Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah (4)

Teks penuh

(1)

PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA

SAMPAH

M a k a l a h B a h a s a I n d o n e s i a

D i s u s u n O l e h :

A d i t y a A c h m a d | 3 3 1 3 1 2 0 0 5 0 F i r d h a n M a u l a | 3 3 1 3 1 2 0 0 2 2 M a r t h a P e r m a t a | 3 3 1 3 1 2 0 0 0 4

T e k n i k L i s t r i k – 3 D

D o s e n P e m b i m b i n g : J a m s e r S .

P R O G R A M S T U D I T E K N I K L I S T R I K

J U R U S A N T E K N I K E L E K T R O

P O L I T E K N I K N E G E R I J A K A R T A

(2)

P E M B A N G K I T L I T R I K T E N A G A S A M P A H

A d i t y a A c h m a d , F i r d h a n M a u l a , M a r t h a P e r m a t a

P r o g r a m S t u d i T e k n i k L i s t r i k , T e k n i k E l e k t r o , P o l i t e k n i k N e g r i J a k a r t a , J l . P r o f .

D r . G . A S i w a b e s s y , D e p o k , 1 6 2 4 2 , I n d o n e s i a

E - m a i l : m a r t h a l i m b o n g 2 4 1 0 @ g m a i l . c o m ; a d i t y a . a c h m a d 4 5 @ g m a i l . c o m ; f i r d h a n m a u l a @ g m a i l . c o m

A b s t r a k

P e m b a n g u a n p e m b a n g k i t l i s t r i k t e n a g a s a m p a h ( P L T S a ) m e r u p a k a n s o l u s i k e b u t u h a n e n e r g i b a r u t e r b a r u k a n ( E B T ) u n t u k m e n i n g k a t k a n k e b u t u h a n e n e r g i s e r t a m e m b a n t u m e n g u r a n g i k e t e r g a n t u n g a n t e r h a d a p e n e r g i f o s i l . D e n g a n a d a n y a p e m b a n g u n a n P L T S a d i p e r k i r a k a n d a r i 3 0 - 5 0 t o n s a m p a h p e r h a r i d a p a t m e n g h a s i l k a n l i s t r i k d e n g a n k e k u a t a n h i n g g a 5 0 0 K i l o W a t t . P L T S a l a n d f i l l g a s t i f i c a t i o n m e r u p a k a n P e m b a n g k i t t e n a g a l i s t r i k y a n g b e r w a w a s a n l i n g k u n g a n y a n g d a p a t m e m b a n t u p e m e r i n t a h d a l a m m e n a n g a n i p e r m a s a l a h a n s a m p a h p e r k o t a a n y a n g t e r j a d i s e l a m a i n i .

A b s t r a c t

P o w e r P l a n t W a s t e t o E n e r g y . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f P o w e r P l a n t W a s t e t o E n e r g y i s a r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y n e e d s s o l u t i o n t o i m p r o v e e n e r g y n e e d s a n d t o h e l p r e d u c e s t h e d e p e n d e n c y o n f o s s i l f u e l s . W i t h t h e P o w e r P l a n t W a s t e t o E n e r g y , e s t i m a t i n g l y f r o m 3 0 - 5 0 t o n s w a s t e s p e r d a y c o u l d g e n e r a t e d e l e c t r i c i t y w i t h t h e p o w e r o f 5 0 0 K i l o W a t t . T h e P o w e r P l a n t W a s t e t o E n e r g y l a n d f i l l g a s t i f i c a t i o n i s a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d P o w e r P l a n t w h i c h s h o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p T h e G o v e r n m e n t i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m s o f c i t i z e n w a s t e s t h a t o c c u r s s o f a r .

(3)
(4)

D a f t a r I s i

K a t a

P engantar………. . . .………i

D a f t a r Isi………. . . i i B A B 1 : P endahuluan………. .………. . . 1

1 . 1 Latar Belakang……….………. . .………. . 2

1 . 2 R umusan Masalah………. .………3

1 . 3 Tujuan P enulisan………. .………. .……. . . . 4

1 . 4 M a n f a a t P enulisan………. .…………. .…………5

B A B 2 : L a n d a s a n T e o r i……… ….……….………. .……….6

B A B 3 : P e m b a h a s a n…………. . . . .…………. .……… ……. .……. . . 7

B A B 4: P enutupan………. .………. .………. . 8

4 . 1 S a r a n . . . .………. 9

4 . 2 K e s i m p u l a n………. . 1 0

(5)
(6)

1 . 4 M a n f a a t P e n u l i s a n

1 . M e n a m b a h w a w a s a n p e n u l i s m a u p u n p e m b a c a t e n t a n g p e m a n f a a t a n s a m a p a h m e n j a d i p e m b a n g k i t l i s t r i k .

