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THE PERCEPTION OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS

OF SMA N 1 KASIHAN ON THE USE OF TRANSLATION EXERCISES TO LEARN PASSIVE VOICE

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By Dinar Ratnasari Student Number: 051214086

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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i   

THE PERCEPTION OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS

OF SMA N 1 KASIHAN ON THE USE OF TRANSLATION EXERCISES TO LEARN PASSIVE VOICE

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By Dinar Ratnasari Student Number: 051214086

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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iv

I dedicate this thesis to all people who love me

with their heart.

I love you all.

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v

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.

Yogyakarta, October 19, 2011

The Writer

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vi

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma:

Nama : Dinar Ratnasari

Nomor Mahasiswa : 051214086

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul:

THE PERCEPTION OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS

OF SMA N 1 KASIHAN ON THE USE OF TRANSLATION EXERCISES TO LEARN PASSIVE VOICE

beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal: 19 Oktober 2011 Yang menyatakan

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vii ABSTRACT

Ratnasari, Dinar. 2011. The Perception of Tenth Grade Students of SMA N 1 Kasihan on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.

Grammar cannot be ignored because grammar is needed in learning English. Grammar helps learners make correct sentences. However, some problems appear during learning grammar. An example of the problems in learning grammar is passive voice mastery. The researcher had experienced in teaching grammar when the researcher conducted Practice Teaching. The researcher taught passive voice material, the students could not produce grammatically correct sentences based on the passive voice pattern. In addition, the researcher had a discussion with the teacher about the students’ passive voice mastery. The result was that many students had difficulties in learning passive voice and had unsatisfying marks in the passive voice material. Therefore, translation exercises might be used to help them learn passive voice.

This study is aimed at answering two research questions namely: (1) What are the students’ perception on the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice? (2) What are the students’ suggestions on the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice? This research was conducted on February 24 until April 7, 2011. In conducting this research, the researcher used survey research method using a questionnaire and interview as the instruments. The participants were thirty one students of class XB of SMA N 1 Kasihan, in 2010/2011 academic years.

The students gave positive responses on using translation exercises. Translation exercises had benefits for the students. Translation exercises helped students improve their passive voice mastery. Moreover, by using translation exercises the students could learn about translating and could improve their vocabulary mastery. The students proposed to improve the types of translation exercises, to use translation exercises not only in learning passive voice but also in learning other materials of grammar, and to use translation exercises continually. In conclusion, translation exercises could help the students in learning passive voice so they could master the material much better. As a suggestion for English teachers and students, they may not ignore grammar in learning English. Besides, for future researchers who are interested in this study, they are suggested to improve another kind of exercises that can be used for helping students master passive voice and to create an effective learning.

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viii ABSTRAK

Ratnasari, Dinar. 2011. The Perception of Tenth Grade Students of SMA N 1 Kasihan on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Grammar tidak dapat diabaikan begitu saja karena sangat dibutuhkan dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Grammar dapat membantu siswa untuk menyusun kalimat dengan baik dan benar. Namun, banyak persoalan muncul dalam pembelajaran grammar. Salah satu contoh masalah dalam belajar grammar adalah penguasaan kalimat pasif. Penulis pernah mendapat pengalaman mengajar grammar ketika PPL(Program Pengalaman Lapangan). Ketika penulis mengajarkan kalimat pasif, banyak siswa tidak dapat menyusun kalimat dengan benar sesuai dengan rumus kalimat pasif. Selain itu, penulis juga bertanya pada guru bahasa Inggris tentang penguasaan kalimat pasif. Hasilnya adalah banyak siswa yang mendapat kesulitan dalam belajar kalimat pasif dan nilai yang kurang memuaskan dalam pelajaran tersebut. Dengan demikian, latihan translation dapat digunakan untuk membantu siswa dalam belajar kalimat pasif.

Studi ini bertujuan untuk menjawab dua pertanyaan: (1) Apakah persepsi siswa terhadap penggunaan latihan translation dalam belajar kalimat pasif? (2) Apakah saran siswa terhadap penggunaan latihan translation dalam belajar kalimat pasif? Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada tanggal 24 Februari sampai 7 April 2011. Di dalam penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan metode survei dengan menggunakan kuesioner dan wawancara sebagai instrumen penelitian. Respondennya adalah tiga puluh satu siswa kelas XB, SMA N 1 Kasihan, tahun ajaran 2010/2011.

Para siswa memberikan tanggapan yang positif tentang latihan translation. Latihan translation memberikan banyak manfaat bagi siswa. Latihan translation membantu siswa dalam meningkatkan penguasaan akan kalimat pasif. Selain itu, dengan latihan translation siswa dapat belajar tentang menerjemahkan (translating) dan dapat meningkatkan penguasaan kosa kata (vocabulary). Siswa menyarankan untuk mengembangkan bentuk latihan translation, menggunakan latihan translation dalam belajar materi grammar lain, dan terus menggunakan latihan translation dalam belajar. Kesimpulannya, latihan translation dapat membantu siswa dalam mempelajari kalimat pasif sehingga mereka dapat menguasai materi dengan lebih baik. Sebagai saran untuk guru bahasa Inggris dan siswa, pembelajaran grammar jangan diabaikan. Dan untuk peneliti di masa datang yang tertarik pada studi ini, disarankan untuk mengembangkan latihan-latihan lain yang dapat digunakan untuk membantu siswa dalam menguasai kalimat pasif dan untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efektif.

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ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It will be the greatest opportunity to express my thanks and appreciations

to all of them who have helped and supported me to finish my duty. First and

foremost, my deepest gratitude is addressed to Jesus Christ, who never leaves me alone. The greatest appreciation belongs to Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd., who always spent her precious time to give me feedback, solution, advice, and

motivation during the completion of my thesis. Besides, I would thank her for her

love and care when I got an accident. My appreciations also go to all PBI lecturers who had taught and educated me. Then, I would like to express my thanks to Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd., as the Head of English Language Education Study Program for her time and help, and to Ag. Hardi Prasetyo, S.Pd., M.A., who advised and motivated me to complete the thesis.

