory (1982: 10)

It means that the theme of the story is an idea that can be broadly applied both to the story itself and to read life situations outside the story.


only winner is the one who maintains honor and self-respect. Mystery and suspense stories rest on the belief that problems have solutions even if they may not at first some apparent. Writers may deal with the triumphs and defeat of life, the admirable and the despicable, the humorous and the pathetic, but whatever their goal, they are always expressing ideas about human experiences.

In literary works, there are usually many separate ideas. When one of the ideas seems to be the major one, it is call the theme. Judith A. Stanford says in her book Responding to literature: Stories, Poems, Plays and Essays Fourth Edition that:

Theme is the central idea that you seek as you read a work and think about it (2003: 53)

Theme is the meaning of the whole story. Theme as a whole will be closely related to every part and aspect of a story. We can discover the theme by a thorough and responsive reading of the story, involving a constant awareness of the relations in every part of it. Theme of a work is the key to its total meaning or message. The theme of a story is its underlying idea that the author is presenting. Martin Gray in his book A Dictionary of Literary Term says that:

Theme is the abstract subject of a work; its central idea or ideas, which may or not be explicit or obvious (1984:208)


difficult to express it into works. In order to identify a theme of a story, one must know the whole story. The ability to recognize a theme is important because it allows readers to understand the author’s purpose in writing the book.

John Gardner in his book The Art of Fiction says that.

Every fiction must have a theme as fundament of an intention. The writer will describe the characters in the novel by using that fundament (1991: 11)

It means that theme is a very important element beside others, to be the reason for this argument that is the characters will be characterized by using the theme. And another literary author K.L Knickerboecker in his book interpreting says that.

Every good story is shaped by controlling theme or idea. This controlling theme selects and arranges everything which goes into the story the characters, the action, the resolution of the conflict and anything else, using by the writers to dramatize his total meaning. (1963: 90)

According to him a theme is a controlling idea, it means that the function of the theme here is as a control of the idea in a novel. It will control the characters, the action of the characters and even resolve the conflict in the novel.


Finally, the value of thematic ideas in a story can be considered only in their relation to the entire work. Regardless of how true, universal, or appealing an idea may seem or not seem, the primary concern of a reader should be with how well the ideas is exemplified and brought to life in the story. What matters is how artistically, how concretely and how compellingly the author gives shape and substance to a guiding principle apart from the readers’ appraisal of the validity, intellectual worth, or originality of the idea embodied.


Motif is one of literary elements. It has a close relationship with theme. So that it is sometimes used interchangeably with theme.

The writer tries to find some definition of motif.

Martin Gray, A Dictionary of Literary Term (1985: 130) defines motif is “some aspects of literature (a type of character, theme or image) which recurs frequently.” And Morris William in his book The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the English says that motif as; “a recurring thematic element used in the development

of an artistic or literary work,” through this definition William states that motif is a kind of element on literary work.


“Motif is a particular idea or dominant element running through a literary work, forming part of the main theme.”

We can see the phrase ‘dominant element’ and ‘forming part’. The words inform us that motif is an element, which is dominant throughout a literary work, and the function of the element is a part to form a main theme. On the other word we can say that theme is larger than motif and a theme consists of several motifs. The term ‘theme’ is usually employed to describe a topic or problem which is found in the action and which seems both authentic and significant in our experience with the world of reality.

Motif may also be meant the important incidents or the dominant description of human feeling or emotion. To state he theme of a story is to generalize upon the particulars of the narrative, to place upon the fiction characters in their fictional situations. When we describe the theme of a novel, we tent to suggest that it involves problems and situations which we have. It is certainly useful to recognize the important problems, familiar situations and universal human traits are represented in a work of fiction. Theme has something to do with the intention or purpose of a literary work. The interference of moral judgment, it causes theme to be identical with morality, intention and meaning.


qualities, action, and ideas. Stoff is explained as motif and associated with the concrete. Stoff is the logically or chronologically organized by rohstoff. Stoff is necessarily expressed in specific characters, places and times. Motive is structure by stoff and associated with the abstract.

The three basic themalogical elements are put together to make coherent story. Basically, theme in a story is illustrated with the aid of stoff by using rohstoff. It is noticed that theme can be found in most literary works, implicitly expressed. The motif itself is the incarnation of theme and theme will be manifested by motif. Theme emerges in and through the dialogue, development of character, setting and plot.




This chapter contains the analysis theme and motif in Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and the Sea. The first quarter of this novel takes place on Land in a small

Cuban fishing village on Tuesday evening, September 12 and Wednesday morning, September 13. The novel’s point of view in this section is the third- person narrator. This third person narrative is limited to and concentrates on Santiago and his action. Most of this section’s activities represent the characters’ preparation for Santiago’s setting out to sea on Wednesday morning for what will become the story’s great struggle.

In this section, the writer is going to analyze Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and The Sea. Therefore, the writer will talk about the old man whose name is

Santiago. Santiago is a fisherman who lives in a village near the sea where most of the local people are fishermen too. He fights against a big fish and many sharks in the sea to prove that he is a true fisherman. In the end of the battle, he loses the meat of the fish because the sharks take it from its body. There is only a big skeleton of the fish left for him. Fortunately, this skeleton can bring back his dignity as a fisherman.

