Teks penuh






Submitted as the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of Sarjana Sastra



Reg. No. 2112220020





I have familiarized my self with the university’s policy on Academic

integrity except where appropriately acknowledged, this thesis is my own work,

has been expressed in my own words and has not previously been submitted for


I understand that this thesis may be screened electronically or otherwise

for plagiarism.

Medan, Juni 2015

Tribuana Setiawati




Great thanks and praise to the Almighty Allah SWT and The Prophet

Muhammad SAW who had blessed and given the ability to the write to complete

her thesis as the partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Sarjana Sastra

at the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of


This thesis would not have been possible without the guidance and the help

of several individuals who always contributed and extended their valuable

assistances in the preparation and completion of this thesis. The writer’s special appreciation goes to:

Prof.Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd.,the Rector of State University of Medan.

Dr. IsdaPramuniati, M.Hum., the Dean Faculty of Language and Arts,

State University of Medan.

Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., the Head of English and Literature

Department and her Thesis Examiner, Dra. Meisuri, M.A.,the Secretary of

English Department and her thesis consultant , Nora RonitaDewi, S.Pd.,

S.S., M.Hum., the Head of English Education Program and Syamsul

Bahri, S.S., M.Hum., the Head of English Non-Educational Program,

Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.

Dra. Rahmah, M.Hum., as her Academic Advisor

Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A, Ph. D; Dra. Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed as



All lecturers thought out her academic years at the state University of

Medan who have shared their knowledge.

Eis Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd., as theAdministration Staff of English


Beloved parents, Suwito and Ngati, for the patience, the best affection, the

greatest prayer, financial support and taught the writer many worth things

in facing the life, and to her brother and sisters: Edi Witoko, Elis Mawati

and Sri Ningsih.

All her beloved friends in English Literature A and B 2011; Nita, Rina,

Neza, RiskaJuli, and Rizkafor creating unforgettable moments. And also

Thanks for Riska for their support, kindness, great love and care to the

writer, your kindness and praying means a lot to her and also Thanks for

someone for his support, advices and praying, even he is far from her, but

never forget in supporting her. And all people who direct and indirectly


Medan, August 2015

The writer,

Tribuana Setiawati



A. The Background of the Study………...


B. The Problem of the Study………..….. 6

C. The Objectives of The Study………... 6

D. The Scope of the Study

……….. …..…. 7

E. The Significance of the Study ……….




A. Theoretical Review……….. 8

1. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)……….………….……..


a. Ideational Metafunction……….…………..…...…




a. Sexist Language Differences………...



A. Research Design………...………..……….. 27

B. The Source of Data………...………..……….


C. Technique of Collecting Data………..………


D. Technique for Analyzing Data………...……..………..








Appendix A Classification of Processes between Caleb and Catherine’s

Language in Fire Proof Movie ………...... 51





A.The Background of the Study

Literature is the arts of written work. Literature is commonly classified as

having two majoring forms fiction and non-fiction, and two majoring techniques

poetry and prose. Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and

rhythmic qualities of language such as sound and symbolism, while prose applies

ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature is

something that reflects society, makes us think about ourselves and our society,

allows us to enjoy language and beauty, it can be didactic, and it reflects on “the

human condition”Warren (1993:8).

simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, irony, symbol, Antithesis,

synecdoche, metonymy (

Every song has meaning in its lyrics or sentences. A composer always tries

to deliver the ideas of his or her songs to the listener. Most of the people in this

world like songs and enjoy the songs by listening to it by using the tape recorder,

MP3, MP4, compact disc, and cassette. In listening to the songs, language is very



important because it means of communication. He or she will chooses the

right words that he or she thinks can be the best to convey their thought, feeling,

and experience. He or she hopes the listener will understand the meaning of the

songs. A song has two meaning: literal meaning and figurative meaning. Literal

meaning means corresponding exactly to the original. Figurative meaning means

connotative meaning. It is concerned with the meaning of the unfamiliarword in

which most word have several meaning. Figurative meaning uses figure of speech


Creating song lyrics is not an easy job to do. We needs imagination and

figurative sense to create the lyrics of the song to make somebody listen to it, feels

interested in it. One song that is recognized to have used very much using

figurative is the group Secondhand Serenade, almost in all of their songs lyrics

figurative language could be found. Since Secondhand Serenade’s songs are very

interesting to listen, it is considered important to know what actually the meaning

implied within the songs. It will be useless when we listen to the songs without

understanding what actually the song wants to convey to us as the listeners. That

is the reason for the study to analyze it more deeply. The writer wants to analyze

the figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics. Figurative

languages make the songs become interesting and many listeners enjoy the songs

because they use so many kind of figurative languages to express their feelings

and ideas.