I am indebted to Drs. H. Suharja, M.Pd., the principal of SMA N 1 Kasihan, who had permitted me to conduct my research. I would also like to

address my thanks to Parmilah, S.Pd., the English teacher, who had facilitated me during my research. To my research participants, all students in XB class, I would thank them for their cooperation because my thesis would not be finished

without them.

My deepest love and thanks belong to Pak Timan and Bu Timan, who always support me in every single thing I do. They are the greatest parents in the

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younger sister, Devi Utik, for allowing me to use her laptop anytime I need it. I love them so much.

A lot of love and thanks are addressed to all friends of mine. I express my

special gratefulness to Mega, Puri, Mayang, Mui c.q, Ruma, and Indro for being my sisters and brothers and helping me finish this thesis. I also give my

deepest thanks to Ayiz, Koko, Rindang, Yebe, Frans, Antris, Berlin, Bunga, Angga, Pandu, Sancrut, Putri, Molen, Taju, Rere, Imel, Shodiq, Kris, Denny, Danu, Chandra, Weni and Lolla for the love, the laugh, the funny experiences and the endless friendship. My sincerest thanks go to Sano, who always be there for me. I would also like to give my special appreciations to Mon Ami for his wonderful patience, and to Kebo who always gives me his never ending support. Besides, I would like to personally express my gratitude to all my friends and

everyone who prayed me and cared about me during my sickness.

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xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... i

APPROVAL PAGES ... ii

PAGE OF DEDICATION ... iv

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... v

LEMBAR PERNYATAANPERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS ... vi

ABSTRACT ... vii

ABSTRAK ... viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... xi

LIST OF TABLE ... xv

LIST OF FIGURES ... xvi

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xvii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A.Research Background ... 1

B.Problem Formulation ... 5

C.Problem Limitation ... 5

D.Research Objectives ... 6

E.Research Benefits ... 7

F. Definition of Terms ... 8

1. Perception ... 8

2. Translation Exercises ... 8

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xii

4. Tenth Grade Students of Senior High School ... 9

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A.Theoretical Description ... 11

1. Perception ... 11

2. Suggestion ... 14

3. Passive Voice ... 15

4. Translation ... 18

5. Grammar Translation Method ... 21

B.Theoretical Framework ... 22

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY A.Research Method ... 26

B.Research Participants ... 27

C.Research Instruments ... 28

1. Questionnaire ... 28

2. Interview ... 30

D.Data Gathering Technique ... 31

E.Data Analysis Technique ... 32

F. Research Procedure ... 33

1. Preparing the Research ... 33

2. Collecting and Analyzing Data ... 34

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CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A.The Students’ Perception on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 36

B.The Students’ Opinions on their Passive Voice Learning ... 43

1. How the Students Learnt Passive Voice before Using Translation

exercises ... 43

2. The Students’ Opinions on the Previous Way to Learn Passive Voice ... 43

C.The Benefits and the Students’ Problems in Using Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 44

1. The Benefits of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 44

2. The Students’ Problems in Using Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 45

D.The Students’ Suggestions on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 46

1. The Students’ Suggestions on the Use of Translation Exercises ... 46

2. The Students’ Suggestions on How Good Translation Exercises Were Supposed to Be ... 47

3. The Students’ Suggestions to Overcome the Problems in Using

Translation Exercises ... 48

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A.Conclusions ... 53

1. The Students’ Perception on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice ... 51

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xiv

B. Suggestions ... 53

1. Suggestions for English Teachers ... 53

2. Suggestions for Students ... 54

3. Suggestions for Future Researchers ... 54

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xv

LIST OF TABLE

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xvi

LIST OF FIGURES

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xvii

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Permission Letters to Conduct Research (Surat Permohonan Izin

Penelitian) ... 59

Appendix 2 Permission Statement Letters (Surat Keterangan Izin) ... 63

Appendix 3 The Blueprints of the Instruments ... 67

Appendix 4 The Recapitulation of the Questionnaire Results ... 75

Appendix 5 The Recapitulation of the Interview Results ... 80

Appendix 6 The Samples of the Questionnaire Results ... 86

Appendix 7 The Samples of the Interview Results ... 95

Appendix 8 The Samples of the Translation Exercises Worksheets ... 102

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides research background, problem formulation, problem

limitation, research objectives, research benefits and definition of terms.

A. Research Background

Recently, the more a technique of teaching skill is being improved and

developed, the more a technique of grammar teaching is being ignored.

Nevertheless, grammar is needed. Although there are many techniques to teach or

learn English skill, teaching or learning grammar still should exist. Grammar

cannot be ignored because grammar is important in learning English.

“Grammar can be explained as a study which includes their words’

classes, inflections, functions, and their relations in a sentence” (Allen, 2003:

606). Thus, it can be concluded that grammar is rules of language which involves

the classes of words, inflections, functions, and words’ relations in a sentence in

order to combine words into sentences.

Therefore, grammar is essential for learning English because grammar

categorizes language on the basis of speech unit parts, such as noun, verb and

adjective. By knowing grammar, learners recognise how to arrange words to

create meanings. Understanding and mastering grammar can also help learners

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To master grammar, students have to practice grammar. Practicing

grammar can help learners understand more because grammar should be learnt

step by step. Learners can be aware of the way to combine words even sentences

by practicing grammar. According to Maurer (2000: ix) as cited in Veniranda and

Tutyandari (2008: 2), learners should learn and practice the formal rule and the

structure of a language to facilitate them in mastering the language. Learners who

study grammar are more able to realize how to write and combine the words to

make a grammatically correct and meaningful sentence. That means grammatical

errors can be reduced. The more mistakes are reduced, the better English mastery

is.

Besides, English skill cannot be separated from grammar mastery because

English skill should include grammar indirectly, such as in writing, in speaking, in

reading or in listening. For example, grammar is important in formal writing.

Each sentence should be grammatically correct. Another example, grammar is

necessary in formal communication, such as news or formal speech. On the other

hand, the better grammatical sentence is used in speaking, the much better the

learners will speak English. Even though communication still works without

correct grammar but it is grammar which arranges and organizes the language

structure so the use of appropriate grammar is recommended. Purpura (2004: ix)

says, “Grammar, the structural glue, the code of language, is arguably at the heart

of language use, whether this involves speaking, listening, reading or writing.”

