The Study of Gerund Used in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by mark Twain

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THE STUDY OF GERUND USED IN THE ADVENTURES OF

HUCKLEBERRY FINN BY MARK TWAIN

A PAPER

WRITTEN

BY

RAHMAT FUAD SIREGAR

REG. NO. 122202009

DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM

FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA

MEDAN

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I, RAHMAT FUAD SIREGAR, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where the references are made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or part from a paper by which I have been qualified for or awarded another degree.

No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.

Signed :

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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name : Rahmat Fuad Siregar

Title of paper : The Study of Gerund Used in The Adventures of

Huckleberry Finn by mark Twain

Qualification : D-III / Ahli Madya

Study Program : English

I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at discretion of the librarian of the Diploma III English Department Faculty of Cultural Studies USU on the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

Signed :

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First thing first, I would like to thank Allah subhanahu wata’ala for blessing and giving me time, guidance, strength, and enlightment so I can finally complete this paper which is one of my requirements as a student of English Department to achive the degree of Diploma III at Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatera Utara.

I have to admit that I could never finish this paper if I were not surrounded by some amazing people who made me make a short list of thankfulness:

• My deepest love to my parents, Zulkarnaen Siregar and Norma Sari

Harahap for their prayers, patiences, and supports. They are the greatest gift in my life; and also to my beloved brothers and sister: Ismail Siregar, Dinda Permana Siregar, and Puspita Lara Siregar.

• My sincere thanks to Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring M.A., the Head of

Diploma English Study Program, for his valuable time, advice, and patience.

• My sincere thank and gratefulness to Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed., TESOL,

my supervisor, for his great time, patience, advice, and guidance without which this paper would never be completed.

• My sincere thanks to Dr. Masdiana Lubis, M.Hum., my reader, for her

time and advice.

• My sincere thanks to Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A, the Dean of Faculty of

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• My deepest gratefulness to all lecturers and staffs in Diploma III English

Study Program for having given me such great support, advice, and knowledge sincerely for the latest three years.

• My deepest thanks to my best friends Gilang, Ogik, Budell, Dinan, Jemo,

Gepe, Gondrong, Poploy, Krib-krib, Arfie, Faris, and Ibu-ibu Pengajian for loyalty, love, suggestion, happy time, and sad time that I can never forget.

• My special thanks to Bella Gayatri Lubis for everything that I can mention

one by one.

• My sincere thanks to all my friends in SOLIDAS.

I do realize that there are still some mistakes in my writing which make it away from being perfect. Therefore, all criticism and suggestions are trully expected to build it.

Finally, I wish this paper can be useful to all readers especially those who are interested in making it as a reference of any literatery work.

Medan, June 2015 The writer,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

AUTHOR’S DECLARATION ... i

COPYRIGHT DECLARATION ... ii

ABSTRACT ... iii

ABSTRAK ... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... v

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... vii

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study ... 1

1.2 Problem of the study ... 4

1.3 Scope of the study ... 4

1.4 Purpose of the study ... 4

1.5 Significance of the study ... ... 5

1.6 Method of the study ... ... 5

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Definition of gerund ... 7

2.2Forms of gerund ... ... 8

2.3Functions of gerund ... 10

3. DESCRIPTION AND FINDINGS 3.1 Description ... 25

3.2 Findings ... 29

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion ... 44

4.2 Suggestion ... 45

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Humans, as social creature, cannot live on their own without others; they need to communicate with other people to help them fulfill their needs. Even the richest person in the world cannot survive without a poor farmer who plants rice in his field. Humans also need to share their feelings and emotions like happiness and sadness.

In communicating with each other, humans use a communication tool which we call language. So we can say that language plays the main role in interaction between humans.

Trager (1949:23) says that a language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which the members of society interact in terms of their total culture.

Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to exchange verbal or symbolic utterances. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understand the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by which grammar was "tailored" to serve the communicative needs of its users.

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Gerund is one of grammar's parts. Betty (1992:368) says that gerund is the —ing form of verb used as noun. The English gerund ends in -ing (as in / I

enjoy playing basketball). The same verb form also serves as the English present participle (which has an adjectival or adverbial function) and as a pure verbal noun. Thus the -ing form in the English language can function as a noun, verb, adjective or sometimes adverb; in certain sentences the distinction can be arbitrary.

Gerund is the form that names the action of the verb (for instance,

playing is the action of "to play"). In some cases, a noun ending in -ing sometimes serves as a gerund (as in / Ilike building / 1 like building things, I like painting / 1 like painting pictures, and / I like writing / 1 like writing novels), while at other times serving as a non-gerund indicating the product resulting from an action (as in /Iwork in that building, That is a good painting, and Her writing is good). The latter case can often be distinguished by the presence of a determiner before the noun, such as that, a, or her in these examples.

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(Traditionally such an item would be referred to as a phrase, but in modern linguistics it has become common to call it a clause.) A gerund clause such as this is one of the types of non-finite clause.

Gerund has become a confusing part of grammar for students who study in English Program for it has many forms and functions and complicated uses. For those who learn or analyze gerund, they would find a complex problem such as how and when gerund is used and what the functions of a gerund in a sentence are. Moreover, it is not only gerund using the -ing formed verb in grammar; there are also present participle which uses the same form but has different meaning. This results one more dilemma: how do we distinguish them?