(7)
(8)

k a r e n a b e r a c u n , t e r i n f e k s i v i r u s , a t a u p u n m e n g a n d u n g u n s u r r a d i o a k t o f b e r b a h a y a . S a m p a h j e n i s i n i u m u m n y a d i p i s a h d a r i s a m p a h j e n i s l a i n d a n d i p r o s e s s e c a r a t e r p i s a h d a n k h u s u s .

2 . 1 . 2 S a m p a h B e r d a s a r k a n S i f a t n y a 1 . S a m p a h O r g a n i k

S a m p a h o r g a n i k a d a l a h j e n i s s a m p a h y a n g d a p a t t e r u r a i (d e g r a d a b l e) .

2 . S a m p a h A n o r g a n i k

S a m p a h a n o r g a n i k a d a l a h s a m p a h y a n g y a n g t i d a k m u d a h m e m b u s u k d a n m e n g u r a i (u n d e g r a d a b l e) .

2 . 1 . 3 S a m p a h B e r d a s a r k a n B e n t u k n y a 1 . S a m p a h P a d a t

2 . S a m p a h C a i r

2 . 2 P r i n s i p K e r j a P L T U

P a d a d a s a r n y a P L T S a a d a l a h P L T U b e r b a h a n b a k a r s a m p a h s e h i n g g a p a d a p r i n s i p k e r j a n y a t i d a k l a h j a u h b e r b e d a j i k a d i b a n d i n g k a n d e n g a n p r i n s i p k e r j a P L T U p a d a u m u m n y a .

P r o s e s k o n v e r s i e n e r g i p a d a P L T U b e r l a n g s u n g d e n g a n t i g a t a h a p a n , y a i t u ;

1 .E n e r g i k i m i a d a l a m b a h a n b a k a r d i u b a h m e n j a d i p a n a s d a l a m b e n t u k u a p b e r t e k a n a n d a n b e r t e m p e r a t u r t i n g g i .

2 .E n e r g i p a n a s ( u a p ) d i u b a h m e n j a d i e n e r g i m e k a n i k d a l a m b e n t u k p u t a r a n .

3 .E n e r g i m e k a n i k d i u b a h m e n j a d i e n e r g i l i s t r i k .

(9)

B a g i a n - b a g i a n u t a m a p a d a P L T U t e r d i r i d a r i ; 1 . B o i l e r

B o i l e r b e r f u n g s i s e b a g a i p e n g u b a h b a h a n b a k a r m e n j a d i u a p p a n a s y a n g a k a n d i g u n a k a n u n t u k m e m u t a r t u r b i n .

2 . T u r b i n U a p

T u r b i n u a p b e r f u n g s i u n t u k m e n g k o n v e r s i e n e r g i p a n a s y a n g d i k a n d u n g o l e h u a p m e n j a d i e n e r g i p u t a r ( e n e r g i m e k a n i k ) . P o r o s T u r b i n d i h u b u n g k a n d e n g a n p o r o r s G e n e r a t o r s e h i n g g a k e t i k a T u r b i n b e r p u t a r G e n e r a t o r j u g a i k u t b e r p u t a r .

3 . K o n d e n s o r

K o n d e n s o r b e r f u n g s i u n t u k m e n g k o n d e s a s i k a n u a p b e k a s d a r i t u r b i n y a n g s e b e l u m n y a t e l a h d i g u n a k a n u n t u k m e m u t a r t u r b i n .

4 . G e n e r a t o r

(10)

B A B 3

P E M B A H A S A N

3 . 1 P e n g e r t i a n P L T S a

P L T S a ( P e m b a n g k i t L i s t r i k T e n a g a S a m p a h ) m e r u p a k a n p e m b a n g k i t y a n g d a p a t m e m b a n g k i t k a n t e n a g a l i s t r i k d e n g a n m e m a n f a a t k a n s a m p a h s e b a g a i b a h a n u t a m a n y a , b a i k d e n g a n s a m p a h o r g a n i k m a u p u n a n o r g a n i k . M e k a n i s m e p e m b a n g k i t a n d a p a t d i l a k u k a n d e n g a n m e t o d e s e c a r a p e m b a k a r a n (t h e r m a l) d a n s e c a r a b i o l o g i s y a i t u d e n g a n c a r a l a n d fi l l g a s t i fi c a t i o n.