In This Novel there are Some Particular Ideas (Motif). These motif among others are,


The Old man was a fisherman who has gone to sea for eighty-fourdays without taking any fish, but he never give up to catch fish on the next day. Most people in his village call him as a Salao which is the worst form of unlucky.

“ He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty-fourdays without taking a fish. In the first forty days a boy had been with him. But after forty days without a fish the boy’s parents had told him that the old man was now definitely and finally Salao, which is the worst form of unlucky.”(Hemingway, P: 5 )

Santiago is also a solitude person. He lives alone in his house with nobody accompanies him. Even in the beginning of the story, Hemingway tells that Santiago sails alone in his skiff for forty forays.

“He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in a Skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty four days now without taking a fish.” (Hemingway, P: 5)

Moreover, Santiago has a bad social interaction. He does not mingle with other fishermen. When he sits on the Terrace he only talks to a boy called Manolin among many other fishermen sitting in the place. This attitude makes him isolated from the others.


Perico, Martin and Manolin. Perico is the owner of the bodega. He never appears in the novel but he serves an important role in Santiago’s life by providing him with newspapers that report the baseball scores. This act establishes him as a kind man who helps the aging Santiago as it is expressed in the dialogue below.

“’Yes, I have yesterday’s newspaper and I will read the baseball.’

The boy did not know whether yesterday’s newspaper was a fiction too. But the old man brought it out from under the bed.

‘Perico gave it to me at the bodego,’ he explained.

‘I’II be back when I have the sardines. I’II keep yours and mine together on ice and we can share them in the morning. When I came back you can tell me about the baseball.’” (Hemingway, P: 12 )

Martin is a cafe owner, like Perico he does not appear in the story. We can learn his kindness through Manolin, who often goes to him for Santiago’s supper. For that reason, Santiago thinks that he is a man of frequent kindness and deserves to be repaid. It is obviously seen in the dialogue below.

“The boy had brought them in a two-decker metal container from the Terrace. The two sets of knives and forks and spoons were in his pocket with a paper napkin wrapped aroud each set.

‘Who gave this to you?’ ‘Martin, the owner.’ ‘I must thank him.’

‘I thanked him already,’ the boy said. ‘You don’t need to thank him.’

‘I’II give him the belly of a fish,’ the old man said. ‘Has he done this for us more than once?’

‘I think so.’

‘I must give him something more than the belly meat then. He is thoughtful for us.’

‘He sent two beers.’

‘I like the beer in cans best.’


Among the three persons above, Manolin is the only one who cares and admires Santiago very much. He still believes in Santiago’s capability and value as a person as well as a fisherman. He demonstrates his love and devotion for Santiago frankly. Nothing can prevent him from loving the old fisherman.

We understand that Santiago is an old man who has a miserable shape of body that is thin and gaunt. Moreover, clothes that cover his body are as miserable as their owner. When he sleeps, his eyes closed. There is no sign of life in his face. His gaunt body wears an old shirt that has many patches with different faded colors. He lays a newspaper across his knees, the weight of his arms hold it there, and he is barefooted:

“ They were strange shoulders, still powerful although very old, and the nect was still strong too and the creases did not show so much when the old man was asleep and his head fallen forward. His shirt had been patched so many times that it was like the sail and the patches were faded to many different shades by the sun. The old man’s head was very old though and with his eyes closed there was no life in his face. The newspaper lay across his knees and the weight of his arm held it there in the evening breeze. He was barefooted”

(Hemingway, P: 13 – 14 )

And the writer will show that Santiago is an old, poor, lonely and tough fisherman. He is a widower too. Many other fishermen insult him for not catching any fish during eighty-fourdays. However, this condition motivates him to sail farther in the sea to catch good fish and to prove that he is not salao.


“The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection on the topic sea were on his cheeks. The blotches ran well down the sides of his face and his hands had the deep creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old as the erosions in a fishless desert. Everything about him was old except his eyes and they were the same colour as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated.” (Hemingway, P: 5-6 )

The fact that Santiago is poor is also reflected on the place he lives in. He lives in a small, old and poor shack furnished with nothing more than the garrets necessities such as a bed, a table, a chair and a place to cook. On the wall, there are only two pictures. One is the sacred heart of Jesus and the other one is the Virgin of cobber.

Santiago has a tough character. He does not give up to catch fish although during the eighty-four days he can not catch any fish. Everyday he always comes and goes to the sea with his empty Skiff on the eight-forth day, he even encourages himself and he wants to prove himself to society. And he says something to himself that:

“Tomorrow is going to be a good day with this current” (Hemingway, P: 9)

3.2 Strong Frienship Between Manolin and Santiago

Manolin is Santiago’s only friend and companion. Santiago teach Manolin to fish and the boy use out sea with the old man until his parents object to Santiago’s bad luck.


made the boy sad to sea the old man come in each day with his skiff empty and he always went down to help him carry either the coiled lines or the graff and harpoon and the sail that was furled around the mast.