That means grammar has a beneficial role in gaining English skill, such as

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grammar. Furthermore, by understanding grammar the context of a sentence can

be more identified so misunderstanding will be decreased. Thus, the use of

appropriate grammar still becomes a plus point in English language mastery.

Nevertheless, grammar has the most significant function when grammar is used in

writing because grammar is a basic rule to create sentences.

However, many problems emerge in learning English related to grammar.

It can be shown when there are many people who speak in English but they use

unacceptable grammatical sentences. Another example is that students tend to face

difficulties to express their aims in written. Moreover, many students have

difficulties in learning grammar. Many students cannot combine sentences well.

They use incorrect grammatical sentences.

An example of the problems in learning grammar is passive voice mastery.

Passive voice means to change active verb into passive verb so that the subject

becomes the object (Azar, 1992: 276). It is useful in formal writing because it is

often used to compose formal writing, such as scholarly paper. Thus, passive

voice is important to facilitate students in writing. Besides, related to the senior

high school syllabus, the grammar mastery at this level is to introduce passive

voice.

In addition, the researcher had experienced to teach grammar and it was

difficult for students to follow and understand the material. When the researcher

taught passive voice material, the students could not produce grammatically

correct sentences based on the passive voice pattern. They knew the passive voice

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fact when she conducted Practice Teaching. Then, she discussed the students’

passive voice mastery with the teacher. The result was that many students of grade

ten faced difficulties in learning passive voice and had unsatisfying marks in

passive voice material.

In this study, translation exercises are used to help students in learning

passive voice because translation exercises really work in learning grammar for

the English Language Education Study Program students of Sanata Dharma

University as cited in Veniranda and Tutyandari (2008: 17). They explain that

translation exercises can improve students’ ability in creating and combining

sentences. To translate is to change a language into another language (Allen,

2003: 1495). Meanwhile, an exercise means a particular task for practice

(McKean, 2003: 505). In this research, translation exercises can be described as a

particular task to translate or change Indonesian language into English.

Translation exercises can facilitate students in learning passive voice because

learners should think twice. First, learners should concern themselves with the

words, and second, they should consider about the pattern. They will be

accustomed to thinking how to combine words or sentences.

Consequently, students of SMA N 1 Kasihan were taught how to master

grammar, especially passive voice by using translation exercises. The researcher

wants to know the students’ perception and suggestions about the use of

translation exercises to learn passive voice. That is major reason why the

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B. Problem Formulation

This research is aimed to investigate two questions. The questions

become the guideline of the process of the research. Those questions are:

1. What are the students’ perception on the use of translation exercises to learn

passive voice?

2. What are the students’ suggestions on the use of translation exercises to learn

passive voice?

C. Problem Limitation

This research will only focus on the 1 Kasihan Senior High School

students’ perception on the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice

because it will help both the teacher and the students especially in passive voice

and grammar mastery. The translation exercises are limited only as follow-up

activity for learning passive voice. The translation exercises are used as

worksheets for students. However, explaining the materials is still given for

students in order to inform the knowledge about passive voice.

The students involved in this research are the tenth grade students of SMA

N 1 Kasihan. As high school students, they have to be introduced to the skill

about grammar since it is needed by them to help them understand or make

scholarly papers in the future time. In order to improve grammar teaching

strategy, the first thing to do is to find out the students’ perception.

Following their syllabus, the grammar mastery at this level is introduction

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useful in formal writing, such as report or scholarly paper. Besides, passive voice

is a material which is taught for tenth grade students. Based on the discussion

which was done by the researcher and the teacher in SMA N 1 Kasihan before

conducting this study, many students faced difficulties in learning passive voice.

One way to help them master passive voice can be through translation

exercises. It can be used because translation exercises really work in learning

grammar for the English Language Education Study Program students of Sanata

Dharma University as cited in Veniranda and Tutyandari (2008: 17). While the

researcher has an experience in using translation exercises to learn grammar, the

translation exercises are so beneficial to facilitate students in learning grammar.

Thus, the researcher considers using translation exercises. Translation exercises

will be applied for five meetings because those exercises include passive voice of

simple present, passive voice of simple past, passive voice of present progressive,

passive voice of past progressive and passive voice of perfect tenses.

D. Research Objectives

The objectives of the study are:

1. To find out the students’ perception on the use of translation exercises to learn

passive voice.

2. To find out the students’ suggestions on the use of translation exercises to

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E. Research Benefits

The researcher expects that this study will bring benefits for readers, for

students, for teachers, for future researchers and thus it is expected to bring

benefits to anyone who needs it.

1. For Readers

This study can inform readers about students’ perception on the use of

translation exercises to learn passive voice and their suggestions on the use of

translation exercises. Knowing the information, readers can use translation

exercises as an alternative way to help them in learning passive voice or even

learning grammar.

2. For Students

This study can be a guideline for students to improve their strategy of

passive voice learning and they can use translation exercises to facilitate them not

only in passive voice learning but also in learning grammar. Students are also

expected not to ignore grammar in order to master English and facilitate them in

formal writing.

3. For Teachers

This study gains information about students’ perception on the use of

translation exercises to learn passive voice. Knowing and considering students’

perception, teachers can find their students’ needs and difficulties. Besides, this

study also presents possible recommendation for future grammar learning. Thus, it

can also be resource for teachers to improve their teaching technique to meet

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4. For Future Researchers

This study is expected to bring benefits to future researchers who want to

conduct a research related to grammar. It can be a reference or source for future

researchers.

F. Definition of Terms

In order to clarify the concept of the discussion presented in this research,

the researcher provides the definition of terms used in this research.

1. Perception

“Perception means the ability of the mind to refer sensory information to

an external object as its cause” (McKean, 2003: 1107). Perception in this thesis is

the students’ opinions of something. Perception here refers to tenth grade

students’ point of views about the use of translation exercises in learning passive

voice. Thus, it is an argument, an idea, or what a student is thinking about the use

of translation exercises to learn passive voice based on their own experiences.

