THE USE OF PROCESSES IN REPRESENTING
EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEXIST LANGUAGE
BASED ON FIRE PROOF MOVIE
Submitted as the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Sarjana Sastra
Reg. No. 2112220020
ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
I have familiarized my self with the university’s policy on Academic
integrity except where appropriately acknowledged, this thesis is my own work,
has been expressed in my own words and has not previously been submitted for
I understand that this thesis may be screened electronically or otherwise
Medan, Juni 2015
Great thanks and praise to the Almighty Allah SWT and The Prophet
Muhammad SAW who had blessed and given the ability to the write to complete
her thesis as the partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Sarjana Sastra
at the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of
This thesis would not have been possible without the guidance and the help
of several individuals who always contributed and extended their valuable
assistances in the preparation and completion of this thesis. The writer’s special appreciation goes to:
Prof.Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd.,the Rector of State University of Medan.
Dr. IsdaPramuniati, M.Hum., the Dean Faculty of Language and Arts,
State University of Medan.
Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., the Head of English and Literature
Department and her Thesis Examiner, Dra. Meisuri, M.A.,the Secretary of
English Department and her thesis consultant , Nora RonitaDewi, S.Pd.,
S.S., M.Hum., the Head of English Education Program and Syamsul
Bahri, S.S., M.Hum., the Head of English Non-Educational Program,
Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.
Dra. Rahmah, M.Hum., as her Academic Advisor
Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A, Ph. D; Dra. Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed as
All lecturers thought out her academic years at the state University of
Medan who have shared their knowledge.
Eis Sri Wahyuni, M.Pd., as theAdministration Staff of English
Beloved parents, Suwito and Ngati, for the patience, the best affection, the
greatest prayer, financial support and taught the writer many worth things
in facing the life, and to her brother and sisters: Edi Witoko, Elis Mawati
and Sri Ningsih.
All her beloved friends in English Literature A and B 2011; Nita, Rina,
Neza, RiskaJuli, and Rizkafor creating unforgettable moments. And also
Thanks for Riska for their support, kindness, great love and care to the
writer, your kindness and praying means a lot to her and also Thanks for
someone for his support, advices and praying, even he is far from her, but
never forget in supporting her. And all people who direct and indirectly
Medan, August 2015
A. The Background of the Study………...
B. The Problem of the Study………..….. 6
C. The Objectives of The Study………... 6
D. The Scope of the Study
……….. …..…. 7
E. The Significance of the Study ……….
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……….………
A. Theoretical Review……….. 8
1. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)……….………….……..
a. Ideational Metafunction……….…………..…...…
a. Sexist Language Differences………...
A. Research Design………...………..……….. 27
B. The Source of Data………...………..……….
C. Technique of Collecting Data………..………
D. Technique for Analyzing Data………...……..………..
LIST OF PICTURE
LIST OF APPENDIX
Appendix A Classification of Processes between Caleb and Catherine’s
Language in Fire Proof Movie ………...... 51
A.The Background of the Study
Literature is the arts of written work. Literature is commonly classified as
having two majoring forms fiction and non-fiction, and two majoring techniques
poetry and prose. Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and
rhythmic qualities of language such as sound and symbolism, while prose applies
ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature is
something that reflects society, makes us think about ourselves and our society,
allows us to enjoy language and beauty, it can be didactic, and it reflects on “the
human condition”Warren (1993:8).
simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, irony, symbol, Antithesis,
synecdoche, metonymy (www.wikipedia.com).
Every song has meaning in its lyrics or sentences. A composer always tries
to deliver the ideas of his or her songs to the listener. Most of the people in this
world like songs and enjoy the songs by listening to it by using the tape recorder,
MP3, MP4, compact disc, and cassette. In listening to the songs, language is very
important because it means of communication. He or she will chooses the
right words that he or she thinks can be the best to convey their thought, feeling,
and experience. He or she hopes the listener will understand the meaning of the
songs. A song has two meaning: literal meaning and figurative meaning. Literal
meaning means corresponding exactly to the original. Figurative meaning means
connotative meaning. It is concerned with the meaning of the unfamiliarword in
which most word have several meaning. Figurative meaning uses figure of speech
Creating song lyrics is not an easy job to do. We needs imagination and
figurative sense to create the lyrics of the song to make somebody listen to it, feels
interested in it. One song that is recognized to have used very much using
figurative is the group Secondhand Serenade, almost in all of their songs lyrics
figurative language could be found. Since Secondhand Serenade’s songs are very
interesting to listen, it is considered important to know what actually the meaning
implied within the songs. It will be useless when we listen to the songs without
understanding what actually the song wants to convey to us as the listeners. That
is the reason for the study to analyze it more deeply. The writer wants to analyze
the figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics. Figurative
languages make the songs become interesting and many listeners enjoy the songs
because they use so many kind of figurative languages to express their feelings
Analyzing figurative language in song lyrics is important for some
singing without understanding the lyrics. We can also gain some lesson learning
and fruitful information when we understand the non literal meaning contained in
song lyrics. Second, analyzing figurative language provides us more practices be
better understand non-literal expression, Simamora(2014: 5). A song is a short
piece of music with words that are sung. The words in song are called lyrics. Song
is one example of literature. The language of literature usually interests people for
its beauty, and song is one of literary works that mostly uses figurative language
as a lyric. A song is interesting to listen and it may bring into close and fresh
relation to life.