(Hemingway, P: 5)

The relationship between Santiago and Manolin can be summed up in one sentence which is brotherhood. Although appearing only in the opening and closing pages of the novel, Manolin is als an important character. He is Santiago’s apprentice.

“The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him” (Hemingway, P: 53)

He went to the sea without any friend, but he never complained with his loneliness even at the first time he has a friend who accompany him that is a boy called Manolin.

“The old man had taught the boy to fish and The boy loved him.

‘No,’ the old man said. ‘You’re with a lucky boat Stay with them.’

‘But remember how you went eighty-seven days Without fish and then we caught big ones Everyday for three weeks.’

‘I remember,’ the old man said. ‘I know you Did not leave me because you doubted.’ ‘It was papa made me leave. I am a boy and I must obey him.’

‘I know,’ the old man said. ‘It is quite normal.’ ‘He hasn’t much faith.’

‘No,’ the old man said. ‘But we have. Haven’t we?’ (Hemingway, P: 6 )


and devotion persuades him to do more than a close friend for Santiago.. The dialogue below tells it.

“ ‘I’m ready now,’ the old man said. ‘I only needed time to wash.’

Where did you wash? The boy thought. The village water supply was two streets down the read. I must have water here for him, the boy thought, and a soup and a good towel. Why am I so thoughtless? I must get him another shirt and a jacket for the winter and some sort of shoes and another blanket.” (Hemingway, P: 15-16 )

Manolin always welcomes Santiago in the harbors and helps him to carry things from the skiff. Furthermore, he makes sure the old fisherman has food to eat which he manages from Martin. He knows Santiago is too poor to buy food and too pride to receive his humility but he forces him to eat even though he does not want to. And Manolin still helps Santiago pull in his boat in the evening and provides the old man with food and bait when he needs it. Manolin is the reader’s surrogate in the novel, appreciating Santiago’s heroic spirit and skill despite his outward lack of success. We can learn it from the dialogue below:

“ ‘Wake up old man,’ the boy said and put his hand on one of the old man’s knees.’

The old man opened his eyes and for a moment he was coming back from a long way away. Then he smiled

‘What have you got,’ he asked.

‘Supper,’ said the boy. ‘We’re going to have supper.’ ‘I’m not very hungry.’

‘Come on and eat. You can’t fish and not to eat.’

‘I have,’ the old man said getting up and taking the newspaper and folding it. Then he started to fold the blanket. ‘Keep the blanket around you,’ the boy said. ‘you’II not fish without eating while I’m alive.’

‘Then live a long time and take care of yourself,’ the old man said, ‘what are we eating?’


Santiago also creates an imagination of food to prevent him from getting hungry. He always thinks that he has yellow rice and fish at home to eat. However, he has no any. Manolin and Santiago take care each other whatever they do. We can learn it from his conversation with Manolin below.

“What do you have to eat? The boy asked.

‘A pot of yellow rice with fish. Do you want some?’ ‘No, I will eat at home. Do you want me to make the fire?’ ‘No, I will make it later on. Or I way eat the rice cold.’ ‘May I take the cast net?’

‘Of course.’

There was no cast of net and the boy remembered when they had sold it. But they went through. This fiction every day. There was no pot of yellow rice and fish and the boy knew this too.”

(Hemingway, P: 11 ).

Manolin always admires Santiago as a best figure of a fisherman. He can not hide praise from Santiago. Many times, he expresses his impression on Santiago character and Santiago replies them with humble sayings. It is as reflected in the following dialogue.

“ ‘Who is the greatest manager, really, Luque or Mike Gonzalez?’

‘I think they are equel.’

‘And the best fisherman is you.’ ‘No, I know others better.’

‘Que va,’ the boy said. ‘There are many good fishermen and great ones. But there is only you.

Thank you, you make me happy. I hope no fish will come along so great that he will prove us wrong.’

‘ There is no such fish if you are still strong as you say.’

‘I may not be as strong as I think,’ the old man said. ‘But I know many tricks and I have resolution.’ ”


The existence of those three persons above shows that Santiago is not a bad man. People take care of someone because the man is worthy to receive their humility and he does nothing harm to them. People still regard him as one of the member of the society

3.3 The Struggle Against Nature

Santiago is struggle against nature occurs since he goes to fish to the sea. He fights against the nature, which appears in some forms. It can be the weather, sea, fish and sharks.

When Santiago gets up earlier in the morning, he faces the first form of the nature, that is the cold weather. The morning cold makes him shivers but he thinks.

“He would shivers himself warm and that soon he would be rowing” (Hemingway, P: 20)

He goes to Manolin”s house to wake up the boy. Then they walk straightly to Santiago’s house, carry the old fisherman’s gear to his skiff, and drink coffee from condensed milk cans. After wishing good luck to each other Santiago sets out alone in his Skiff and rows steadily away from the shore towards the deep waters of the Gulf Stream.


“Before it was really light he had his baits out and was drifting with the current. One bait was down forty fathoms. The second was at seventy-five and the third and fourth were down in he blue water at one hundred and one hundred and twenty-five fathoms,” (Hemingway, P: 24-25).