2. Translation Exercises

Sinclair (2001: 535) describes exercise as an activity or a work that somebody

does to help learn a particular skill. Translation exercises in this study are used to

help students learn passive voice. That means the items are provided in Indonesian

language that involves passive voice and then students should translate into

English. The exercises are arranged from the materials which have been given by

the teacher. Thus, it is a kind of exercise that is given by a teacher to teach

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exercises can be a sentence or sentences such as interrogative sentences, or

declarative sentences and those can be also a text form, such as descriptive text or

narrative text. In this thesis, students will give their opinions on the use of

translation exercises to learn passive voice.

3. Passive Voice

“Passive voice is a verb form or voice which is used to indicate that the

grammatical subject is the object of the action or the effect of the verb”

(Soukhanov, 1996: 1324). In this study passive voice means a sentence which the

subject accepts the action and the subject is appeared in a "by the . . ." phrase or

the subject can be omitted (Hansard, 2004). The pattern is be + V3 or subject

should be followed by auxiliary or modal followed by be and then followed by

past participle. In this research, the students or participants have difficulties in

learning passive voice. Therefore, passive voice is given in exercises form. The

exercises are in Indonesian language and should be translated by students into

English.

4. Tenth Grade Students of Senior High School

Hornby (2002: 1344) describes a student as an individual who is learning

in a college or school. Students who are in first year in senior high school will be

regarded as tenth grade students. Tenth grade students will be introduced to

passive voice based on the standard competence of senior high school. Based on

the syllabus of SMA N 1 Kasihan, passive voice is one of the English materials

that should be taught to tenth grade students. Besides, the learning objective in the

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In this research, the tenth grade students of SMA N 1 Kasihan found the

difficulties in learning passive voice. They could not apply the pattern of passive

voice well. Their teacher also said that passive voice was one of the grammar

problems for them because many students got unsatisfying marks in this material.

Thus, here, tenth grade students will be taught passive voice through translation

exercises. They will learn passive voice by doing worksheets which consist of

passive voice and translation. Then, tenth grade students should give their

perception and suggestions on the use of translation exercises during their

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11

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Chapter II talks about the literature review. This chapter consists of two parts. They are theoretical description and theoretical framework. The theoretical description is used as the relevant theory for the research itself. In addition, the theoretical framework is provided to summarize all major relevant theories connected to the research in order to solve the research problem.

A. Theoretical Description

Theoretical description discusses about perception, suggestion, passive voice, translation and grammar translation method.

1. Perception

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Perception also includes some steps in its process. Perception has three basic processes based on Huffman and Vernoy (1997: 97). Those basic processes are:

a. Selection

“Selection is the process when someone chooses to pay attention to something and the brain controls to reform the important message and remove the rest” (Huffman and Vernoy, 1997: 98). People will ignore something because they have chosen and paid attention to a thing which might interest them.

b. Organization

After selecting something or information the mind will put the information in meaningful way (Hudgetts, 1985: 88). That is called as organization. The mind organizes and arranges the information to become meaningful. Information will be useful for people, if the information is meaningful. On the other hand, Huffman and Vernoy (2000: 111) explain that organizing means to organize selecting information into pattern which can help in understanding the world. This also indicates that organization is to make information meaningful.

c. Interpretation

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influence the interpretation. As a result, each person has different perception because the factors that influence the interpretation of each person are not similar.

In addition, Robbins (2005: 135) classifies three factors which affect the individual perception. They are the perceiver, the object or target and the situation where the perception is made.

a. Perceiver

Personal characteristics are related to perception because the characteristics can control the individual perception. Those characteristics consist of personality, attitudes, motives, interests, experiences and expectations. Someone who does not have an interest in something, he or she tends to give negative perception because he or she is not interested. When someone does not like learning English, she or he may think that English is difficult to be learnt. Another example is when someone sees a shadow of another person in a dark room (Huffman and Vernoy, 2000: 126). He or she will interpret something based on his or her expectations. He or she may have perception that the shadow is a thief or a beloved couple or anything according the expectations.

b. Object or Target

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c. Situation

Situation has an effect on perception. Factors that include in the situation are time, work setting and social setting. Although the perceiver or target does not change but the situation is different, it can influence someone’s perception. In other words, environment has a role in influencing perception and then it will affect individual behavior.

2. Suggestion

Suggestion means an idea which is mentioned to think about and it can be a reason to assume that something is right (Hornby, 2002: 1353). Thus, individual’s suggestion is based on his or her thought of something. Besides, Procter (1996: 1457) describes suggestion as an idea or action which should be considered by other people. It can be said that suggestion might be an idea for another person. Suggestion can affect mind, feeling and attitude or behavior of other people because other people may be influenced by the suggestion which is given to them. According to Brown (1928) as cited in Langdon-Down (2009), suggestion is used to show a general influence on the mind, other than that logical argument. For example, students are influenced logically when they are taught to learn passive voice step by step, but they can be influenced illogically by attitude towards the teacher, by their opinions on life or by situation or condition around. Langdon-Down (2009) considers illogical influence as an influence by suggestion.

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bad previous experience which is repeated, it will be brought back to the mind. Thus, suggestion can be considered based on the experiences.

In this study, suggestion refers to students’ ideas of using translation exercises to learn passive voice. The suggestions will be helpful in improving the technique of using translation. The suggestions of the students on the use of translation exercises are beneficial to solve the research problem because those suggestions can answer the second research question.

3. Passive Voice

Passive voice is a part of the grammar materials. According to McKean (2003: 1090), passive voice means selecting the voice in which the subject undergoes the verb action. Besides, Soukhanov (1996: 1324) explains passive voice as a verb form or voice which is used to indicate that the grammatical subject is the object of the action. Thus, subject who acts in a sentence will be an object in passive voice. According to Azar (1992: 276), in passive voice, the object of active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb and only transitive verbs are used. Transitive means verbs which are followed by object.

In the simple way, the pattern of passive voice is be + V3. It means the subject could be followed by be auxiliary or modal auxiliary which is added with

be, and then followed by past participle. There are some forms of passive voice. Those forms are:

a. Subject +am/is/are+V3 → simple present

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d. Subject +was/were+V3 → simple past

e. Subject +was/were+being+V3 → past progressive f. Subject +had+been+V3 → past perfect

g. Subject +will+be+V3 → simple future

h. Subject +am/is/are going to be+V3 → be going to

i. Subject + will+have+been+V3 (is very rarely used) → future perfect j. Subject + will/would/can/could/must/had to/shall/should/may/might/ought

to+be+V3 → passive voice of modals

The passive voice uses past participle, so there are irregular verbs and

regular verbs. Regular verbs just need additional –ed or –d such as studied, loved, expected or helped. However, it needs memorizing for irregular verbs because

irregular verbs are more complex and complicated than regular verbs.