Gerund has four types: simple gerund, perfect gerund, active gerund, and passive gerund. And there are seven functions of gerund: as subject, as object, as complement, as apposition, after possessive case, after certain idiomatic expression, and to show short prohibition.

Since gerund plays an important role in English, we can always find it in many different writings which one of them is Mark Twain's novel "The adventures of Huckleberry Finn" which was first published on December 1884. For examples:

(1) It's something they give mefor learningmy lesson good.→Gerund as object of preposition

(2)Laying on o' hands is my best holt.→ Gerund as subject

(3)We slid the raft intohiding quartersfor the day.→ Gerund ascomplement

(4)Thinks I, this is what comes ofmy not thinking.→ Gerund after possessive adjective.

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Based on short explanation above, the writer is interested in raising gerund as the topic and takes Twain's novel as the data source. This paper gives a brief description about definition, form, and function of gerund found in the novel.

1.2 Problem of the Study

The problems of the study are:

(1)What are the forms of gerund found in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

novelby Mark Twain?

(2)What are the functions of gerund found in the novel? (3)What is the most dominant gerund found in the novel?

1.3 Scope of the Study

This paper describes one of grammar's elements called gerund. The writer limits the study by concerning on its form, and function.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purposes of the study are:

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1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is absolutely significant to enrich readers' knowledge about gerund and to keep them from misusing gerund especially for those who are interested in analyzing gerund or students who are excited to write their own literature work.

1.6 Method of the Study

This study is a literary work which applies the library research where the writer gets information and material by collecting some books which are relevant to the tittle of the study such as education books, literary works, articles, and journals.

The data are sentences and clauses containing gerund found in The Huckleberry Finn novel by Mark Twain. The writer uses observation method as data collecting method. Nazir (2003:125) states that the observation method is the method of acquisition by using eyes without any standard tools.

In analyzing data, the writer uses descriptive qualitative method. Bunging (2001:290) says, “Penggunaan strategi deskriptif kualitatif dimulai dari analisis yang terhimpun dari suatu penelitian kemudian bergerak ke arah pembentukan kesimpulan kategori atau ciri-ciri umum tertentu. (The use of qualitative descriptive strategy starts with an analysis of various aggregate data from a research then moves towards the establishment of conclusion category of certain common.)

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(2) Identifying sentences and clauses expressing gerund. (3) Classifying them to their own forms and functions. (4) Analyzing the data based on their forms and functions. (5) Calculating the data to get the most dominant gerund.

To get the percentage, the writer applies a formula by Junaidi and Suwono (2004:40):

X = the percentage of gerund y = total of each gerund n = total gerund

X =

x100%

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2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Definition of Gerund

In the beginning of a book titled English Grammar, Jeffrey Coghill and Stacy Magendanz(2003:16), the two founders of the McNeese State University and Library in Lake Charles, Los Angeles, define grammar as this: "The grammar of a language is the set of rules that govern its structure. Grammar determines how words are arranged to form meaningful units."

As well as the definition above, Michael Swan (2005:19), a linguist who is more likely to pay attention to the original English (British English) defines grammar as the following: "Grammar is the rules that show how words are combined, arranged or changed to show certain lands of meaning."

Gerund is one of grammar's parts which cannot be underestimated. The significance of it in studying language has no question. Besides its importance, the complicated uses of gerund is also one of factors showing that students, especially those who study in English Program, have to pay more attention to make it sure before they say that they are competent students of English Program.

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Examples:

(1)Thecrying baby woke her parents up.Crying is a present participle which actsas an adjective. It modifies the noun 'baby'.

(2)The babykept crying all night.Crying is a gerund which acts as a noun. It isthe object of the verb 'kept'.

2.2 Forms of Gerund

Gerund has four forms, they are: simple gerund, perfect gerund, active gerund, and passive gerund. The simple and perfect gerund can be in either active or passive form.

Active gerund Passive gerund

Simple gerund Singing Being sung Perfect gerund Having sung Having been sung

Azar (2006:369) says, “Simple gerund is the –ing form of a verb which simply appears right after a certain verb and expresses present tense.” If it is clear that an earlier time is meant, we use the simple gerund.

Formula: S + V + Gerund (Ving) + Object/Complement Examples:

(1)Bella likessinging.

(2) They do not mindwaiting for hours. (3) Would you deniedstealing my book?

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Examples:

(1)Ihatearguing with you.(Arguing refers to the same tune as hate: I hate when we argue.)

(2)Tomsuggestedgoing back to our tents. (Going refers to the same time as

suggested: Tom suggested that we should go back to our tents.)

The simple gerund can also refer to a time before that of the verb in the mainclause.

Examples:

(1)I don't remembersaying anything like that. (Saying refers to a time before don'tremember: I don’t remember that I said anything like that.)

(2)She regrettednot studying harder when she was at school. (Not studying

refers toa time before regretted; she regretted that she hadn't studied harder when he wasat school.