Semantics is branch of linguistics that talks about meaning in language.
Considering that language is a tool to convey the meaning, it means that when we
study a language and also study about the meaning. In semantics, meaning are
divided into two parts, literal and non literal (figurative expression) Saeed
(2004:15). Literal meaning refers to words that do not deviate from their defined
meaning or words in literal expression denote what they mean according to
common or dictionary usage. Non-literal meaning (figurative expression) means
that there are different means from the real meaning of words.
As stated in (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/musik) Music is an art form of
which medium is sound. Its common elements are pitch (which governs melody
and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and
articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Music is
composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure,
marketplace. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own
pleasure, and they do not derive their income from music. Song is composition for
voice performed by singing or alongside musical instruments. The lyrics (word) of
song are typically of a poetic, and rhyming nature. These days there were so many
good songs with beautiful lyrics sung by new comer singer. One of them is
Secondhand Serenade. Secondhand Serenade is rock band, led by vocalist, pianist
and guitarist John Vesely. Vesely has released four studio albums to date under
the name Secondhand Serenade: Awake in 2007, A Twist in My Story in 2008,
Hear Me Now in 2010, and "Undefeated" in 2014. The debut album use multitrack
recording to create the sound of a band using technology, while the second album
took a different path, using a proper band and synthesizers to establish a more
B.The Problems of the Study
Based on the background, the problems of the study are formulated as the
1. What types of figurative meaning are used in theSecondhand Serenade’s
2. What type of figurative meaning is dominantlyused in Secondhand
Serenade’s song lyrics?
C.The Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are.
1. To describetypes of figurative meaning used in Secondhand Serenade’s
2. To describe the most dominant type of figurative Meaning used in
Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics.
3. To reason for the use of figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song
D.The Scope of the Study
This research studies figurative meaning applied in Secondhand
Serenade’s song lyrics. The writer chooses the song, Secondhand Serenade’s song
lyrics. It is taken from the best album of Secondhand Serenade’s.There are three
albums of it since 2007, 2008, 2010, consists oftwelve songs. The writer focuses
on the analysis of figurative meaning in Secondhand Serenade’s song lyrics.
E.The Significance of the Study
Finding of the study are expected to be relevant theoretically and
The study is expected to provide benefits theoretically, at least can be
useful as basic in theories of applied linguistics and be references in further
The findings of the study are useful for.
1. The students who are majoring English in studying listening and meaning
2. The researchers to develop the knowledge of figurative meaning in song
3. The students who are interested in figurative meaning especially in song
4. The readers to gain information about the musician and songwriter
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
From the data analysis, the objective of this research is to find out the
process types, the most dominant type and the implication of the dominant one.
This research is conducted by qualitative and quantitative design which make a
description and the percentage of the result. It is found:
a. The six types of processes (Material, Mental, Relational, Behavioral,
Verbal and Existential) were used in Caleb and Catherine spoken language
in Fire Proof movie.
b. The most dominant process produced by Caleb was material process
175(35.42%) from 494 clauses meanwhile the most dominant process
produced by Catherine was mental process 77(27.11% ) from 286 clauses.
c. Material process became the dominant one in Caleb spoken language
because Caleb’s more focusing on action than feeling. He straight to the
point in delivering something and thought logically. Only in scene of
forgiveness and showing love, mental process became the dominant one.
In Catherine spoken language, mental process became the dominant one
bacause she focused on what she felt and how the condition of her mother.
Totally it was about feeling. Catherine also thought emotionally. Only in
scene of quarrel part, material process became the dominant one.
a. It is suggested for students of English Department should have many
references to improve their understanding in transitivity system
b. It is hoped to everyone who want to do research on linguistics related to
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) especially on transitivity system,
should have more interesting data such as analyzing process in Bipolar
Language, Down Syndrome Language etc.
c. For further researchers who want to have clearer vision about process in
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Haas.1979. Male and female spoken language differences (electronic version), International Journal of American Psychological Association, 3, 616-626.
Halliday, M.A.K and Matthiese, C.2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd Edition. Revised by Christian. London: Edward Arnold
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Morley, G.D. 2000. Syntax in Functional Grammar. London: Continuum
Nguyen.2012.Transitivity analysis of “Heroic Mother” by Hoa Pham, International Journal of English Linguistics, 4, 85-100.
Saragih, Amrin.2014. Discourse Analysis. Medan: FBS UNIMED (Unpublished)
Saragih, Amrin.2014. Introducing Systemic Functional Grammar of English. Medan: FBS UNIMED (Unpublished)
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