In summary, these figures which were created by Hansard (2004) can facilitate learners to reach better understanding of passive voice.

(passive-simple past,-irregular)

(passive-simplefuture)

(passive-present perfect)

(Subject performing action has been omitted.)

[image:34.612.69.534.89.679.2]

(passive-simple present)

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(active-simple past,-irregular)

(active-simplefuture) (active-present perfect)

[image:35.612.69.531.95.632.2]

(active-simple present)

Figure 2.2 Active Voice (Hansard, 2004: 2)

Passive voice is often used in formal writing such as report or essay. Although the construction of the sentence is different from active voice, both passive and active have similar meaning. Passive voice does not change the purpose of the sentence. Related to Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2, they have the same idea.

[1] “The boy was bitten by the dog” [2] “The dog bit the boy”

Two sentences above show that it was the dog which bit the boy and the boy was the victim because he was bitten. The first sentence and the second sentence do not describe that it was the boy who did bite.

[3] “Research will be presented by Pooja at the conference” [4] “Pooja will present her research at the conference”

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sentence [4], the object is “research” and “Pooja” is a subject who acts or will do something. However, the aim of those sentences is the same.

[5] “Experiments have been conducted to test the hypothesis” [6] “Scientists have conducted experiments to test the hypothesis”

In sentence [5], the agent with “by” can be omitted because the subject in an active form is a vague pronoun or noun. In that case, “scientists” tends to be a vague noun so it is not expressed.

4. Translation

Translation is always included in each skill of English because in teaching learning there is always translation directly or indirectly. Bell (1991: 5) says, “Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what had been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic, equivalences.” However, in simple way translation can be concluded as a process of changing one language into another language.

Duff (1992: 10) specifies the general principles of translation; they are: a. Meaning

Translation should have the same meaning of the original text. The meaning cannot be changed although the way in expressing the idea is different. The same meaning should be revealed accurately.

b. Form

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c. Register

Register here means to consider about the level of formality. In translating, formal and informal expression should be differentiated. For example, informal expression cannot be used in formal speaking or legal documents writing.

d. Source Language Influence

Translation should be as natural as possible. It means that the translation should be clear and it should have closed meaning to second language meaning. Thus, considering about second language culture is necessary.

e. Style and Clarity

The style of the original text should not be changed. Nevertheless, a translator may reduce or correct the words or sentences if there are many monotonous repetitions in the text.

f. Idiom

If there are untranslatable idioms, those kinds of idioms should not force to translate into second language. Using equivalent meaning or inverted commas is suggested.

Furthermore, there are some reasons for using translation in the classroom based on Duff (1992: 6). They are:

a. Influence of the Mother Tongue

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b. Naturalness of the Activity

Translation is a natural activity. It can be used in many activities every time. It can be on all of time in bank, office, hospital so it may be applied in classroom with the students (Duff, 1992: 6).

c. The Skill Aspect

Language includes skill of speaking and writing. Thus, translation can be an appropriate way to practice those skills because the definition of language is how people interact to others. Communication can be written or spoken form and translation is necessary to help in communication. In other words, translation can help students to communicate in foreign language.

d. The Reality of Language

Language is relevant to translation of both writing and speaking. Translation is not only all about literature or textbooks because it includes a lot of scope. The aim is to inform and give knowledge to the students about the whole language because translation is included in a lot of fields.

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5. Grammar Translation Method

Grammar translation method is not a new method. It was often used in 19th century. However, this method can still be used in teaching learning process. Larsen-Freeman (2000: 11) explains, “By studying grammar of target language, students would be more common with grammar of their native language in order to help students speak and write the native language.” Grammar translation method is used to facilitate students to read and appreciate foreign language literature (Tuck, 1998). There are some techniques of grammar translation method according to Larsen-Freeman (2000: 19). They are:

a. Translation of a Literary Passage

This technique is focused on grammar and vocabulary. Students translate a reading passage from another language into their own language. The translation can be written or spoken.

b. Reading Comprehension Questions

This technique often provides three groups of questions. The first group of questions asks the information that is contained in the reading passage. The second group, students should really understand the aim of the reading passage because the students have to answer to the questions that have implicit meaning in the reading passage. The last group asks students to connect the passage to their daily life context.

c. Antonyms or Synonyms

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d. Cognates

Students learn about cognates by learning spelling and they also memorize words which seem cognates but the meaning in target language is different from the meaning in native language.

e. Deductive Application

Grammar rules are offered by giving examples. If students understand the rule, they are asked to apply the rule to different examples.

f. The Use of Fill-in-the-Blanks

Students are asked to fill the missing words in the blanks with new vocabulary or a particular grammar type such as verb or preposition.

g. Memorization

Students have to memorize lists of target language words and their equivalences in native language.

h. The Use of Words in Sentences

Students make sentences and they should use new vocabulary. New vocabulary is beneficial to be introduced in this technique.

i. Composition

Students are asked to write a certain topic in the target language. They should compose writing in another language.

B. Theoretical Framework

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basic theory in order to be authentic. The researcher uses the perception theory to answer the first research question. The processes of perception are selecting, organizing and interpreting. Perception here is the students’ views of the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice. Therefore, students will select, organize and then interpret the use of translation exercises based on their own experiences in learning passive voice. However, there are some factors which should be considered because in this study those factors influence the students’ perception. Those factors are perceiver, target and situation.

Suggestion means to guide the mind, feeling or behavior of another person. Suggestion is also connected to effect of the mind. In this study, suggestion refers to the influence of the students’ mind on the use of translation exercises. Students should give suggestions on the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice. They suggest about the use of translation exercises related to their ideas and experiences. This suggestion theory helps researcher find out the answer to the second research question.