Betty (1992:369) defines the perfect gerund as the gerund using the modal have+ ing which expresses perfect tense. “The perfect gerund refers to a time before that of the verb in the main clause. However, it is only used if the time of the action expressed by the gerund is not obvious from the context.” she adds. Formula: S + V1 + Having + V3 + Object/Complement

Examples:

(1)Bella regretshaving done such terrible thing. (Bella regrets that she has done such terrible thing).

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Formula: S + V + Gerund (Ving) + Object/Complement Examples:

(1) I postponed going on vacation. (2) They keep looking at me seriously.

Betty (1992:370) states that passive gerund is the gerund that expresses passive voice.

Formula: S + V + Being + V3 + Complement Examples:

(1)I hatebeing lied to.

(2) Sheloves being sentshopping. (3)He deniedbeingmarried.

2.3 Functions of Gerund

1) As subject

The parts of speech which can be a subject of a sentence are noun and pronoun. Therefore, gerund can behave as subject for gerund itself is a noun. It can beidentified the same as a normal noun is identified such as: in front ofpredicate, after articles (a, an, or the), and usually singular noun; however, if twoor more gerund are joined by conjunction 'and', it will be plural.

Examples:

(1)Shooting is good.

(2)Smokingis a bad lifestyle.

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(5)Hikingwas one of my favorite sports until I broke my leg. (6)Stealing and murderingare despicable deeds.

Gerund as subject can be independent; consisting of only one word, the gerund itself, as examples given above. But it can also be followed by object or modified by adverb.

Examples:

(1)Eating vegetables helps your body fight against illness. (2)Coming on time to class shows that you respect your lecturer.

A gerund behaves as a verb within a clause (so that it may be modified by an adverb or have an object); but the resulting clause as a whole (sometimes consisting of only one word, the gerund itself) functions as a noun within the larger sentence. In the first example, the gerund is the verb a eating, which takes an object vegetables. The entire clause eating vegetables is then used as a noun, which in this case serves as the subject of the larger sentence. Just the same withthe first example, the gerund coming becomes the subject of the sentence but this time it's modified by adverb on time to class.

2) As the object of verb

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Examples:

a) like, love, prefer

In some contexts, following these verbs with a to-infinitive when the subject of the first verb is the subject of the second verb provides more clarity than a gerund.

(1) Iliketo box

(2) Ilikeboxing. (Either I enjoy watching it, I enjoy doing it myself, or the idea of boxing is otherwise appealing.)

.(I enjoy doing it myself.)

(3) I donot likegambling,but I do like to gamble.

b)dread, hate, cannot bear

These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive when talking subjunctively (often when using to think), but by a gerund when talking about general dislikes. (1)I dread / hatetothink

(2)I dread / hateseeing him.

what she will do.

(3)I cannot bearto see

(4)I cannot bearbeing pushedaround in crowds.(I never like that.) you suffer like this. (You are suffering now.)

c) forget, remember

When these have meanings that are used to talk about the future from the given time, the to-infinitive is used, but when looking back in time, the gerund. (1)She forgot to tell

(2)She forgot

me her plans. (She did not tell me, although she should have.)

telling

(3) I remembered

me her plans. (She told me, but then forgot having done so.) to go

(4) I rememberedgoing to work. (I remembered that I went to work.)

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d)go on

(1)After winning the semi-finals, he went on to play in the finals. (He completed thesemi-finals and later played in the finals.)

(2)He went on giggling, not having noticed the teacher enter. (He continued doingso.)

e) mean

(1)Ididnot mean to scare

(2)Taking a new job in the city meant leaving behind her familiar surroundings. (Ifshe took the job, she would have to leave behind her familiar surroundings.)

you off. (I did not intend to scare you off.)

f) regret

(1)Weregretto inform

(2) I very much regret saying what I said. (I wish that I had not said that.)

you that you have failed your exam. (polite or formal form of apology)

g) try

When a to-infinitive is used, the subject is shown to make an effort at something, attempt or endeavor to do something. If a gerund is used, the subject is shown to attempt to do something in testing to see what might happen.

(1)Please try to remember

(2)I have tried being stern, but to no avail. to post my letter.

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When the infinitive is used after 'stop' or 'quit', it means that the subject stops one activity and starts the activity indicated by the infinitive. If the gerund is used, it means that the subject stops the activity indicated by the gerund.

(1)She stopped to smell

(2)She stopped smelling the flowers. the flowers.

Or more concisely:

(1)She stopped walking to smell the flower. (2)He quitworking there to travel abroad.

Verbs Followed by a Gerund

Note: If the verbs need, require, and want are followed by gerund, it expresses passive voice.

Examples:

(1) The flowers need watering.→ The flowers need to be watered.

(2) My cat, Shino, wants feeding.→ It wants to be fed.

(3) That old building requires repairing.→ It requires to be repaired.

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Prepositions are always followed by a noun-phrase. If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund (which functions as a noun). It is impossible to use an infinitive after a preposition. So, for example, we say:

(1)I will call you afterarrivingat the office. (2)Please have a drink beforeleaving.

(3)She is insisted ongoing abroad.

(4) Do you afraid of walking alone in the dark? (5) Tara always dreams aboutgoingon holiday.

Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns: (1)I will call you after my arrival at the office.

(2)Please have a drink before your departure. (3)I am looking forward to our lunch.

(4)Do you object to this job?

(5)Tara always dreams about holidays.

