# sutikno Umum ICTChap004

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### The System Unit: The Basics

Binary System: the basic unit of computing

Uses just two numbers: 0 and 1

All data and program instructions in the computer are

represented as binary

Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit

Byte: a group of 8 bits

Kilobyte: ~1,000 (1,024) bytes

Megabyte: ~1 Million (1,048,576) bytes

Gigabyte: ~1 Billion (1,073,741,824) bytes

Terabyte: ~ 1 Trillion (1,009,511,627,576) bytes

Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion bytes

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### EBCDIC

Requires 8 bits per character

Used for IBM mainframes

### ASCII

Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the version

8 bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters

Used for PCs, Unix hosts, Macs

### Unicode

Requires 16 bits per character

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### plus the first 7 data bits is an even number

Discussion Question: If the 7 data bits are 1101011, and the modem is sending odd parity, what should the parity bit be set to?

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### Computer Terms

Names

1. Bay

2. Power Supply 3. Surge Protector

4. Voltage

1. Shell or opening used for the installation of electrical

equipment.

2. This converts AC to DC to run the computer.

3. Protects the computer from being damaged by power spikes.

4. Protects a computer against brownouts or low power

conditions that happen a lot in summer.

5. Uninterruptible Power Supply. Battery-operated device that

provides power for a time when there is a blackout.

6. The main system board of the computer.

7. The miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor.

8. Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that

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### The CPU

Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz

 1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second

Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz

 1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second

The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes, and the

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### MIPS

MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second

Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more

Mainframes perform at 200 – 1,200 MIPS

### flops

Flops stands for floating point operations per second

IBM’s Blue Gene/L cranks out 70.72 teraflops (tera = trillion)

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### Parts of the CPU

Name

1. Word size

2. Control unit

3. Arithmetic

Logic Unit

4. Registers

5. Buses

Definition

1. The number of bits the processor can

process at any one time

2. The part of the CPU that deciphers

instructions and carries them out

3. The ALU performs mathematical and logical

operations and controls the speed of them

4. High-speed storage areas that temporarily

store data during processing

5. Electrical data roadways used to transmit bits

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### How Memory Works

Memory Chip

1. Random Access Memory chips are volatile and hold:

a. Software instructions

b. Data before & after the CPU processes it

a. Cannot be written on or erased without special

equipment

b. Are loaded at factory with fixed start-up

instructions

3. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

b. Contains time, date, calendar, boot password

4. Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and

reprogrammed more than once

a. Doesn’t require a battery

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### Types of RAM

RAM Types

1. Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by

the CPU or it loses its contents

2. Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by

the system clock and is much faster than DRAM

3. Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its

contents without having to be refreshed by CPU

4. Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM 5. Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips on

only one side

a. FPM is fast page mode type

b. EDO is extended data output; is faster than FPM

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### processor uses frequently to speed up processing

Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor

 Holds 8 to 256 kb

 Faster than Level 2 cache

Level 2 cache is SRAM external cache

 Holds 64 kb to 2 Mb

Level 3 cache is on the motherboard

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### Speeding up Processing

Method

1. Interleaving

2. Bursting

3. Pipelining

4. Superscalar

Architecture

Description

1. CPU alternates communications between

two or more memory banks

2. CPU grabs a block of data from memory

instead of retrieving one piece at a time

3. CPU doesn’t wait for one instruction to

complete before fetching its next instruction

4. The computer can execute more than one

instruction per clock cycle

5. A technique used in superscalar architecture

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### Ports

Port Type

1. Serial Port

2. Parallel Port

3. SCSI Port

4. USB Port

Description

1. Used to transmit slow data over long distances

a. Sends data sequentially, one bit at a time b. Used to connect keyboard, mouse,

monitors, dial-up modems

2. For transmitting fast data over short distances

a. Transmits 8 bytes simultaneously

b. Connects printers, external disks, backups

3. Small Computer System Interface

a. Connects up to 7 devices in a daisy chain b. Transmits data 32 bits at a time

4. Universal Serial Bus can theoretically connect

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### Be hot swappable

People hate rebooting because it takes time

Hot swapping means a device can be

connected/disconnected without rebooting

### Permit plug and play

Devices are automatically configured when they are

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### Specialized Expansion Ports