To conduct this research, understanding about what the important things in this study is very significant. Thus, this study is also related to passive voice, translation exercises and grammar translation method. Those theories are beneficial in preparing material and conducting the research. Theory of passive voice and translation are needed in providing and applying translation exercises.

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passive voice pattern and even regular or irregular verbs. For example, the pattern of simple present in passive is subject + be + past participle and the verb should be considered to be either regular or irregular verb. Those can be helpful for the researcher in conducting this study. Besides, how students master passive voice can help them answer the question about students’ perception on the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice. Passive voice is given in the form of translation exercises, besides explanation.

In addition, translation theory is also required. Bell (1991: 5) says that translation is the expression in another language. The theory of translation helps the researcher understand the general principle of translation such as meaning, form, register, source language influence, style and clarity, and idiom. Thus, the problem in preparing exercises can be solved because the basis of translation has been known. Translation theory can also facilitate the researcher in correcting the exercises. Moreover, according Duff (1992: 6), translation can be applied in the classroom because there are some reasons, such as influence of the mother tongue, naturalness of the activity, the skill aspect, and the reality of language. In this study, the students are expected to give their perception and suggestions on the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice.

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26 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

This chapter provides the methodology which was used to solve the

research problems in Chapter I. The discussion in this chapter includes research

method, research participants, research instruments, data gathering technique, data

analysis technique, and research procedure.

A. Research Method

In this study, the researcher employed survey research as the methodology.

“Survey research is research for measuring attitudes, opinion or achievements of

any number of variables in natural setting” (Wiersma, 1995: 169). Besides, Borg

and Gall (1983: 403) explain that survey is often used simply in gaining

information, such as the percentage but it can also be applied to investigate the

connection between different variables. It can be said that survey is used to gain or

describe the point of view or perception, attitudes, even characteristics of an

individual based on their own experiences.

A questionnaire and interview are two examples of instruments in survey

research. Thus, the researcher used both instruments of survey. Both of those

instruments were used to answer the research questions about the students’

perception and suggestions on the use of translation exercises to learn passive

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B. Research Participants

The participants were grade ten students of SMA N 1 Kasihan, Bantul.

Since the participants were still considered too large and based on the discussion

with the teacher, the researcher decided to use XB as the samples. The samples

were from class XB of SMA N 1 Kasihan, in 2010/2011 academic years. The

samples consisted of thirty one students. The students of XB class had similar

capability in learning English. Their abilities were more or less the same in

learning English so there was no significant ability differences between clever

students and average students. Moreover, based on the discussion with the

teacher, they had difficulties in learning passive voice. Thus, XB students were

chosen as the samples. In this study, the students as the samples were given

translation exercises for five meetings and also questionnaire in the last meeting.

They were expected to be able to give their opinions in order to collect the data.

The research was conducted in SMA Negeri 1 Kasihan on February 24

until April 7, 2011. SMA Negeri 1 Kasihan is located on Jl. Bugisan Km. 5,

Yogyakarta. This school is one of the favorite schools in Bantul because this

school is one of the International schools. As an International school, this school

gives more attention in teaching and learning English so the students are expected

to be able to master English. Moreover, all of students and teachers are expected

to use English in all teaching learning process. Therefore, mastering English is

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C. Research Instruments

This research used two instruments in order to gain the information. The

instruments were questionnaire and interview guide.

1. Questionnaire

Trochim (2006) explains that a questionnaire tends to be an instrument

which uses paper and pencil in its implementation. That means a questionnaire

allows respondents to answer the questions by writing their opinions or choosing

the provided options. In addition, questionnaire is used to gain information which

is real and accurate. Thus, factual result can be achieved. It can be said that a

questionnaire is a useful instrument which is used to collect real data. Many

researches apply questionnaire to gain information or data.

In this study, the questionnaire was divided into two types of questions;

they were the closed questions and the open questions. The closed questions tend

to be short and quick for researchers and respondents because it does not spend

much time to be completed by respondents or to be analyzed by researchers. The

closed questions facilitate the respondents by providing the options or alternative

answers. On the other hand, Bes and Kahn (1986: 167) explain that the open

questions are free responses. Hadi (2000: 179) states that closed questions let

respondents give their opinions widely. That means the respondents can answer

by writing their own answers and they are free to share what they are thinking

about.

The researcher used both closed and open questions of questionnaire. It

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Indonesian language in order to avoid the students’ confusion and to facilitate the

students in answering the questions in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was

given to all students of XB in the last meeting which was on 7th of April 2011.

The questionnaire was distributed to the students and then the students answered

the questions in the questionnaire forms.

There were part A and part B for the closed questions. Part A questioned

about the students’ perception on the use of translation exercises in learning

passive voice and part B asked about the students’ perception on the influence of

the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice. Both part A and part B

consisted of two aspects. There were four questions for each aspect. Thus, there

were sixteen questions for the closed questions.

Similar to the closed questions, there were also part A and part B for open

questions. Part A asked about the students’ ideas on the use of translation

exercises in learning passive Voice. Part A had two aspects and there were two

questions for each aspect. Part B questioned about the students’ suggestions on

the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice. There were two aspects

which were questioned in part B. Each aspect included two questions. Therefore,

open questions had eight questions.

In general, the closed questions aimed to gain information about the

students’ perception on the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice in

order to answer the first research question. The questions asked about the use of

translation exercises, the difficulties in using translation exercises, the influence of

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translation exercises. Besides, the open questions wanted to obtain the students’

suggestions on the use of translation exercises to find out the answer to the second

research question.

2. Interview

An interview is conducted by asking questions to respondents directly

(Trochim, 2006). Thus, the interview should be based on the respondents’

statements because the researchers interview or ask the questions to the

respondents. Interview is done by asking directly to the respondents so it needs

much time to be conducted. Moreover, the researcher should make schedule and

set the time with the respondents to have interview so that the interview can be

comfortable for both interviewer and respondents (Wiersma, 1995: 199).

Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (1990: 418) show that interview is almost

similar to questionnaire because there are two types of questions; they are closed

and open questions. They also explain that closed questions give respondents

several options as the answer and open questions are more flexible because the

respondents can answer the questions freely. However, a researcher can use both

of those types in one interview.