Gerund after preposition has four patterns, they are:

a) Gerund after prepositions that stand alone

(1) After

Afterhavinga shower, 1 waited for Steven. (2) Before

The tablet must not be taken beforegetting up in the morning. (3) By

I manage it byworking much longer than 40-hour weeks.

(4) In spite of

In spite ofstudyinga lot he didn't pass the exams.

(5) On

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He told the joke withoutlaughing.

b) Gerund after Adjective + Preposition

(1) Afraid of

He is clever atskateboarding.

(5) Crazy about

The girl is crazy aboutplaying tennis. (6) Disappointed about/at

He is disappointed aboutseeing such a bad report. (7) Excited about

We are excited aboutmaking our own film. (8) Famous for

Sandy is famous forsinging songs. (9) Fed up with

I'm fed up withbeing treated as a child.

(10)Fond of

Hannah is fond of going to parties. (11)Glad about

She is glad aboutgetting married again. (12)Happy about/at

The children are not happy aboutseeing a doctor. (13)Interested in

Are you interested inwriting poems? (14)Keen on

Joe is keen on drawing.

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She is proudofriding a snowboard.

I'm worried about making mistakes.

c) Gerund after Noun + Preposition

(1) Advantage of

What is the advantage offarming over hunting?

(2) Chance of

There's a chance of catching a cold these days. (3) Choice between

There's a choice betweenflying to London Heathrow or Stansted. (4) Danger of

Peggy is in danger of making a mistake. (5) Difficulty in

He has difficulty intexting.

(6) Doubt about

He is in doubt aboutbuying thecorrect software for his computer system. (7) Hope of

There's little hope of catching the new Corvette. (8) Idea of

I like the idea ofsetting up a new email account. (9) Interest in

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This is a simple method of finding solutions.

(11)Opportunity of

There's some opportunity of bringing her parents together again. (12)Possibility of

These wheels offer the possibility ofriding tubeless. (13)Problem of

He has the problem ofswimming too slow. (14)Reason for

There's a real reason forwinning the contest. (15)Risk of

d) Gerund after Verb + Preposition

(1) Accuse of

They were accused of breaking into a shop. (2) Agree with

I agree withplaying darts. (3) Apologize for

They apologize forbeing late. (4) Believe in

She doesn't believe ingetting lost in the wood.

(5) Blame for

The reporter is blamed forwriting bad stories. (6) Complain about

She complains aboutbullying.

(7) Concentrate on

Do you concentrate on reading or writing?

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I wanted to congratulate you onmaking such a good speech. (9) Cope with

He is not sure how to getting older. (10)Decide against

They decided againststealing the car. (11)Depend on

Success may depend onbecoming more patient. (12)Dream about/of

Sue dreams ofbeing a pop star. (13)Feel like

They feel likegoing to bed. (14)Get used to

You must get used toworking long hours. (15)Insist on

The girls insisted ongoing out with Mark.

(16)Look forward to

I'm looking forward toseeing you soon. (17)Prevent (subject) from

How can I prevent Kate fromworking in this shop? (18)Rely on

He doesn't rely onwinning in the casino.

(19)Succeed in

How then can I succeed instudying chemistry? (20)Specialize in

The firm specialized indesigning websites. (21)Stop (subject) from

I stopped Andrew fromsmoking.

(22)Talk about/of

They often talk abouttravelling to New Zealand.

(23)Think of

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We warned them againstusing this computer. (25)Worries about

The patient worries abouthaving the check-up.

2) As complement

Gerund as complement is usually preceded by to be. It may stand alone or have object or be modified by adverb.

Examples:

(1) My mother's hobby iscooking.

(2) What I always miss isholdingher hand. (3) They took a rest in thewaiting room.

(4) My habitual activity in the morning isrunningfast from the kitchen to the living room.

3) As apposition

Apposition means further information or a confirmation. It is usually a noun, noun phrase, or series of nouns placed next to another word or phrase to identify or rename it. Nonrestrictive appositives are usually set off by commas, parentheses, or dashes. An appositive may be introduced by a word or phrase such as namely, for example, or that is.

Examples:

(1)My hobby,playing football, sometimes makes me very tired in the night. (2) His method,shooting and killing, eventually came to an end.

(3) She has a bad habit,gambling.

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4) After possessive case

As explained before, gerund is a noun, so we can modify it by using possessive case where the gerund is located after the possessive case.

Examples:

(1) I'm sorry formy cominglate to the class.

(2) All troubles in your life come fromyour not thinking.

This function may seem easy. However, there is a fatal mistake which comes from misusing gerund in possessive case. The failure to use the possessive case with the gerund makes you misunderstand and get a totally different meaning of what someone really means. We can take this following example as a consideration: if a woman says to you, "I love your singing the love song." Do not get high too fast. The point is not that she loves you; it is the fact that she loves your voice when you sing a song. Another example: "Bella hates a man's standing right in front of her in the ceremony." The sentence does not tell that Bella hates the man; she may not even know the man. But she hates that the man stands right in front of her; he may cover Bella from seeing the ceremony.

5) After certain idiomatic expression

There are some common idiomatic expressions in English that can normally be followed by gerund:

a. It is / There is no good

(1) There is no goodplaying game.