Santiago is a true fisherman. He has knowledge about nature. He knows when he should go to fish. He goes to fish in September, where the great fish comes. It is very cold in September, that’s why it is difficult for fishermen to catch fish in this month, but he convinces himself that he will catch a big fish in September.

“ ‘Keep warm old man,’ the boy said. ‘Remember we are in September.

‘The month when the great fish come,’ the old man said. ‘Anyone can be a fisherman in may.’ ”

(Hemingway, P: 13)

Santiago has also experience in preparing his body to fish for long day in the sea.

“But the old man thought, I have such a heart too and my feet and hands are like theirs. He ate the white eggs to give himself strength. He ate them all through May be strong in September and October for the truly big fish”

(Hemingway, P: 30-31)


“ ‘If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am crazy,’ he said aloud. ‘But since I am not crazy, I do not care and the rich have radios to talk to them in their boats and to bring them the baseball.’ ” (Hemingway, P: 33 )

When the projecting stick that marks the top of the hundred-fathom line dips sharply, he is sure that the fish tugging on the line is of a considerable size. He prays it will take the bait the marlin plays with the bait for a while. When it does finally take the bait, it starts to move with it and pulls the skiff. Santiago tries to bring it up to the surface but it does not come up because the fish is strong and tough. It drags the skiff farther into the sea with Santiago holding the line against his back as it is illustrated below

“He held the line against his back and watch its slant in the water and the skiff moving steadily to the north-west.

This will kill him, the old man thought. He can’t do this forever. But for hours later the fish was swimming steadily out to the sea, towing the skiff, and the old man still braced solidly with the line across his back”

(Hemingway, P: 38)

He yells at himself to get the strong and no let himself die on sea when he has fishing, and he want to say God’s name when he has fishing, but he couldn’t do that.

“I could not fail myself and die on a fish like this,” he said. “ now that I have him coming so beautifully, God help me endure. I’II say a hundred Our Father and a hundred Hail Mary’s. But cannot say them now.”

Consider them said, he thought. I’II say them later.” (Hemingway, P: 48)


nothing with him and he can do nothing with me, he thought. Not as long as he keeps this up” (Hemingway, P: 40). He wishes for the boy again and muses, “No one should be alone in their old age … but it I unavoidable” (Hemingway, P: 40)

Something then takes one of the baits behind Santiago, but he cuts the line in order to avoid distraction from the marlin. He expresses ambivalence over whether he wants the fish to jump, wanting to end the struggle as quickly as possible but worrying that he hook might slip out of the fish’s mouth. Echoing his former resolve though with less certainly, Santiago says, “Fish … I love you and respect you very much. But I will kill you dead before this day ends.” (Hemingway, P: 46)

A small bird land on the boat while Santiago is speaking to the bird, the marlin lurches forward and pulls the old man down, cutting his hand. Lowering his hand to water to clean it, Santiago notices that Marlin has slowed down. He decides to eat tuna he has caught in order to give him strength for his ordeal. As he is cutting the fish, his wounded hand cramped. Santiago says, “What kind of hand is that. Cramp then if you want. Make yourself into claw. It will do you no good” (Hemingway, P: 50). He eats tuna, hoping it will renew his strength and help to release his hand from the cramp.


that the marlin coals destroy the boat if he wanted to and prayers to assuage his worried heart and settles into the chase once again.

As the sun sets, Santiago think back to triumphs of his past in order to give himself more confidence in the present. He tried to wrestle with his left hand but it is a traitor than as it has now. Santiago than catches a dolphin for food and throws the line out again in case he needs more substance later. As the night falls, Santiago ties together two oars across the stern to create more drag. Santiago decides that he must sleep some if he wants to kill the marlin. He cuts up the dolphin he has caught to prevent spoiling, and eats some of it before contriving a way to sleep. Santiago wraps the line around him and leans against the bow to anchor himself, leaving his left hand on the rope to wake him if the marlin lurches. Soon, the old man is sleep. “He no longer dreamed of storms, or of women, or of Great occurrences, or of great fish, nor fights nor contest of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed of places now and of the lions on the beach … he loved them as he loved the boy.” (Hemingway, P: 66)

The line rushing furiously through his right hand awakes Santiago. The marlin leaps out of the water and it is all the old man can do to hold into the line, now cutting his hand badly and dragging him down to the bottom of the skiff. Santiago finds his balance, though, realizes that the marlin has filled the air sacks on his back and can not go deep to die. The marlin will circle and then the end game will begin.


until the marlin catches the wire lead of the line with his spear and regains some of the line. Eventually, the marlin clears the lead and Santiago pulls back the line he lost.

At the third turn, Santiago sees the fish and feels amazed by its size. He readies the harpoon and pulls the line in more. The marlin tries desperately to pull away and Santiago, no longer able to speak for lack of water. He must concentrate on the fish as it is below.