3 . 2 P r i n s i p K e r j a P L T S a

B e r d a s a r k a n m e t o d e y a n g d i l a k u k a n , p r i n s i p k e r j a P L T S a d i b e d a k a n m e n j a d i d u a y a i t u p r i n s i p k e r j a d e n g a n m e t o d e p e m b a k a r a n (t h e r m a l) d a n d e n g a n m e t o d e b i o l o g i s (l a n d fi l l g a s t i fi c a t i o n) .

3 . 2 . 1 P L T S a T h e r m a l

P r o s e s k e r j a n y a a d a l a h s e b a g a i b e r i k u t ;

1 . S a m p a h d i t u r u n k a n k a d a r a i r n y a d e n g a n c a r a d i t i r i s k a n d i d a l a m r u a n g h a m p a u d a r a s e l a m a k u r a n g l e b i h l i m a h a r i .

2 . S e t e l a h k a d a r a i r t e r s i s a ±45% s a m p a h a k a n d i m a s u k k a n k e d a l a m t u n g k u p e m b a k a r a n u n t u k d i b a k a r p a d a s u h u 8 5 0OC - 9 0 0OC . P a n a s d a r i h a s i l p e m b a k a r a n i n i a k a n m e m a n a s k a n b o i l e r d a n m e n g u b a h a i r d a l a m b o i l e r m e n j a d i u a p .

3 . U a p y a n g t e r c i p t a a k a n d i s a l u r k a n k e t u r b i n u a p s e h i n g g a t u r b i n a k a n b e r p u t a r . K a r e n a t u r b i n d i h u b u n g k a n d e n g a n g e n e r a t o r m a k a k e t i k a t u r b i n b e r p u t a r g e n e r a t o r j u g a a k a n b e r p u t a r .

(11)
(12)

4 . P e m a n f a a t a n A b u S i s a P e m b a k a r a n

S i s a d a r i p r o s e s p e m b a k a r a n s a m p a h a d a l a h a b u . V o l u m e d a r i b e r a t a b u y a n g d i h a s i l k a n d i p e r k i r a k a n h a n y a k u r a n g d a r i 5 % d a r i b e r a t a t a u v o l u m e

s a m p a h s e m u l a s e b e l u m d i b a k a r . D i n e g a r a - n e g a r a m a j u a b u s i s a p e m b a k a r a n i n i a k a n d i m a n f a a t k a n u n t u k m e n j a d i b a h a n b a k u b a t a k o a t a u b a h a n b a n g u n a n l a i n n y a s e t e l a h d i p r o s e s .

3 . 2 . 2 P L T S a L a n d f i l l G a s t i f i c a t i o n

P L T S a L a n d f i l l G a s t i f i c a t i o n a d a l a h P L T S a y a n g m e m a n f a a t k a n g a s m e t a n a ( C H4) y a n g d i p e r o l e h d a r i h a s i l d e k o m p o s i s i s a m p a h o r g a n i k p a d a l a n d fi l l a r e a

y a n g t e l a h d i s e d i a k a n . T e k n o l o g i i n i m e r u p a k a n t e k n o l o g i s e c a r a b i o l o g i s d a n t i d a k m e n g g u n a k a n m e k a n i s m e p e m b a k a r a n .

T e k n o l o g i l a n d fi l l g a s u n t u k p e m b a n g k i t a n t e n a g a l l i s t r i k m e r u p a k a n t e k n o l o g i y a n g b e r w a w a s a n l i n g k u n g a n d a n d a p a t m e m p e r b a i k i s t r u k t u r d a n m e r e k l a m a s i l a h a n T P A y a n g t e l a h d i g u n a k a n .

K a n d u n g a n g a s m e t a n a ( C H4) y a n g d i h a s i l k a n m e l a l u i m e k a n i s m e p e n g e l o l a a n s a m p a h o r g a n i k d e n g a n s i s t e m l a n d fi l l g a s t i fi c a t i o n a d a l a h ;

T a b e l 3 . 1 K a n d u n g a n G a s L a n d f i l l

U r a i a n V o l u m e g a s

K a n d u n g a n g a s L a n d fi l l 0 , 0 7 6 5 – 0 , 1 4 2 5 m3/ k g K a n d u n g a n g a s M e t a n a

( C H4)

(13)

G b 2 . 2 P r o s e s L a n d f i l l G a s t i f i c a t i o n

3 . 3 P o t e n s i D a y a P e m b a n g k i t a n P L T S a

J u m l a h p o t e n s i d a y a y a n g m a m p u d i b a n g k i t k a n d a r i k a n d u n g a n e n e r g i y a n g t e r s e d i a d a r i s a m p a h o r g a n i k2 a d a l a h ;