(2) There is no much goodsleeping too much.

(3) Is there any goodspending our money for cigarette?

b. It is / There is no use

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(2) There is no use loving you.

(3) Is there any usememorizing new concept?

c. It is / There is no fun

(1) There is no fun hating a beautiful girl. (2) There is no funstudyingwith you. (3) Is there any funvisitinga scared girl?

d. It is worth

(1) Is it worthloving you so much if you don't love me?

(2) It is not worthhelping a bad guy. (3) It is so much worthreading a book.

e. Subject + Can't stand (bear / endure)

(1) I can't stand standing up any longer. (2) I can't stand bringing a heavy bag.

(3) I can't standmemorizingnew concept book.

f. Subject + Can't help (avoid / prevent)

(1) I can't help meeting you in this morning. (2) I can't help crying because of meeting you. (3) I can't helpgettinglow value.

8) To show short prohibition

Gerund is used in short prohibitions. We usually find it them in certain places and conditions where we are not allowed to do something or to approach an area.

Examples: (1) No littering!

(2) No cheating!

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3. DESCRIPTION AND FINDINGS

3.1 Description

The data of this paper are sentences taken from Mark Twain's novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". It is a remarkable American novel which was first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written throughout in vernacular English, characterized by local color regionalism.

After analyzing, the writer finds that Mark Twain, the author of the novel, uses gerund in different forms in his book; he also shows the gerund in various functions.

In the novel, the writer finds that there are many gerunds in various forms. The forms are simple gerund, perfect gerund, active gerund, and passive gerund.

a. Simple gerund

As explained before, simple gerund is the gerund simply appearing after certain verb.

Examples:

(1) Has everybody quit thinking the nigger done it?

Here, the word thinking is the gerund; it is the object of the verb quit.

(2) We went winding in and out amongst the trees.

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b. Perfect gerund

There are some sentences expressing perfect gerund in the novel. Here, the word have + ing becomes the gerund.

Examples:

(1) He regrets having done such a terrible thing. He regrets that he has done such a terrible thing. (2) They admit having stolen the money.

They admit that they have stolen the money.

c. Active gerund

Active gerund is the gerund that expresses active voice. There some samples found in the novel.

Examples:

(1) I postponed going on vacation.

The word going is the gerund and the object of the verb postponed.

(2) They keep looking at me seriously.

Here, looking is the gerund and used as the object of the verb keep.

d. Passsive gerund

Passive gerund is the gerund that expresses passive voice. It can be known whith the presence of the word being.

Examples:

(1)I hatebeing lied to.

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(2) Sheloves being sentshopping.

Here, she loves every time she is sent to shop.

From 8 functions of gerund, the author of the novel uses 7 of them. They are gerund as subject, gerund as the object of verb, gerund as the object of preposition, gerund as complement, gerund as apposition, gerund after possessive case, and gerund after certain idiomatic expression.

a) Gerund as subject

In this function, the gerund is the subject: it has the same characteristics as a normal subject. There are some examples of this in the novel:

(1) Shooting is good.

The word shooting is the gerund and becomes the subject of the sentence because it comes before the predicate is.

(2) Stealing cattle and such things ain’t robbery. Since it is noun, gerund can be plural, too.

b)Gerund as object

1) The object of verb

A gerund can be the object of the sentence. Particularly, it may take place as the object of a verb.

Examples:

(1) They stopped pulling.

The word pulling, the gerund, is the object of the verb stopped.

(2) They started riding towards the store.

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2) The object of preposition

Gerund can also be the object of preposition such as to, in, on, about, etc. In the novel, there are some example of it fouund in the novel:

(1) They can come without touching.

(2) I just give up trying.

c) Gerund as complement

Gerund as complement is usually preceded by to be. It may stand alone or have object or be modified by adverb.

Examples:

(1) It was preety ornery preaching.

(2) Well, she was in a tearing way.

d)Gerund as apposition

Apposition means further information or a confirmation. It is usually a noun, noun phrase, or series of nouns placed next to another word or phrase to identify or rename it. Nonrestrictive appositives are usually set off by commas, parentheses, or dashes. An appositive may be introduced by a word or phrase such as namely, for example, or that is.

Examples:

(1) I gets up, a-wandering, and goes down stairs. (2) So we put on the day, lazying around.

e) Gerund after possessive case

(37)

Examples:

(1) Thinks I, this is what comes of my not thinking

(2) They lost their steering-oar.

f) Gerund after certain idiomatic expression

There are some common idiomatic expressions in English that can normally be followed by gerund.

Examples:

(1) He said it warn’t no use talking.

(2) They got so tame, on account of being hungry.

g) Gerund to show prohibition

There is no gerund to show short prohibition found iun the novel.

3.2 Findings

In the novel, Twain uses many gerunds in various kinds. The writer finds 234 gerunds which are classified to their kinds.

a) Gerund as subject

There are 8 gerunds used as object of preposition: (1) Laying on o' hands is my best holt.

(2) Making them pens was a distressed tough job. (3) Preaching's my line.

(4) Shooting is good.

(38)

(7) Stealing cattleand such things ain't robbery.

(8) Living in a house and sleeping in a bed pulled on me pretty tight mostly.

b)Gerund as the object of verb

There are 62 gerunds used as object of preposition: (1)And getting all ready to quit rafting.