“On the next turn, he nearly had him. But again the fish righted himself and swam slowly away. You are killing me, fish. The old man thought but you have a right to. Never have I seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer of nobler thing than you, brother. Come on and kill me. I do not care who kills who.” (Hemingway, P: 82)

The marlin continues to circle, coming closer and pulling out. At last, it is next to the skiff, Santiago drives his harpoon into the marlin’s chest. It has been already dead now. The following quotation describes how it dies.

“Then the fish came alive, with his death in him, and raised high out of the water showing all his great length and width and all his power and his beauty. He seemed to hang I the air above the old man in the skiff. Then he fell into the water with a crash that sent spray over the old man and over the entire skiff.”

(Hemingway, P: 84)


“ I want to see him. He is my fortune. But that is not why I wish to feel him. I think I felt his heart when I pushed on the harpoon shaft the second time. Bring him in now, and make him fast and get the noose around his tail and another around his middle to bind him to the skiff.”

(Hemingway, P: 85)

Having secured the marlin to the skiff, Santiago draws the sails and lets the trade wind push him toward the southwest. An hour after Santiago kill the marlin, a mako shark appears. It has followed the trail of blood the slain marlin left in its wake. The following quotation gives the description of the shark.

“He was a very big Mako shark built to swim as the fastest fish in the sea and everything about him was beautiful except his jaws. His back was as blue as a swordfish’s and his belly was silver and his side was smooth and handsome. He was built as a swordfish except his huge jaws which were tight shut now as he swim fast, just under the surface with his high dorsal fin knifing through the water without wavering. Inside of the closed double lip of his jaws all of his eight rows of teeth were slanted inwards.” (Hemingway, P: 90)


The shark takes forty pounds of flesh from the marlin and mutilates its perfect side. Santiago no longer likes to look at the fish. He began to regret having caught the marlin at all, wishing that his adventure had been but a dream. Nevertheless, he concludes, “Man is not made for defeat … a man can be destroyed but not defeated” (Hemingway, P: 93). He is also want to prove that he is still able to catch fish.

“Although it is unjust, he thought. But I will show him what a man can do and what a man endures.

‘I told the boy I was strange old man,’ he said. ‘Now is when I must prove it.’

The thousand times that he had proved it meant nothing. Now he was proving it again.” (Hemingway, P: 57-58)

Santiago soon ceases this line of thought to concentrate on the getting back to shore. Two hours later, two shovel-nosed sharks arrive at the skiff. After losing his harpoon to the mako, Santiago fastens his knife to the end of the oar and now wields this against the sharks. He kills the first shark easily, but while he does it, the other shark is ripping at the marlin underneath the boat. He lets go of the sheet to swing broadside and reveal the shark underneath. After some struggle, he kills this shark as well.


marlin’s sword to use as a weapon when he had the knife and apologizes again to the fish. At around ten o’clock, he sees the light of Havana and steers toward it.

In the night, the sharks return. Santiago brings out everything left of him to maintain the rest of the fish. However, it is useless. It is the last shark of the pack that comes. There is nothing more for them to eat. Santiago sails lightly now and he had neither thoughts nor any feelings of any kind. He concentrates purely on steering homewards and ignored the sharks that came to gnaw on the marlin’s bones. Sailing home in exhaust, he thinks.

“The wind is our friend, anyway, he thought. Then he added, sometimes. And the great sea with our friends and our enemies. And bed, he thought. Bed is my friend. Just bed, he thought. I never knew how easy it was, and what beat you, he thought. ‘nothing,’ he said aloud. ‘I went out too far.’

(Hemingway, P: 108 )

3.4 Dignity and Personal Pride

In this section I want to discuss about the end from the struggle of Santiago after he comes back from the sea. It involves things that he brings home after the battle in the sea, how people think about him now, and how he thinks of himself now.


shoulder it up the hill to his shack. It is terrifically heavy, and he has to sit down five times before he reaches his home, as it is illustrated below.

“He started to climb again and at the top he fell and lay for some time with the mast across his shoulder. He tried to get up. But it was too difficult and he sat there with the mast on his shoulder and looked at the road. A cat passed on the far side going about its business and the old man watched it. Then he just watched the road. Finally, he put the mast down and stop up. He picked the mast up and put it on his shoulder and started up the road. He had tosit down fibve times before he reached his shack.”

(Hemingway, P: 110)

Arriving at his shack, Santiago collapses on his bed and falls asleep. It shows that Santiago exhausted. When he wakes up Manolin gives him a glass of coffee. Then, they have a conversation. In their conversation, Santiago pours out all his despair. He says, “They beat me Manolin. They truly beat me” (Hemingway, P: 112 ). He even rejects Manolin’s offering to sail together again because he thinks. “No. I am not lucky anymore.” (Hemingway, P: 112 ). However, Manolin insists, “The hell with luck. I’II bring luck with me.” (Hemingway, P: 112) These words encourage Santiago to arise again. He says,

“We must get a good killing lance and always have it on board. You can make the blade from a spring leaf from an old Ford. We can grind it in Guanabacoa. It should be sharp and not tempered so it will break. My knife broke.”

