Teks penuh





Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Sarjana Sastra



Register Number 2113220039






Putri, Sri Handayani. 2113220039. Code and Cultural Meaning of Semiotic in Cerita Calon

Arang. A Thesis. Faculty of Languages and Arts. State University of Medan. 2016.




Great thanks and praise to the Allah SWT who has blessed and given the ability to the

researcher to complete her thesis as the partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of

Sarjana Sastra at the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of


This thesis would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several

individuals who always contributed and extended their valuable assistances in the preparation

and completion of this thesis. The researcher’s special appreciation goes to:

Prof.Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd.,

the Rector of State University of Medan

Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum.,

the Dean Faculty of Language and Arts, State University

of Medan.

Prof.Dr.Hj.Sumarsih, M.Pd.,

the Head of English and Literature of English


Dra. Meisuri, MA.,

the Secretary of English Department,


fonita,S.Pd., S.S.,M.Hum.,

the Head of English Education Program

and Syamsul

Bahri ,S.S,M.Hum.,

the Head of English Non Educational Program, Faculty of

Languages and Arts as her Academic Advisor.

Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A., Ph.D,

as her Thesis Supervisor, for the advice, guaidance,

suggestions and for the time in process of completing this thesis.

Drs. Elia Masa Gintings, M.Hum., Dr Zainuddin, DIP. TEFL., M.Hum.,

as her

Thesis Examiner.


Her strong and beloved parents,

affection, prayer, financial support and taught the researcher many worth things in facing

the life. Thanks also given to her sisters and brothers,

Siradjudin Iqbal, Siti Aqilah Nazwa, Sayida Nafisa Zahra.

All friends in English Literature A and B 2011. All team in Pers Mahasiswa Kreatif

State University of Medan. All

contributed in this study

Eka Prastia

their support, kindness, great love and help the researcher, also warm hearted

encouragement friendship in finishing this thesis.

The people who directly o

to her.

Her strong and beloved parents,

Agus Supriadi


Siti Mariani

for the patience,

affection, prayer, financial support and taught the researcher many worth things in facing

the life. Thanks also given to her sisters and brothers,

Nuzulia fahma, fizki Al

Siradjudin Iqbal, Siti Aqilah Nazwa, Sayida Nafisa Zahra.

riends in English Literature A and B 2011. All team in Pers Mahasiswa Kreatif

Medan. All crew in 98,3 FM I-Radio Medan. The people who directly

Eka Prastia, Chairunnisa Lubis, Tirta Aritonang

their support, kindness, great love and help the researcher, also warm hearted

encouragement friendship in finishing this thesis.

or indirectly contributed in this study, your kindness means a l


Agustus 2016

affection, prayer, financial support and taught the researcher many worth things in facing

Nuzulia fahma, fizki Al-Amin,

riends in English Literature A and B 2011. All team in Pers Mahasiswa Kreatif

ople who directly


, thanks for

their support, kindness, great love and help the researcher, also warm hearted

ur kindness means a lot

Agustus 2016

The Researcher,




A. Background of The Study ... 1

B. The Problem of the Study ... 5

C. The Objective of the Study ... 5

D. The Scope of The Study ... 5

E. The Significance of The Study ... 6




Theoretical Framework ... 7

1. Process Communication of Literary Text ... 7

a. Language Code ... 8

b. Literature Code ... 9

c. Cultural Code ... 11

2. Semiotic Analysis ... 12

3. Semiotic As One Approach to Analyze The Literature ... 16

4. Language As A System ... 17

5. Literature As A Sign Include Field Semiotics by De Saussure ... 18

6. Language As A Sign by Karl Buhler ... 20

7. Novel ... 21

8. Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s Biography ... 21

9. The Summary of Cerita Calon Arang by Pramoedya Ananta Toer….22

B. Relevant Studies ... 26




A. Research Design ... 28

B. Source of Data ... 28

C. Data Collection technique ... 28


A. Data ... 30

B. Data Analysis ... 30

1. The Meanings Are Coded in The Novel Cerita Calon Arang by

Word ... 30

2. The Meanings Are Coded in The Novel Cerita Calon Arang by

Sentences ... 40

3. The Categories of Cultural Meaning in Cerita Calon Arang... 48

C. Research Finding ... 53


A. Conclusion ... 55

B. Suggestion ... 55








A. The Background of Study

Humans as social beings needs a tool to interact with other human beings

in society. The purpose of social interaction, it takes a tool of communication is

called language.In daily communication, instrument that is often used to

communicate is language, either in the form of written language and spoken

language. Language as a communication tool must have a function based on the

needs of a person consciously or unconsciously uses.

Language is a instrument for self-expression, communication tools, and a

tool for social control.Language is already a system of signs, semiotic system.

According Suwarna (2002:4) language is a main case for communication in social

life, in individual and social. Each of sign, language elements that have a

particular meaning, which by convention is approved, must be received by

members of society, and tying them together, not only in the sense that the sign is

a giving of (seats must mean "chair" in Indonesian, can not be used with meaning


Language can be applied through various ways such as literature. The

literary work is a product created by a writer, which there is to be conveyed to the



Literary works written or created by writers not to read alone, but there are ideas,

experiences, and the mandate to be conveyed to the reader. Further, what does it

become the input, so that the reader can draw and interpret as something that can

be useful for the development of life. It can be proved that the literary work can

develop the life and culture of the community. In other words, literature always

charged sociocultural. It happened because the literary work is also influenced by

the environment and times when creating his work. This is what Damono

(1998:234) says that literary work is a cultural thing, it does not fall from the sky,

but it created an individual human being as well an integral part of society.