(2)We went drifting down into a big bend.

(3)They stopped pulling.

(4)And the cussing he done then laid over anything he had ever done previous. (5)You stop that putting on frills.

(6)He hoped I wouldn't mind being searched for arms. (7)She comes smashing straight through the raft.

(8) .., didn't seem to want ever stop talking about him; and kept asking me every now and then.

(9) I went pooking along over rough ground for a quarter of a mile or more. (10)We never stopped running.

(11)I don't like that shooting from behind a bush.

(12)I could read writing.

(13)It ain't good sense to go courting around after a halter. (14)They started riding towards the store.

(15)We can't resk being as long as we ought to.

(16)I don't mind letting on we was at it a hundred and fifty year. (17)We stopped navigating.

(18)We come bothering around her again.

(39)

(20)The thunder would go grumbling and grumbling away. (21)Well, you do need skinning.

(22)In about half an hour AuntSally comes gliding in.

(23)And it keeps running on, and getting worse and worse all the time. (24)She was setting thinking about something.

(25)I could hear the booming now and men.

(26)We got a licking everytime one of our snakes come in her way. (27)I didn't mind the lickings.

(28)I reckon the world coming to an end. (29)She kept a-raging right along. (30)Then the genies come tearing in.

(31)Another time a man comes a-prowling down round here.

(32)It warn't likely anybody would go fooling around. (33) . . . and go browsing down the creek.

(34)It kept coming.

(35)Nobody else would come a-hunting after me. (36)I went fooling along in the deep of woods. (37)When the woman stopped talking I looked up. (38)Jim come tumbling after me.

(39)... and the raft come booming down.

(40)I went tearing after it, listening sharp to hear it again. (41)It kept coming.

(42)It kept changing its place.

(40)

(44)A spider went crawling up my shoulder. (45)We went tiptoeing along a path.

(46)Then he come tiptoeing down.

(47)I told Jim all about the time I had jabbering with that woman.

(48)We used to hop out of the woods and go charging down on hog-drivers taking ngarden stuff to market.

(49)He kept looking at me all over.

(50)Pap took it and got drunk, and went a-blowing around and cussing and

whooping and carrying on.

(51)I come a-booming down on a cut bank with smoky ghosts of big trees on it. (52)We went winding in and out amongst the trees.

(53)I must quit pulling up my gown to get at my britches-pocket.

(54)Next day, back comes old Finn, and went boo-hooing to Judge Thatcer toget money to hunt for that nigger all over Illinois with.

(55)Has everybody quit thinking the nigger done it? (56)The woman kept looking at me pretty curious.

(57)We went sneaking down the slope of it to labboard, in the dark, feeling our way slow with our feet.

(58)Feeling our way slow with our feet,and spreading our hands out to fend off theguys.

(59)This one kept pointing the pistol at the man's head on the floor.

(60)We went gliding swift along, dead silent, past the tip of the paddle-box. (61)...and keep it burning till I come.

(41)

c) Gerund as the object of preposition

There are 91 gerunds used as object of preposition:

(1) There warn't nothing to do now but to look out sharp for the town, and not pass it without seeing it.

(2) "I really don't know, sally" he says, kind of apologizing.

(3) And kept on putting it back and stealing it again for a couple of days. (4) It was worse than chasing a Jacko'-lantern.

(5) And with the work and bother of raising the Mullen.

(6) It might answer for you to dig Jim out with a pick, without any letting on. (7) They wouldn't think of hurting a person that pets them.

(8) He made me go and give the niggers a dime without telling them what it was for.

(9) We couldn't keep her from falling over.

(10)And your wits gets to addling, and you get to doing all sort o' wild things. (11)She stopped,looking kind of wondering.

(12)It got to troubling me so I couldn't rest. (13)I got to feeling so mean and so miserable. (14)He would go to saving up money.

(15)My conscience got to stirring me up hotter than ever. (16)I went to looking out sharp for a light.

(17). . . and short of singing to myself. (18). . . and kept on saying it.

(19)I just give up trying.

(20). . . —kind of grinding him into the earth.

(42)

(22). . . and keep on fetching it.

(23)They can come without touching.

(24)He looked at me steady without ever smiling.

(25)A powwow of cussing.

(26)But he done us a good turn with the spoon, anyway,without knowing it. (27)And so he went on a-mumbling up stairs.

(28)And then Tom went to counting the spoons.

(29)The child snatches her claws out of the sugar-bowl without fooling around any.

(30)So I was a good long time in getting over.

(31)But a lot of dogs went to howling and barking at me.

(32)Somebody spoke out of a window without putting his head out. (33)He came in gaping and digging one fist into his eyes.

(34)The brick was kept clean and red by pouring water on them and scrubbing

them with another brick.

(35)They've got to do it by rubbing it on the wall. (36)What's the sense in wasting the plates? (37)But she come up smiling on the last one.

(38)His soul did from this cold world fly by falling down a well. (39)Buck went off without waking me up.

(40)He went on a-wiping.

(41). . . " says the old man, still sort of sobbing.

(42)Jim and me set to majestying him.

(43)

(45)I won't let tomorrow go bywithout stopping up them holes. (46)Then he went to studying.