(Hemingway, P: 113)


Meanwhile other local people get surprise at the big skeleton the fish lashed beside Santiago’s skiff. They make a crowd around the skiff. One of them measures the skeleton and finds out that it is eighteen feet’s length. He admires the long of the skeleton and says, “He was eighteen feet from nose to tail.” (Hemingway, P: 111)

There has never been such a big fish caught by other fisherman as the proprietor in the Terrace says to Manolin when he goes there to ask for a can of coffee. The proprietor says, “what a fish it was. There never been such a fish. Those were two fish you took yesterday too.” (Hemingway, P: 111). The proprietor also feels sorry for what has happened to Santiago. He says, “Tell him how sorry I am.” (Hemingway, P: 111)

In the afternoon at the Terrace, several tourists see the marlin’s long white spine in the water among the empty beer cans and dead barracudas. When they ask a waiter what it is, a man replies that it is Tiburon, Eshark, trying to explain what had happened. The tourists misunderstand, believing they are seeing a shark’s skeleton. One of them says, “I didn’t know sharks had such handsome, beautifully formed tails.” (Hemingway, P: 114) the other agrees.


3.4 Theme

An Unyielding old man who wants to maintain dignity and personal pride as a fisherman.

The theme of the novel says that Hemingway spends a good deal of time drawing connections between Santiago and his natural environment which is marked by Santiago’s romance and brotherhood with the sea and its creatures. The fish, the bird, the stars are all his brother or friends. He has the heart of a turtle, eats turtle for strength, drinks shark liver oil for health.

Santiago is the protagonist of the novella. He is an old man fisherman in Cuba who, when we meet him at the beginning of the book, has not caught anything for eighty-four days. The novella follows Santiago’s quest for the great catch that will save his career. Santiago endures a great struggle with an uncommonly large and noble marlin only to lose the fish to rapacious sharks on his way back to land. Despite this loss, Santiago ends the novel with his spirit undefeated.

And Santiago feels an intimate connection to the great fish. He constantly pledges his love, respect and sentiment of brotherhood to the marlin. Because Santiago declares the marlin his true brother, he implies that they share a common fate.





After doing the analysis theme and motif Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and The Sea. Santiago is a patient fisherman. He waits patiently to get a big fish even though

he has gone several days without anything. He never gives up until he gets what he wants. He is also a simple fisherman. In his simplicity, he is still a religious person. He is a good friend, his friendship with Manolin as the proof. He considers Manolin as his friend even though he is still a boy. He considers Manolin as a fisherman too. And The writer can conclude some points. They are:

1. Identity is very important for Santiago. He will do everything to get his identity in his society.

2. Struggle is a way to get back Santiago’s identity



Reading literary works can enrich the horizon of thinking of the readers about human life as most of literary works have messages or moral lessons so that the reader can be justify how to behave.

In this thesis, I expect that the readers will understand what I have analyzed and get knowledge after reading this thesis. As my analysis focuses on the Santiago’s life struggle. I wish the readers can take the final message of the novel are: self proving. It is natural that we want other people to look at us. We want them to consider that we exist in society. That’s why we should try to struggle to prove that. We should feel confident with ourselves. No matter what other people say and think. The show must go on.



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The Summary of the Old Man and the Sea

There is an old man fisherman, Santiago in Cuba who has gone eighty four fays without a catch. He is thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck and his hands had deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old as erosions in fishless desert. Santiago’s lack of success, though, does not destroy his spirit and he has cheerful and undefeated eyes. He has a single friend, a boy named Manolin, who helped him during the first forty days of his dry spell. After forty days, though, Manolin’s parents decide the old man is unlucky and order their son to join other boat. Despite this, though, the boy helps the old man to bring in his empty boat every day.

After earning money on to other bat, Manolin asks Santiago if he can turn the old man’s service. Santiago refuses the boy, telling him to mind his parents and stay with the successful boat. Manolin offers to fetch sardines for the old man, an offer which Santiago first refuses and then accepts. Hemingway tells us that “He was too simple to wonder when he had attained humility. But he knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it carried no loss of true pride”.


of his wife. At the house the two rehearse a nightly ritual of speaking about factious rice and a net. Santiago then pulls out a paper and the two discuss baseball, peaking with great enthusiasm of Joe DiMaggio. Manolin leaves the house and Santiago asleep.

When Manolin return, he wakes Santiago. The two eat food the boy has brought. During the course of the meal, the boy realize the squalor in which the old man lives and reminds himself to bring the old man a shirt, shoes, a jacket, and a blanket for the coming winter. The two talk baseball again, focusing as usual on Joe DiMaggio. Speaking about great baseball stars, the boy calls the old man the greatest fisherman. Santiago accepts the compliment but denies the truth of Manolin’s statement, remarking that he know better fisherman than himself. The boy than leaves to be woken in the morning by the old man. Santiago sleeps.

Santiago dreams of Africa, where he traveled as a shipmate in his youth. “He lived along that coast now every night and in his dreams he head the surf roar and saw the native boats come riding through it. He dreamed of places now and lions on the beach. The old man wakes and retrieves the boy from his house. The two take the old man’s supplies from his shack to his boat and enjoy coffee at an early morning place that serves fisherman. The boy leaves to fetch the sardines for the old man. When he returns, he whishes the old man luck and Santiago goes out to sea.


along, Santiago spots flying fish and birds, expressing great fine as those sea swallows when the ocean can be so cruel. She is kind and very beautiful but she can be so cruel.