Port Type

1. Intended for devices working with lots of data

a. Used for camcorders, DVD players, TVs b. Handles up to 400 megabits per second

2. Musical Instrument Digital Interface

a. Connects musical instruments

b. Used in creating, recording, editing, performing music

3. Infrared Data Association: Infrared ports used to

make a cableless connection

4. Uses short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30

ft

a. Connects computers to printers, keyboards, headsets,

even refrigerators

b. Named after King Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm, who

united the Norway and Denmark. Ruled 910-940 A.D. 5. The standard for linking all devices in a Local Area

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### Expansion Buses

Bus

1. PCI bus

2. AGP Bus

Description

1. Peripheral Component Interconnect

a. For high-speed connections

b. 32 or 64 bits wide

c. Typically used for sound cards, modems,

high-speed network cards

2. Accelerated Graphics Port

a. Twice the speed of PCI bus

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### Secondary Storage

Storage Types

1. Floppy and Zip disks

2. Hard disks

3. Optical disks 4. Magnetic tape

5. Smart Cards 6. Flash memory 7. Online secondary

storage

Descriptions 1. Removable disks.

a. Floppies store 1.44 MB

b. Zip disks store 100, 250, or 750 MB

2. Made from thin rigid metal covered with

magnetizable substrate. Most disks have 2 or more platters

3. Removable CDs and DVDs

4. Thin plastic tape coated with magnetizable

substance

5. Like a credit card, but contains a microprocessor

and memory chips

6. Nonvolatile memory – no moving parts

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### Floppies and Zip Disks

Floppies

 Flat piece of mylar plastic

inside a 3.5” plastic case

 Have a write-protect notch  Data is recorded in tracks:

concentric recording bands

 Formatting breaks the tracks

into small wedge-shaped sectors

data between the computer and disk

 Floppies DO wear out!

Zip Disks

 Disks with a high-quality

magnetic coating

 Store 100, 250, or 750 MB  Require a Zip drive; won’t

work on floppy drives

 Used to store larger files than

floppies can hold

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### clusters or inodes

Typical file systems are VFAT & NTFS for Windows, HFS and

ext2 for Unix

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### EIDE – Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

Supports up to 4 disks at 137 GB per disk

Marketed as SATA, Fast ATA, Ultra ATA, ATA-2, ATA/100

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### CD-ROM is Compact Disk Read-Only Memory

CD-R is used for recording only once

CD-RW is an erasable optical disk that can both record and

erase data over and over again

### DVD is a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity

Stores 4.7 or more GB

DVD-R is used for recording only once

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### Smart Cards

Resembles a credit card, but contains a microprocessor and

memory chips

cards; 8 – 40 MB of data

UltraCard

 Uses a magnetic shim that draws out of the card to be read, then

retracts into the drive

 Provides 2 GB of storage

Contact smart cards

 Must be swiped through card readers  Can wear out from use

Contactless smart cards

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### Available as

Flash memory cards

 Insert these into a flash port of a camera, handheld PC,

smartphone

Flash memory sticks

 A form of flash memory that plugs into a memory stick port

Flash memory drives

 A finger-sized module of flash memory

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### Processing & Storage

Moore’s Law

Gordon Moore predicted the number of transistors on a silicon

chip will double every 18 months

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### Processing & Storage

New Technology 1. M-RAM

2. OUM

3. Nanotechnology

4. Optical Computing 5. DNA Computing 6. Quantum

Computing

Description of Processing Technology 1. Magnetic RAM uses miniscule magnets

rather than electrical charges

2. Ovonic Multiplied Memory stores bits by

generating different levels of low and high resistance on a glossy material

3. Tiny machines work at a molecular level to

make nanocircuits

4. Uses lasers and light, not electricity

5. Uses strands of synthetic DNA to store data 6. Based on quantum mechanics and stores

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### Processing & Storage

New Technology

1. Higher-density disks

2. Molecular

electronics

Description of Storage Technology 1. Magnetic disk drives currently hold 100

GB of data

a. Blank CDs are replacing floppy disks

since they hold 650MB and cost < \$1 each

b. DVD disks hold up to 4.7 GB of data

currently

c. Perpendicular recording technology

allows 25% - 100% more data to be stored on the same disk

2. Polymer memory creates chips that store data

on plastics

a. Nonvolatile memory

b. Data is stored based on polymer’s

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