(47)He was so glad to see us he most cried; and called us honey, and all the pet names he could think of; and was for having us hunt up a cold-chisel to cut the chain off of his leg with right away, and clearing out without losing

anytime.

(48)There is excuse for picks and letting on in a case like this. (49)And they kept on piling in till there was eleven of them. (50)It can take a hold of powling, thieving, and infernal.

(51)If I could fix up some way to keep Pap and the widow from trying to follow me.

(52)I lit a pipe and had a good long smoke, and went on watching.

(53)She said the thing a body could get by praying for it was "spiritual gifts". (54)They don't think nothing of pulling a shot-tower up by the roots.

(55)I think they are a pack of flat-heads for not keeping the palace themselves instead of fooling them away like that.

(56)It's something they give me for learning my lesson good (57)You couldn't go right to eating.

(58)I would know without asking.

(59)They went to crying.

(60). . . instead of taking to the woods.

(61)I got to thinking.

(62)I reckon that was sort of pilling it on.

(63) He has had all the trouble and all the anxiety and all the expense of raising.

(64). . . and went to ripping again.

(44)

(66)He got to hanging away. (67)He got to hanging around.

(68)He went for me, too, for not stopping school. (69)So nobody won't think of following me.

(70). . . and started off towing the raft.

(71)So by the talk I got to know about the killing.

(72)She went on talking.

(73)To keep from getting run over. (74)We didn't feel like talking loud. (75) I'm for killing him.

(76). . ." says the man on the floor, sort of blubbering.

(77)I am favorable to killing a man. (78)So I went to talking about other kings. (79)That's a Frenchman's way of saying it. (80). . . instead of nailing it up over the door.

(81)He put his head again, and cussed me for putting on frills and trying to be better than him.

(82)So I fixed that as good as I could from the outside by scattering dust on the place.

(83)You see, if I kept on trying to get away afoot, the dog would track me. (84)The river went on raising and raising for ten or twelve days.

(85)I couldn't keep from studying over it and wishing I knowed who shot the man.

(86)It all come of looking at the moon that way.

(45)

(88)I'm for putting him out of his troubles.

(89)I had to claw away from the bank pretty lively four or five times, to keep from knocking the islands out of the river.

(90)I'm for going and getting in the cabin first and right now, and catching them when they come.

(91)Tom give Jim forty dollarsfor being prisoner for us so patient.

d)Gerund ascomplement

There are 29 gerunds used as complement: (1)Because it was sent for a warning.

(2). . . and tell them Pap was behind, coming along with a trading-scow.

(3)The whoops was warnings thatwould come to us every now and then. (4)It was pretty ornery preaching.

(5) . . . and has to go about that way every night grieving.

(6)It was rough living in the house all the time,consideringhow dismal regular anddecent the widow was in all her ways.

(7)I set down again, shaking all over. (8)We had a rough time getting to the top.

(9)And about the first thing we done was to bait one of the big hooks with a skinnedrabbit and catch a catfish that was as big as a man, being six foot two inches long.

(10)... and not have such a rough tune tramping on foot.

(11)Then we got out the raft and slipped along down in the shade, past the foot of the island dead still—never saying a word.

(12)I had made a mistake coming to her to find out what was going on in the town.

(13)They'd made mistakes coming to our town

(46)

looking up the stars.

(15)And a body ain't got no business doing wrong when he ain't ignorant. (16)And the old warming-pan.

(17)I've done considerable in the doctoring way in my tune.

(18)You see before you, in blue jeans and misery, the wanderin', exiled, trampled-on, and suffering rightful King of French.

(19)We slid the raft into hiding quarters for the day. (20)As we was passing through the setting-room.

(21)The duke said what he was after was a printing-office.

(22)We reckoned the duke's work inthe printing office.

(23) . . . and dance off tothe dressing —room.

(24)Aunt Sally she was one of themixed-upest-looking persons I ever see. (25)The doctor was an old man; a very nice, kind-looking old man.

(26)I wish we'd a had the handling of Louis XVI. (27)And when she got done counting, she says,"...." (28)And he got done fooling around.

(29)Well, she was in a tearing way.

e) Gerund as apposition

There are 8 gerunds used as apposition:

(1)Pretty soon I found a man out in the river with a skiff, setting a trot-line. (2)I gets up, a-wondering, and goes down stairs.

(3)I reckon I put it in there,not noticing, meaning to put my Testament in, and it must be so.

(4)So we put in the day, lazying around.

(47)

spread-eagle way, prancing aroundand acting at the same time, to show how it had got to be done.

(6)Juliet's in a balcony, enjoying the moonlight.

(7)And every little while the prettiest kind of girls,with the tears running down theircheeks, would up t and ask him would he let them kiss him for to remember him by.

(8)Then what on earth did you want set him free for, seeing he was already free?

f) Gerund after possessive case

There are 18 gerunds used after possessive case: (1)Thinks I, this is what comes of my not thinking.

(2)I couldn't see no advantage in my representing a prisoner. (3)And know it by a better way than your wool-gathering memory. (4)She was a-giving us our sailing orders.

(5)We give hera rummaging

(6)But on account of them being relicts.

(7)I warn't afraid of him telling the people where I was.

