sutikno Umum ICTChap004

36 

Teks penuh

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Hardware: The CPU &

Hardware: The CPU &

Storage

Storage

4.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility

4.2 The System Unit: The Basics

4.3 More on the System Unit

4.4 Secondary Storage

4.5 Future Developments in Processing &

Storage

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Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Mobility

Mobility

Vacuum Tubes vs. Transistors

Vacuum tubes were the original logic gates of computers

They looked like light bulbs, were hot, and burned out

like them too

The original transistors were 1/100

th

the size of vacuum

tubes (less power, faster, more reliable too)

Transistors vs. Integrated Circuits

Compare 1955’s 45 lb “portable” color TV to today’s 7 oz

Casio 2.3 inch color TV

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4-4

Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Mobility

Mobility

Semiconductor

A material whose electrical properties are

intermediate between a good conductor and a

nonconductor of electricity

Perfect substrate to overlay complex circuits

Microchips are made from semiconductors

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Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Microchips, Miniaturization, &

Mobility

Mobility

Microprocessor

The miniaturized circuitry of an entire computer

processor on a single chip

Contains the CPU, which processes data

Microcontroller or Embedded Computer

A microprocessor that was modified for use in a machine

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

Binary System: the basic unit of computing

Uses just two numbers: 0 and 1

All data and program instructions in the computer are

represented as binary

Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit

Byte: a group of 8 bits

Kilobyte: ~1,000 (1,024) bytes

Megabyte: ~1 Million (1,048,576) bytes

Gigabyte: ~1 Billion (1,073,741,824) bytes

Terabyte: ~ 1 Trillion (1,009,511,627,576) bytes

Petabyte: ~ 1 quadrillion bytes

Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion bytes

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

Binary coding schemes assign a unique binary code to

each letter

EBCDIC

Requires 8 bits per character

Used for IBM mainframes

ASCII

Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the version

8 bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters

Used for PCs, Unix hosts, Macs

Unicode

Requires 16 bits per character

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

Error Checking: Parity Bits

Used in modems & communications to verify correctness

One check bit is added to 7 bit byte

The check bit is defined as either odd or even

For odd parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit

plus the first 7 data bits is an odd number

For even parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit

plus the first 7 data bits is an even number

Discussion Question: If the 7 data bits are 1101011, and the modem is sending odd parity, what should the parity bit be set to?

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

Machine Language

A binary-type programming language built into the CPU

that is run directly by the computer

Each CPU type has its own machine language

Language Translators

System programs convert the programming instructions

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The System Unit: The Basics

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

Computer Terms

Computer Terms

Names

1. Bay

2. Power Supply 3. Surge Protector

4. Voltage

1. Shell or opening used for the installation of electrical

equipment.

2. This converts AC to DC to run the computer.

3. Protects the computer from being damaged by power spikes.

Plug your computer into one.

4. Protects a computer against brownouts or low power

conditions that happen a lot in summer.

5. Uninterruptible Power Supply. Battery-operated device that

provides power for a time when there is a blackout.

6. The main system board of the computer.

7. The miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor.

8. Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

The CPU

Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz

 1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second

Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz

 1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second

The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes, and the

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The System Unit: The Basics

The System Unit: The Basics

The CPU Continued

Mainframe and minicomputer speed is measured in

MIPS

MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second

Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more

Mainframes perform at 200 – 1,200 MIPS

Supercomputer processing speed is measured in

flops

Flops stands for floating point operations per second

IBM’s Blue Gene/L cranks out 70.72 teraflops (tera = trillion)

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Parts of the CPU

Parts of the CPU

Name

1. Word size

2. Control unit

3. Arithmetic

Logic Unit

4. Registers

5. Buses

Definition

1. The number of bits the processor can

process at any one time

2. The part of the CPU that deciphers

instructions and carries them out

3. The ALU performs mathematical and logical

operations and controls the speed of them

4. High-speed storage areas that temporarily

store data during processing

5. Electrical data roadways used to transmit bits

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

How Memory Works

How Memory Works

Memory Chip

1. Random Access Memory chips are volatile and hold:

a. Software instructions

b. Data before & after the CPU processes it

2. Read only memory

a. Cannot be written on or erased without special

equipment

b. Are loaded at factory with fixed start-up

instructions

3. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

a. Powered by a battery

b. Contains time, date, calendar, boot password

4. Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and

reprogrammed more than once

a. Doesn’t require a battery

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Types of RAM

Types of RAM

RAM Types

1. Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by

the CPU or it loses its contents

2. Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by

the system clock and is much faster than DRAM

3. Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its

contents without having to be refreshed by CPU

4. Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM 5. Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips on