In this study, the researcher used open questions for conducting interview

in order to gain more information because the respondents could explain their

reasons and their explanation widely and clearly. The interview was used to reveal

and dig up information which could not be obtained through questionnaire. There

were also part A and B in the interview. Part A asked about the students’

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divided into two aspects and there were four questions in part A. On the other

hand, part B questioned aboutthe students’ perception on the influence of the use

of translation exercises in learning passive voice. There were also two aspects in

part B. Each aspect had four questions. Thus, the interview consisted of sixteen

questions.

The interview was conducted by asking the students in face to face talks in

Indonesian language. It was aimed to gain deeper information about students’

perception on the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice personally.

The researcher chose ten students as the samples. Based on the discussion with the

teacher, ten students had represented as the samples for the interview. The

students were interviewed one by one in order to obtain more factual data. The

interview was conducted after distributing questionnaire was done.

D. Data Gathering Technique

To collect the data about students’ perception and suggestions on the use

of translation exercises to learn passive voice, the questionnaire was used. Before,

the researcher distributed the questionnaire, the teacher applied translation

exercises for five meetings. The first meeting was on February 24, 2011. Next, the

second meeting was on March 3, 2011. The third meeting was on March 24, 2011.

The fourth meeting was on March 31, and then the last meeting was on April 7,

2011.

Questionnaire was given in the last meeting and distributed to all students

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answering the questions. At the same time, the questionnaire forms were collected

by the researcher and then the questionnaire would be analyzed. Based on the

students’ answers, the researcher could consider the students’ perception on the

use of translation exercises based on their experiences.

Besides, interview was also held to gather the data about students’

perception. The researcher asked some students about their opinions after

distributing questionnaire. The students were asked or interviewed at different

time in order to clarify unclear answer. The interview was conducted by asking

each of them. The researcher asked questions to the students and the students

answered based on their own experiences. Then, the researcher wrote their

statements by drawing a conclusion on what the students had said.

E. Data Analysis Technique

The researcher analyzed the data after data was completed. The data had to

be analyzed to reach the factual information. The researcher used two ways to

analyze the questionnaire because the questionnaire was the combination of

closed questions and open questions. As the questionnaire was combination of

two questionnaire’s types of questions, the analysis was differentiated for each

type of questions.

The questionnaire items which used closed questions consisted of sixteen

questions or statements. In analyzing this data, the researcher used percentage (%)

to calculate the students’ responses. The number of students who chose an option

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It can be showed as follows.

n

N

Note:

n = total number of students who chose an option

N = total number of students

In addition, there were eight questions for open questions. The researcher

used description to analyze the answers to each question in the questionnaire. In

those items, the students’ explanations were beneficial to describe their opinions

more clearly. To analyze, the researcher interpreted the students’ answers.

Besides, there were sixteen questions for interviewing the participants. The

researcher interpreted the respondents’ answers in analyzing the data. Then, the

researcher used explanation to describe the respondents’ answers.

F. Research Procedure

In this study, the researcher divided the procedure into three main steps.

To conduct this study, the steps of research procedure were:

1. Preparing the Research

The preparation was started by discussing with the teacher to identify the

students’ difficulties about passive voice. The next step was preparing translation

exercises as worksheets for five meetings based on the passive voice forms which

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instruments were a questionnaire and interview. After the initial preparation was

done, the researcher asked permission to conduct the research. The researcher

gave the permission letters to the Governor of Yogyakarta (Gubernur Daerah

Istimewa Yogyakarta) and to the regional government of Bantul (Dinas

Kabupaten Bantul). Then, the researcher asked permission to the principal of

SMA N 1 Kasihan.

2. Collecting and Analyzing Data

To gather the data, the teacher’s help was really needed. She applied the

translation exercises in the classroom during learning passive voice for five

meetings. In the last meeting, the questionnaire forms were distributed to all

respondents and then the students collected to the researcher after the

questionnaire forms were completed. Besides, the interview was also done to gain

the data. The interview was conducted after distributing the questionnaire was

done. After the expected data was collected, the researcher analyzed the

information. She examined and investigated the students’ statements and opinions

to gain the needed data through questionnaire and interview. She counted and

interpreted the data.

3. Concluding the Results

The results could be known from the data analysis. The analysis showed

the students’ perception and suggestions. Then, the researcher concluded what the

result was based on the data which was collected. The conclusions were the

perception and suggestions of the tenth grade students of SMA N 1 Kasihan on

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discussed and reported the result so the thesis could be completed. Finally, the

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36   

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter describes the result of the study. In general, this part talks

about the students’ perception and suggestions on the use of translation exercises

to learn passive voice.

A. The Students’ Perception on the Use of Translation Exercises to Learn Passive Voice

The closed questions of the questionnaire asked about the students’

perception or opinions. In this part, the students were expected to share their

perception on the use of translations exercises by choosing strongly agree, agree,

disagree, or strongly disagree options. The closed questions consisted of sixteen

statements. Furthermore, the summarized data of the closed questions of the

[image:54.612.68.537.234.573.2]

questionnaire is presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 showed the number of the students who selected strongly agree

or agree or disagree or strongly disagree options. The first column was the

statement number of questions which were asked in the questionnaire form. There

were four columns for four options (strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly

disagree) in Table 4.1. For each option, there were two columns. The first column

was the total number of the students who chose certain option. The second column

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[image:55.612.67.534.125.654.2]

 

Table 4.1 The Summarized Data of the Closed Questions

Statement No

Strongly Agree

Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

Total % Total % Total % Total %

1 12 38.71 19 61.29 0 0 0 0 2 9 29.03 22 70.97 0 0 0 0 3 13 41.94 18 58.06 0 0 0 0

4 7 22.58 24 77.42 0 0 0 0

5 0 0 15 48.39 15 48.39 1 3.23

6 1 3.23 19 61.29 9 29.03 2 6.45

7 3 9.68 19 61.29 9 29.03 0 0

8 0 0 10 32.26 17 54.84 4 12.90

9 13 41.94 18 58.06 0 0 0 0 10 13 41.94 18 58.06 0 0 0 0 11 16 51.61 14 45.16 1 3.23 0 0 12 0 0 2 6.45 22 70.97 7 22.58

13 13 41.94 17 54.84 1 3.23 0 0

14 15 48.39 16 51.61 0 0 0 0 15 12 38.71 19 61.29 0 0 0 0

16 11 35.48 19 61.29 1 3.23 0 0

The first four statements talked about the use of translation exercises.