T a b e l 3 . 2 P o t e n s i D a y a P e m b a n g k i t a n P L T S a

U r a i a n K e t e r a n g a n

B e r a t S a m p a h O r g a n i k K o t a M e d a n

1 1 9 0 , 7 t o n / h a r i

P o t e n s i E n e r g i L i s t r i k 1 . 5 9 7 , 9 – 3 . 0 6 9 , 6 G J / h a r i D a y a T e r s e d i a (d e m a n d) 1 8 , 5 – 3 5 , 5 M W

D a y a Y a n g D a p a t D i b a n g k i t k a n (s u p p l y)

5 , 5 – 1 0 , 6 5 M W P r o d u k s i E n e r g i L i s t r i k p e r

H a r i

2 1 7 , 2 6 M W h P r o d u k s i E n n e r g i L i s t r i k p e r

T a h u n

7 2 . 4 2 0 M W h / y

2

(14)

3 . 4 D a m p a k P o s i t i f d a n N e g a t i f d a r i P e m b a n g u n a n P L T S a 3 . 4 . 1 D a m p a k P o s i t i f

1 . S e b a g a i s o l u s i u n t u k m e n g a t a s i k e t e r g a n t u n g a n t e r h a d a p b a h a n b a k a r f o s i l s e p e r t i B B M d a n b a t u b a r a y a n g k e t e r s e d i a n n y a s e m a k i n t e r b a t a s d a n m e n i p i s .

2 . P e m a n f a a t a n s a m p a h y a n g e f e k t i f s e b a g a i s u m b e r e n e r g i a l t e r n a t i f t e r b a r u k a n .

3 . M e m b a n t u P e m e r i n t a h m e n g a t a s i p e r m a s a l a h a n s a m p a h t e r u t a m a d i k o t a - k o t a b e s a r .

4 . M e n g a t a s i p e r m a s a l a h a n T e m p a t P e m b u a n g a n S a m p a h ( T P A ) y a n g t e r b a t a s .

5 . M e n a m b a h p a s o k a n c a d a n g a n e n e r g i l i s t r i k d i I n d o n e s i a .

3 . 4 . 2 D a m p a k N e g a t i f

1 . B e r k u r a n g n y a l a p a n g a n k e r j a b a g i w a r g a y a n g m e n g g a n t u n g k a n h i d u p n y a d a r i s a m p a h y a n g a d a d i T P A .

2 . A d a n y a p o l u s i u d a r a y a i t u b a u t a k s e d a p d i s e k i t a r P L T S a d i l o k a s i p e n a m p u n g a n s a m p a h s e b e l u m d i p r o s e s .

3 . A d a n y a s e n y a w a o r g a n i k b e r b a h a y a b e r u p a D i o x i n y a n g m e r u p k a n h a s i l s a m p i n g a n d a r i s i n t e s a k i m i a p a d a p r o s e s p e m b a k a r a n .

(15)
(16)

D A F T A R P U S T A K A

D j i t e n g M a r s u d i I R , 2 0 0 5 . Pembangkitan Energi Listrik”, J a k a r t a : E r l a n g g a .

S i w i K u n c o r o K u k u h , 2 0 1 1 . “Studi Pembangunan Listrik Tenaga

S a mp a h D i t i n j a u d a r i As p e k Te kn i s , E ko n o mi d a n

Lingkungan”, S u r a b a y a : I T S .

L e s t a r i , E n d a n g , d k k , 2 0 0 9 . “Pemanfaatan Gas dari Sampah

untuk Pembangkit Energy Listrik”, J a k a r t a : M & E .

P e r a t u r a n M e n t e r i E n e r g i d a n S u m b e r D a y a M i n e r a l N o m o r 0 7 t a h u n 2 0 1 0 . “Ta r i f T e n a g a Li s t r i k ya n g D i s e d i a ka n O l e h P T. P LN ( P E RS E RO) .

P T . P L N ( P E R S E R O ) , 2 0 1 0 . “Re n c a n a U mu m P e mb a n g ki t a n T e n a g a Li s t r i k 2 0 1 0 - 2 0 1 9”, J a k a r t a .

S e j a t i , K u c o r o , 2 0 0 9 . “Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu”,

Y o g y a k a r t a : K a n i s i u s .

S y a r i f f u d i n M a h m u d s y a h , 2 0 0 8 . “Diktat Kuliah Pembangkit

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...