only one side

a. FPM is fast page mode type

b. EDO is extended data output; is faster than FPM

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Speeding up Processing

Speeding up Processing

The CPU works much faster than RAM

So it could sit there waiting for information

Cache temporarily stores instructions and data that the

processor uses frequently to speed up processing

Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor

 Holds 8 to 256 kb

 Faster than Level 2 cache

Level 2 cache is SRAM external cache

 Holds 64 kb to 2 Mb

Level 3 cache is on the motherboard

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Speeding up Processing

Speeding up Processing

Method

1. Interleaving

2. Bursting

3. Pipelining

4. Superscalar

Architecture

5. Hyperthreading

Description

1. CPU alternates communications between

two or more memory banks

2. CPU grabs a block of data from memory

instead of retrieving one piece at a time

3. CPU doesn’t wait for one instruction to

complete before fetching its next instruction

4. The computer can execute more than one

instruction per clock cycle

5. A technique used in superscalar architecture

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Ports

Ports

Port Type

1. Serial Port

2. Parallel Port

3. SCSI Port

4. USB Port

Description

1. Used to transmit slow data over long distances

a. Sends data sequentially, one bit at a time b. Used to connect keyboard, mouse,

monitors, dial-up modems

2. For transmitting fast data over short distances

a. Transmits 8 bytes simultaneously

b. Connects printers, external disks, backups

3. Small Computer System Interface

a. Connects up to 7 devices in a daisy chain b. Transmits data 32 bits at a time

4. Universal Serial Bus can theoretically connect

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

USB

USB

Goals

Be low-cost

Be able to connect lots of devices

Be hot swappable

People hate rebooting because it takes time

Hot swapping means a device can be

connected/disconnected without rebooting

Permit plug and play

Devices are automatically configured when they are

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

USB Continued

USB Continued

Standards

USB 1.1 – the original standard

USB 2.0 – the current standard for new PCs

USB On The Go (OTG) – currently under development

Connectors

A – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0

B – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0

Mini B – in USB Type 2.0

Mini A – in USB OTG used for smaller peripherals like

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Specialized Expansion Ports

Specialized Expansion Ports

Port Type

1. Intended for devices working with lots of data

a. Used for camcorders, DVD players, TVs b. Handles up to 400 megabits per second

2. Musical Instrument Digital Interface

a. Connects musical instruments

b. Used in creating, recording, editing, performing music

3. Infrared Data Association: Infrared ports used to

make a cableless connection

4. Uses short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30

ft

a. Connects computers to printers, keyboards, headsets,

even refrigerators

b. Named after King Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm, who

united the Norway and Denmark. Ruled 910-940 A.D. 5. The standard for linking all devices in a Local Area

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Expansion Cards

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More on the System Unit

More on the System Unit

Expansion Buses

Expansion Buses

Bus

1. PCI bus

2. AGP Bus

Description

1. Peripheral Component Interconnect

a. For high-speed connections

b. 32 or 64 bits wide

c. Typically used for sound cards, modems,

high-speed network cards

2. Accelerated Graphics Port

a. Twice the speed of PCI bus

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Storage Types

1. Floppy and Zip disks

2. Hard disks

3. Optical disks 4. Magnetic tape

5. Smart Cards 6. Flash memory 7. Online secondary

storage

Descriptions 1. Removable disks.

a. Floppies store 1.44 MB

b. Zip disks store 100, 250, or 750 MB

2. Made from thin rigid metal covered with

magnetizable substrate. Most disks have 2 or more platters

3. Removable CDs and DVDs

4. Thin plastic tape coated with magnetizable

substance

5. Like a credit card, but contains a microprocessor

and memory chips

6. Nonvolatile memory – no moving parts

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Floppies and Zip Disks

Floppies and Zip Disks

Floppies

 Flat piece of mylar plastic

inside a 3.5” plastic case

 Store about 1.44 MB

 Have a write-protect notch  Data is recorded in tracks:

concentric recording bands

 Formatting breaks the tracks

into small wedge-shaped sectors

 Read/Write head transfers

data between the computer and disk

 Floppies DO wear out!