Many students (61.29%) agreed that they liked using translation exercises. There

were twenty two students (70.97%) who agreed that translation exercises were

easy to be practiced. The third statement was about whether translation exercises

could be an alternative technique to learn passive voice and there were eighteen

students (58.06%) who chose agree options. Next, twenty four students (77.42%)

agreed that they preferred to use translation exercises in learning passive voice.

The second four statements (no. 5-8) were about the difficulties of using

translation exercises. Thirty students (96.78%) chose agree and disagree options

that they had difficulties to translate words into a sentence. There were nineteen

students (61.29%) who agreed that their vocabulary mastery was poor and they

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statement was to ask whether the students spent much time to open dictionaries

during the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice. Connected with that

statement, twenty one students (67.74%) preferred disagree and strongly disagree

options.

Statements no. 9-12 showed the students’ perception on the influence of

the use of translation exercises in learning passive voice. There were eighteen

students (58.06 %) who agreed that translation exercises helped them in practicing

the passive voice and translation exercises also facilitated them to change active

sentences into passive sentences. The next statement talked whether the students’

understanding of passive voice increased. Related to that statement, there were

thirty students (96.77%) who selected strongly agree and agree options. Next,

there were twenty two students (70.97%) who disagreed that translation exercises

made them confused in learning passive voice.

The last four statements were asking about other benefits of translation

exercises. Seventeen students (54.84%) agreed that translation helped students

improve their vocabulary. There were sixteen students (51.61%) who agreed that

translation exercises helped them learn to translate. Then, nineteen students

(61.29%) agreed that translation exercises were helpful in applying the grammar

pattern into sentences and could be used to learn both passive voice and other

[image:56.612.68.531.193.645.2]

materials of grammar.

Table 4.1 explains the result of the research that many students had

positive responses about the use of translation exercises to learn passive voice.

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them in learning grammar. According to the students, translation exercises might

be used to learn other grammar materials. Thus, translation exercises could

facilitate them to master not only passive voice but also other grammar materials.

Besides, translation exercises could improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. In

conclusion, the students’ perception proved that the use of translation exercises

brought about benefits and positive effects to them.

Based on the interview, there were ten students who said that they

practiced translation exercises because translation exercises were easy. They

thought that translation exercises were fun and easy to be remembered. Three

students told that translation exercises could also support in grammar and

vocabulary mastery. Besides, there was a student who said that translation

exercises used daily life language so it helped students to understand more. There

was another student who stated that he could learn both grammar and vocabulary

at the same time. In addition, another student stated that translation exercises were

an appropriate method in learning passive voice. All students said that translation

exercises could be an alternative way to learn passive voice because translation

exercises facilitated them not only in learning passive voice but also in learning

grammar, vocabulary and translation. The students could study more in translating

a language into another language. Thus, those were the reasons why the students

used translation exercises to learn passive voice. Moreover, all students preferred

to use translation exercises because of those reasons.

Meanwhile, all students who were interviewed had some problems in

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auxiliary, the use of past participles and word’s order. The problem in vocabulary

mastery was their vocabulary mastery was poor. Many students only knew

vocabularies which were often being used. They were not really familiar with new

words so they felt difficult to memorize words which were rarely used. Further,

there were some problems in translating. Some students said that it was difficult

because their vocabulary mastery was not good enough. The students also found

difficulties in memorizing past participles and putting be auxiliary. On the other

hand, there were six students who found difficulties in arranging words into

sentences. Five of those students translated a sentence in word by word way and

they did not consider the meaning of the sentence so they could not arrange the

words well. Thus, the sentences would be not natural because they had problem in

word’s order. Besides, some students also had a problem about diction. They did

not use vocabulary properly in translating so there would be mistakes in the

sentence that was being translated. Since many students had problem in

vocabulary, they always used dictionaries. They would consult the dictionaries

when they did not know the meaning of the words in English.

Translation exercises helped all students in mastering passive voice

because they could realize the concept of passive voice. That meant the students

could identify the pattern and apply the pattern into sentences. Translation

exercises were simple and not difficult to be learnt. By doing a lot of translation

exercises to learn passive voice, the students might be familiar with the pattern.

Translation exercises also facilitated the students to change active

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two different patterns. Sentences in translation exercises were clear because active

and passive voice used different verbs so it was not really difficult to change

active into passive voice. By using translation exercises, the students could apply

the passive voice pattern well because they had known to consider active and

passive voice although some students sometimes forgot about be auxiliary.

Besides, translation exercises were helpful and easy to classify the concept of

passive voice.

Therefore, all students thought that their passive voice mastery increased

after they practiced using translation exercises because they could understand the

material better. They were able to identify the pattern of passive voice. A student

said that formerly he was confused between active and passive voice and after he

used translation exercises, he did not get confused anymore. Another student

stated that he could differentiate when be or verb was used in passive voice.

Besides, translation exercises could help the students in learning grammar and

vocabulary. Thus, it could be concluded that translation exercises improved the

students’ mastery of passive voice.

In addition, their vocabulary mastery increased because they also learnt

many new words indirectly while they practiced translation exercises. To translate

the sentences which were given as exercises, students should know many words in

English so they had to learn vocabulary. The more they learnt using translation

exercises, the more they also improved their vocabulary mastery. Besides, a

student said that he could identify dictions and recognize the context or meaning

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Certainly, translation exercises had a big role in learning translation. The

students practiced translation exercises meant that they learnt translating. Some

students stated that translation exercises improved vocabulary mastery so it would

be helpful in translating sentences. Besides, many students said that passive voice

was a part of grammar. Consequently, translation exercises could also help the

<

Gambar

Table 4.1 The Summarized Data of the Closed Questions ...................................
Figure 2.1  Passive Voice (Hansard, 2004: 1) ......................................................
Figure 2.1 Passive Voice (Hansard, 2004: 1)
Figure 2.2 Active Voice (Hansard, 2004: 2)
+4

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