Analyzing figurative language in song lyrics is important for some



singing without understanding the lyrics. We can also gain some lesson learning

and fruitful information when we understand the non literal meaning contained in

song lyrics. Second, analyzing figurative language provides us more practices be

better understand non-literal expression, Simamora(2014: 5). A song is a short

piece of music with words that are sung. The words in song are called lyrics. Song

is one example of literature. The language of literature usually interests people for

its beauty, and song is one of literary works that mostly uses figurative language

as a lyric. A song is interesting to listen and it may bring into close and fresh

relation to life.

Semantics is branch of linguistics that talks about meaning in language.

Considering that language is a tool to convey the meaning, it means that when we

study a language and also study about the meaning. In semantics, meaning are

divided into two parts, literal and non literal (figurative expression) Saeed

(2004:15). Literal meaning refers to words that do not deviate from their defined

meaning or words in literal expression denote what they mean according to

common or dictionary usage. Non-literal meaning (figurative expression) means

that there are different means from the real meaning of words.

As stated in ( Music is an art form of

which medium is sound. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody

and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and

articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Music is

composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure,



marketplace. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own

pleasure, and they do not derive their income from music. Song is composition for

voice performed by singing or alongside musical instruments. The lyrics (word) of

song are typically of a poetic, and rhyming nature. These days there were so many

good songs with beautiful lyrics sung by new comer singer. One of them is

Secondhand Serenade. Secondhand Serenade is rock band, led by vocalist, pianist

and guitarist John Vesely. Vesely has released four studio albums to date under

the name Secondhand Serenade: Awake in 2007, A Twist in My Story in 2008,

Hear Me Now in 2010, and "Undefeated" in 2014. The debut album use multitrack

recording to create the sound of a band using technology, while the second album

took a different path, using a proper band and synthesizers to establish a more

accomplished sound.

B.The Problems of the Study

Based on the background, the problems of the study are formulated as the

following :

1. What types of figurative meaning are used in theSecondhand Serenade’s

song lyrics?

2. What type of figurative meaning is dominantlyused in Secondhand

Serenade’s song lyrics?



C.The Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are.

1. To describetypes of figurative meaning used in Secondhand Serenade’s

song lyrics.

2. To describe the most dominant type of figurative Meaning used in

Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics.

3. To reason for the use of figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song


D.The Scope of the Study

This research studies figurative meaning applied in Secondhand

Serenade’s song lyrics. The writer chooses the song, Secondhand Serenade’s song

lyrics. It is taken from the best album of Secondhand Serenade’s.There are three

albums of it since 2007, 2008, 2010, consists oftwelve songs. The writer focuses

on the analysis of figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics.

E.The Significance of the Study

Finding of the study are expected to be relevant theoretically and


1. Theoretically

The study is expected to provide benefits theoretically, at least can be

useful as basic in theories of applied linguistics and be references in further



2. Practically

The findings of the study are useful for.

1. The students who are majoring English in studying listening and meaning

in sentences.

2. The researchers to develop the knowledge of figurative meaning in song


3. The students who are interested in figurative meaning especially in song


4. The readers to gain information about the musician and songwriter




A. Conclusions

From the data analysis, the objective of this research is to find out the

process types, the most dominant type and the implication of the dominant one.

This research is conducted by qualitative and quantitative design which make a

description and the percentage of the result. It is found:

a. The six types of processes (Material, Mental, Relational, Behavioral,

Verbal and Existential) were used in Caleb and Catherine spoken language

in Fire Proof movie.

b. The most dominant process produced by Caleb was material process

175(35.42%) from 494 clauses meanwhile the most dominant process

produced by Catherine was mental process 77(27.11% ) from 286 clauses.

c. Material process became the dominant one in Caleb spoken language

because Caleb’s more focusing on action than feeling. He straight to the

point in delivering something and thought logically. Only in scene of

forgiveness and showing love, mental process became the dominant one.

In Catherine spoken language, mental process became the dominant one

bacause she focused on what she felt and how the condition of her mother.

Totally it was about feeling. Catherine also thought emotionally. Only in

scene of quarrel part, material process became the dominant one.



a. It is suggested for students of English Department should have many

references to improve their understanding in transitivity system

b. It is hoped to everyone who want to do research on linguistics related to

Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) especially on transitivity system,

should have more interesting data such as analyzing process in Bipolar

Language, Down Syndrome Language etc.

c. For further researchers who want to have clearer vision about process in




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Haas.1979. Male and female spoken language differences (electronic version), International Journal of American Psychological Association, 3, 616-626.

Halliday, M.A.K and Matthiese, C.2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd Edition. Revised by Christian. London: Edward Arnold

Iwamoto. 2005. Stylistic and linguistic analysis of a literary text using systemic functional grammar (electronic version), International Journal of Learning and Development, 4, 61-95.

Morley, G.D. 2000. Syntax in Functional Grammar. London: Continuum

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Alfabeta. retrived in December 27, 2014


Figurative meaning is language that uses words or expression with a
Figurative meaning is language that uses words or expression with a . View in document p.14