(8)It wouldn't go well with the story of us being so poor. (9)In their thrilling tragedy of The King's Cameleopard. (10)They lost their steering-oar.

(11)All full of tears and flapdoodle about its being a sore trial for him and his poorbrother to lose the diseased.

(12)And if my building the fire never fooled them it warn't no fault of mine. (13)But I reckon I've thought of her a many and a many a million times, and of

hersaying she would pray for me.

(48)

(15)That all comes of my being such a fool. (16)And tell him about his being free.

(17)I couldn't understand before, until that minute and that talk, how he could help abody set nigger free with his bringing-up.

(18)She judged she better put in her time being grateful we was alive.

g) Gerund after certain idiomatic expression

There are 17 gerunds used after certain idiom: (1)But she didn't seem to be sheering off a bit.

(2)I was used to being where I was.

(3)What's the use you learning to do right when it's troublesome to do right and ain'tno trouble to do wrong?

(4)We might borrow something worth having out of the captain's stateroom. (5)He said it warn't no use talking.

(6)He got stuck up on account of having seen the devil. (7)They got so tame, on account of being hungry.

(8)There wouldn't be no use trying to travel with a ten-foot chain on his leg. (9)I couldn't see no advantage in my representing a prisoner.

(10)And a body got no business doing wrong when he ain't ignorant and knows better.

(11)There couldn't be no trouble about running daytimes. (12)It ain't no time for fooling around an moaning. (13)It warn't no time to be sentimentering.

(14)I see it warn't no use wasting words.

(49)

(17)I was feeling ruther comfortable on accounts of taking all this trouble for that gang.

h)To Show Short Prohibition

There is no gerund to show short prohibition used in the novel.

To determine the most dominantgerund in the novel, the writer uses descriptive quantitative method. Sugiono (2012:32) says, “Metode kuantitatif adalah pendekatan ilmiah yang memandang suatu realitas itu dapat diklasifikasikan, konkrit, teramati dan terukur hubungan variabelnya bersifat sebab akibat dimana data penelitiannya berupa angka-angka dan analisisnya mengunakan statistik.” (Quantitative method is a scientific approach which sees a reality classifyable, concrete, observeable, and measurable, and the variable is cause-effect where the data is number and the analysis is statistic.

This method applies the formula below:

X = the percentage of the gerund Y = the number of the gerund N = total gerund

X =

x100%

(50)

The percentage of each gerund found in the novel are presented in the following table:

No. Kind of gerund Number Percentage

1 As subject 8 3,4%

2 As object of verb 62 26,6%

3 As object of preposition 91 39,1%

4 As complement 29 12,4%

5 As apposition 8 3,4%

6 After possessive case 18 7,7% 7 After certain idiomatic expression 17 7,3% 8 To show short prohibition 0 0%

Total 233 100%

(51)

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 Conclusion

From the study above, it can beconcluded that the author of the novel uses 4 forms of gerund in his writing:

(1)Simple gerund (2)Perfect gerund (3)Active gerund (4)Passive gerund

and uses 7 of 8 functions of gerund: (1) 8 gerunds as subject (3,4%)

(2) 62 gerunds as the object of verb (26,6%) (3) 91 gerunds as the object of preposition (39,1%) (4) 29 gerunds as complement (12,4%)

(5) 8 gerunds as apposition (3,4%)

(6) 18 gerunds after possessive case (7,7%)

(7) 17 gerunds after certain idiomatic expression (7,3%)

(52)

4.2 Suggestion

Realizing that gerund is very common and important in both writing and speaking, the writer would like to suggest the readers to:

(1) Study harder to identify a gerund in a sentence.

(2) Understand the forms and the functions of gerund and to know the characteristics of each of them.

(3) Understand the difference between gerund and other related grammar's parts such as to infinitive and present participle.

(53)

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Schramfer, Azar Betty. 1992. Fundamental of English Grammar Second Ed. New York: Jakarta Binarupa Aksara.

Bungin, M. Burhan, 2008. Penelitian kualitatif; Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan Publik, dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Jakarta: Kencana

Trash, R. L. 1995. Language: The Basic Second Edition. London: Routledge. Sembiring, Matius. C.A. 2013. Buku Pedoman D-3 StudinBahasa Inggris. Medan.

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Mahsun. 2005. Metode Penelitian Bahasa. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.

Mukhtar dan Erna Widodo. (2000). Konstruksi ke Arah Penelitian Deskriptif. Yogyakarta: Avyrouz.

Nurgiantoro, Burhan. 1995. Teori Pengkaji Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.

Samsuri. 1982. Analisa Bahasa. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Sembiring, MCA. 2014. Kompilasi Bahan Kuliah. Medan.

Sembiring, MCA. 2014. Buku Panduan Program D3 Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Ilmu Budaya. Medan.

Siswanto, Wahyudi. 2008. Pengantar Teori Sastra. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Surakhmad, Winarno. 1982. Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah: Dasar, Metode, Taktik.

Bandung: Tarsito.

Sudaryanto. 1993. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press.

Surachmad, Winano. 1982. Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung: Tarsito.

Suryabrata, Sumadi. 2002. Metodologi Penelitian. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. 1976. Theory of Literature. London: Penguins

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