We are told that while other fisherman, those who used boys and motor boat, thought of the sea as a masculine competitor or enemy, Santiago always thought of her as feminine and as something that gave or withheld great favors, and if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them.

Santiago keeps pressing out, past the great well where he has been recently unsuccessful. He travels out where school of bonito and albacore are, hoping there might be a big fish with them. Before light, Santiago casts his bait fish out but does not let them drift with the current. He wants to know exactly where he hooks are. Santiago says of this, “I keep them with precision. Only I have no luck anymore. But who knows? Maybe today. Every day is a new day. It is better to be lucky. But I would rather to be exact. Then we luck comes you are ready.”

Santiago sees a man of war bird overhead and notices that the bird has spied something in the water. The old man follows the rows near the bird, and drops his own lines into the area, hoping to capture the fish the bird had been seen. There is a large school of dolphin traveling fast, too fast either the bird or Santiago to capture. Santiago moves on hoping to catch or stray or perhaps even discover a marlin tracking the school.


they were the falsest things in the sea and the old man loves to see the big sea turtles eating them.” Having worked on a turtle boat for years, Santiago expresses his sympathy for turtles. He says most people are heartless about turtles because a turtle’s heart will beat for hours after he has been cut up and butchered. I have such a heart too and my hands and feet are like theirs.

Santiago notices the bird again, and suspects that he has found fish again. Soon after, the old man sees a tuna leap from leap the water and the bird diving to catch the bait fish stirred up by the tuna’s jump. Santiago gently moves toward the school and soon feels the bite. He pulls the albacore in the boat and clubs him to death. The old man realizes that he is talking to himself. “It was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at the sea and the old man had always considered it so and respected it. But now he said his thoughts aloud many times since there was no one that they could annoy. Santiago recalls himself from such as thinking saying “now is the time to think of only one thing. That which I was born for.” Soon, there is a strong bite on one of the lines Santiago east out earlier.


The marlin nibbles round the hook for some time, refusing to take the bait fully. Santiago speaks aloud, as if to cajole the fish into accepting the bait. He says, “Come on … make another turn. Just smell them. Aren’t they lovely? Eat them good now and the there is the tuna. Hard, cold and lovely. Don’t be shy fish. Eat them.” After many false bites, the marlin finally takes the tuna and pulls out a great length of line. Santiago waits a bit for the marlin to swallow to hook and then pulls hard on the line to bring the marlin up to the surface. The fish is strong, tough and does not come up. Instead he swims away, dragging the old man and his skiff along behind. Santiago wishes he had Manolin with him to help. Alone, though, he must let the fish take the line it wants or risk losing it. Eventually, the fish will tire itself out and die. “But for hours later the fish eats still swimming steadily out to sea, towing the skiff and the old man was still braced solidly with the line across his back.”

As the sun went down, the marlin continued on in the same direction, and Santiago lost sight of land altogether. The result is a curious stalemate. As Santiago says, “I can do nothing with him can do nothing with me … not as long as he keeps this up.” He wishes for the boy again and muses that no one should be alone in their old age.


The line rushing furiously through his right hand and awakes Santiago the marlin leaps out the water and it is all the old man can do to hold into the line, now cutting his hand badly and dragging him down to the bottom of the skiff. Santiago finds his balance, though and realizes that the marlin has filled the air sacks on his back and cannot go deep to die. The marlin will circle and then the endgame will begin. At sunrise, the marlin begins a large circle. Santiago holds the line strongly, pulling it in slowly as the marlin goes around. At the third turn, Santiago sees the fish and amazed by its size. He readies the harpoon and pulls the line more. The marlin tries desperately to pull away. Santiago, no longer able to speak for lack of water, thinks, “you are killing me, fish … but you have a right to. I have never seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or more noble thing than you, brother. Come on and kill me. I do not care who kills you. Then the fish came alive, with his death in him, and raised high out of the water showing all his great length and width and all his power and his beauty. Santiago says, “I am a tired old man. But I have killed the fish which is my brother and now I must do the slave work.

Having killed the marlin, Santiago lashes its body along side his skiff. He pulls a line through the marlin’s gills and out its mouth, keeping its head the bow. Santiago draws the sail and lets trade wind push him toward the southwest.


In the night, the sharks return. He fought and this time he knew the fight was useless. They came in pack and he could only see lines in the water their fins made and their phosphorescence as they threw themselves on the fish, he clubs desperately at the fish, but the club was soon taken away by the sharks. Santiago grabs the tiller breaks. That was the last shark of the pack that came. There was nothing more for them eat.