The literary work is an art which many utilize symbols to express

subconscious that is more real and obvious plasticity, the author uses metaphors

and symbolism in the story. Any event or occurrence even character names are not

delivered naturalistic and realistic as it is, but delivered in a figurative and

symbolic .The process of literary studies has an important role in the life of the

language as well as in the search for the deeper meaning of a literary work. In this

case the approach has known several kinds of literature. The literary approach

here is a technique that leads to an attempt to affect the emotions and feelings of

the reader.

The literature as imaginative works that use language has differences with

other linguistic are more important function in the form of a reference language

messaging. Instead of literature concerned with aesthetic function of language as a



language, in the form of impressed and awe the reader. The literary work always

gets a response and diverse meanings of the reader and is not always appropriate

to the intended meaning of the author of literature. This is due to differences in

age, experience, ability, comprehension, and the situation of readers. In other

words the difference of meaning was due to different readers horizon

expectations, causing a variety of interpretations of the literary text.

The novel is one of the literature works. The literary form of the most

widely is circulated and printed, because the community very broad power in

society. However, many lovers of literature (novels) are still a lot of readers who

are difficult to interpret things that happen in a literary work (novel). Perhaps due

to the complex structure of the novel, unique, or even explain its meaning directly

making it difficult for the reader to understand and interpret what the author

means. Therefore, to understand we need the presence of the analysis, by outlining

the signs of words contained in this novel. One of the novel to be analyzed the

code is Pramoedya Ananta Toer “Cerita Calon Arang

Literature knowledge surround the wide field. It was covered literary

theory, literary history and literary criticism. The three of part are interrelated. The

link causes dependence. A literary work can not be understood and lived,

moreover interpreted and assessed perfectly without a support the three part of

literature. Literary theory can never be perfect without the help of literary history

and literary criticism. Broadly speaking, literary theory consist of four paradigm,



it is formulated or invented theories about literature. One of the such theory is the

theory of semiotics.

Based on the background of this research is intended to scrutinize and

examine in detail how the code, cultural meaning through semiotic system that is

used by the author in a literary work in the "Cerita Calon Arang” by Pramoedya

Ananta Toer. Cerita Calon Arang tells of life of a bad old woman. She is a

shaman and sucking human blood . He was arrogant, all of her political

opponents slashed. She was glad to persecute human, killed, robbed and hurt. She

had a a lot of knowledge magic to kill people. If they were partying no different

with the wild animal, scared people who see that if caught peeping it will be

dragged into the middle of the party and killed and their blood be used wash.

Beside the novel has a story which tell about cultural, this novel also tell about

moral lesson. Then, the author make it this novel easy to read, not bored. The

author never stop make a creation. He is the expert to tells emotion, the story of

the character and motivations of various complicated. The prison did not stop an

inch to write, many times his work was banned and burned. For him, writing is a

personal and national duty. And he consistently against all the consequences that



B. The Problem of Study

In relation to the background of the problem were formulated as the


1. What meanings are coded in the novel Cerita Calon Arang

2. How are cultural meanings semiotically coded in the Cerita Calon


3. Why are the cultural meaning coded in the above they are?

C. The Objective of Study

In line with the problems, the objective of the study were:

1. To reveal semiotic elements contained in the novel.

2. To know about cultural meanings in the novel

3. To determine whether the semiotic meanings contained in the


D. The Scope of The Study

This research is limited on analyzing coded in the novel Cerita Calon

Arang, cultural meanings semiotically coded in the Cerita Calon Arang, and

the cultural meaning coded in the above novel. The novel taken from



E. The Significance of Study

1. Theoritically provide information about semiotic, code, cultural code

and meaning, especially for the student of literature who study about


2. Pratically give information about semiotic to teachers who teach the

student by learning about the code, cultural code, meaning in semiotic




A. Conclusions

Aftef analyzing all the meaning of codes and cultufal meanings on Cerita Calon

Arang afe dfawn as the following:

(1) Based on analysis of semiotic in “Cerita Calon Arang” by Pfamoedya Ananta

Toef, the code in that novel had founded. The novel is one of litefafy text has

system of code which have meaning with aesthetic language.

(2) Code has intefpfetation, which is based on code feceivef.

(3) The theme of “Cerita Calon Arang” by Pfamoedya Ananta Toef is a bad thing

who did by Calon Afang and hef followef, which caused people suffefed and

died evefy day. But, beside that, thefe afe a mofal values which teach feadef

that is potentially impfoved by kindness.

B. Suggestions

Having seen the fesults of study, the suggestions afe offefed as the following:

(1) It was found such as wofds and sentences which have meaning with aesthetic

language, it should be intfoduce to people because leafn about semiotic in

language is one of to appfeciate litefafy text.

(2) It is sugessted to othef feseafchefs and the students of Applied Linguistics,

who afe taking semiotic to staft analysing and obsefving fufthef feseafch in



(3) It is adviseable fof feadefs to undefstand the semiotic, especially code and




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TABLES Tables 4.1 .............................................................................................................


4.1 ............................................................................................................. p.11