Zip Disks

 Disks with a high-quality

magnetic coating

 Store 100, 250, or 750 MB  Require a Zip drive; won’t

work on floppy drives

 Used to store larger files than

floppies can hold

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Hard Disks

Hard Disks

Thin, rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters covered with

a substance that allows data to be held in the form of

magnetized spots

The more platters there are, the higher the drive capacity

Store data in tracks, sectors, and clusters

Formatting creates a file allocation table that maps files to

clusters or inodes

Typical file systems are VFAT & NTFS for Windows, HFS and

ext2 for Unix

Drive heads ride on .000001” cushion of air, and can crash!

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Hard Disks

Hard Disks

Hard Disk Types:

External Hard Disks – a freestanding disk drive

Removable Hard Disk – inserted into a cartridge drive on

the PC

Hard Disk Controllers

EIDE – Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

Supports up to 4 disks at 137 GB per disk

Marketed as SATA, Fast ATA, Ultra ATA, ATA-2, ATA/100

SCSI – Faster than EIDE controllers

Fibre Channel – used in large servers – faster and

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Optical Disks

Optical Disks

CDs and DVDs are Optical disks

Data is written and read using lasers, not a disk head

CD-ROM is Compact Disk Read-Only Memory

CD-R is used for recording only once

CD-RW is an erasable optical disk that can both record and

erase data over and over again

DVD is a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity

Stores 4.7 or more GB

DVD-R is used for recording only once

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Magnetic Tape

Magnetic Tape

Thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be

magnetized

Store 200 GB and higher

Used in the form of tape cartridges

Still popular for large backups because of their large data

capacity

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Smart Cards

Smart Cards

Resembles a credit card, but contains a microprocessor and

memory chips

Holds more information than standard magnetic-strip credit

cards; 8 – 40 MB of data

UltraCard

 Uses a magnetic shim that draws out of the card to be read, then

retracts into the drive

 Provides 2 GB of storage

Contact smart cards

 Must be swiped through card readers  Can wear out from use

Contactless smart cards

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Flash Memory

Flash Memory

Nonvolatile memory with no moving parts

But the electronics can wear out

Available as

Flash memory cards

 Insert these into a flash port of a camera, handheld PC,

smartphone

Flash memory sticks

 A form of flash memory that plugs into a memory stick port

Flash memory drives

 A finger-sized module of flash memory

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Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

Online Secondary Storage

Online Secondary Storage

Allows you to use the internet to back up your data

Sign up with a vendor and receive access to software

that allows you to upload your data to that company’s

server

Files should be encrypted to maintain security

Use only for vital files that require immediate availability

Use tape, removable hard disk cartridges, zip disks,

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Future Developments in

Future Developments in

Processing & Storage

Processing & Storage

Moore’s Law

Gordon Moore predicted the number of transistors on a silicon

chip will double every 18 months

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Future Developments in

Future Developments in

Processing & Storage

Processing & Storage

New Technology 1. M-RAM

2. OUM

3. Nanotechnology

4. Optical Computing 5. DNA Computing 6. Quantum

Computing

Description of Processing Technology 1. Magnetic RAM uses miniscule magnets

rather than electrical charges

2. Ovonic Multiplied Memory stores bits by

generating different levels of low and high resistance on a glossy material

3. Tiny machines work at a molecular level to

make nanocircuits

4. Uses lasers and light, not electricity

5. Uses strands of synthetic DNA to store data 6. Based on quantum mechanics and stores

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Future Developments in

Future Developments in

Processing & Storage

Processing & Storage

New Technology

1. Higher-density disks

2. Molecular

electronics

Description of Storage Technology 1. Magnetic disk drives currently hold 100

GB of data

a. Blank CDs are replacing floppy disks

since they hold 650MB and cost < $1 each

b. DVD disks hold up to 4.7 GB of data

currently

c. Perpendicular recording technology

allows 25% - 100% more data to be stored on the same disk

2. Polymer memory creates chips that store data

on plastics

a. Nonvolatile memory

b. Data is stored based on polymer’s

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