Santiago sailed lightly now and he had neither thoughts nor any feelings of any kind. He concentrates purely on steering homewards and ignored the sharks that came to gnaw on the marlin’s bones. When he arrive the harbor, everyone was asleep. Santiago steps out of the boat, carrying the mast back to his shack. He started to climb again and at the top he fell and lay for some time with the mast across his shoulder. He tried to get up, but it was too difficult and he sat there with the mast on his shoulder and looked at the road. When he finally arose, he had to sit five time before reaching home. Arriving at this shack, Santiago collapsed on his bed and feel asleep.


That afternoon, there are tourists on the Terrace a female tourist sees the skeleton of the marlin moving in the tide. Not recognizing the skeleton, she asks the waiter what it is. He responds in broken English “shark,” thinking she wants to know what happened. She comments to her partner that he didn’t know sharks had such beautiful tails. Meanwhile, back in Santiago’s shack, the old man “was still sleeping on his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him. The old man was dreaming about lions.


Biography of Ernest Hemingway and His Works

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at eight o’clock in the morning on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, IIIinois to Dr. Clarence and Grace Hemingway. He was the second of six children to be raised in the quite suburban town by his physician father and devout, musical mother. In doing so, he also created a mythological hero in himself that captivated not only serious literary critics but the average man as well. In a word, he was a star. Hemingway was raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self determination; if one adhered to these parameters, he was taught, and he would be ensured of success in whatever field he chose. As a boy he was taught by his father to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forest surrounding Lake Michigan. The Hemingway had a summer house called Windermere on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan, and the family would spend the summer months there trying to stay cool. Hemingway would either fish the different stream that ran into the lake, or would take the row boat out to do some fishing there. He would also go squirrel hunting in the woods near the summer house, discovering early in life the serenity to be found while alone in the forest or wading a stream it was something he could always go back to through out his life, wherever he was.


Hemingway’s stories, as well as a habit of likening his literary feats to boxing victories.

Hemingway also edited his high school newspaper and reported for he Kansa City Star, after reading a year to his age, after graduating from high school in 1917. after this short stint, Hemingway finally was able to participate in World War I, as the driver of an ambulance for the America Red Cross. He was mounded on July 8, 1918 on the Italian front near Fossalta di Piave; during his convalescence in Milan, he had an affair with nurse Agnes von Kurowsky. Hemingway was given two considerations by the Italian government, and joined the Italian infantry.

Fighting on the Italian front inspired the plot of A farewell to Arms in 1929. indeed, war itself is a major theme in Hemingway’s work. Hemingway would witness first hand the cruelly and stoicism required of soldiers he portrayed in his writing when covering the Greco-Turkish War in 1920 for the Toronto Star. In 1937, he was a war correspondent in Spain; the events of the Spanish Civil War inspired for Whom the Bell Tolls.

Returning briefly to the United States after World War, Hemingway worked for the Toronto Star. He lived for a short time in Chicago. There, he met Sherwood Andersen and married Hadley Richardson in 1921. On Andersen’s advice the couple moved to Paris, where he served as foreign correspondent for the Star. As Hemingway covered events on all of Europe, the young reporter interviewed important leaders such as Lloyd George, Clemenceau and Mussolini.


Stories and Ten Poems by Robert McAlmon in Paris in the birth of his son John. This

time in Paris inspired the novel A Moveable Feast, published posthumously in 1964. In Paris, Hemingway used Sherwood Anderson’s letter of introduction to meet Gertrude Stein and enter the world of ex-patriot author and artists who inhabited her intellectual circle. The famous description of this loses generation, was born of an employee’s remark to Hemingway and became immortalized as the epigraph on his first major novel, The Sun Also Rises.

This lost generation both characterized the postwar generation and the literary movements produced. In the 1920’s, writer such as Anderson, F. Scott Fitzgerald, James Joyce, Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein decried the false ideals of patriotism that led young people to war, only to the benefit of materialistic elders. These writers’ tenets that the only truth is reality and thus life could be nothing but hardship, strongly influenced Hemingway.

The late 1920’s were a time of much publication for Hemingway. In 1926, The Torrents of Spring and The Sun Also Rises were published by Charles Scribner’s


In addition to personal experiences with war and death, Hemingway’s extensive travel in pursuit of hunting and other sports provided ample material for his novels. Bullfighting inspired Death in the Afternoon, published in 1932. In 1934, Hemingway went on safari in Africa, which gave him new themes and scenes on which to base The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Green Hills of Africa published in 1935. As mentioned before, he traveled to Spain as a war correspondent in 1937, the same year as To Have and Have Not, a writer, the couple toured China before setting in Cuba at Finca Vigia, or lookout farm. For Whom the Bell Tolls was published this year.

During World War Two Hemingway volunteered his fishing boat and served with the U.S Navy as a submarine spotter in the Caribbean. In 1944, he traveled through Europe with the Allies as a war correspondent and participated in the liberation of Paris. Hemingway divorced again in 1945, and married Mary Welsh, a correspondent for time Magazine, in 1946. they lived in Venice before returning to Cuba.

In 1950 Across the River and Into the Trees was published; it was not received with the usual critical acclaim. In 1952, however, Hemingway proved the comment Papa is finished is wrong, as The Old Man and the Sea won the Pulitzer Prize in

1953. in 1954 he won the noble Prize for Literature.





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