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Based on the theory above, then the researcher and the collaborator teacher determined the indicators of participation, below: Table 2 The Indicator of Contributive and Initiative Participation

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

A. Students’ Participation

1. Definition of Participation

According to Dusseldorf cited in Sudikin (2002:159) defines that participation is an activity or situation takes part in an activity to get the benefit optimally. It means that students learn best when they take an active part in the learning process.

Related to Wenger (1998:55) says that participation is both personal and social, it involves our whole person, including our bodies, minds, emotions and social relations. In the process of teaching and learning in a classroom the whole students‟ participation is very needed to build the

communication with the teacher. Without the students‟ participation, it will make the class become passive and the situation will be boring, therefore the involvement of students‟ participation including their bodies,

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feeling shy or doubt to participate actively in the process of teaching and learning in a classroom.

According to Sudikin (2008:12) there are two kinds of participation; contributive and initiative participations:

a. Contributive Participation

Contributive participation includes participation that supports participant to follow learning well, do the structured task both in the class and at home well.

b. Initiative Participation

Initiative participation aims more to the autonomous activity without structured in doing the task to have initiative to do the material had been taught by making brief notes. See the table below for more detail:

Table 1

Contributive and Initiative Participation

Participation

Contributive Initiative

1. Giving reflection

2. Giving opinion 3. Giving suggestion 4. Giving contradiction

5. Joining the lesson attentively 6. Doing structured assignment

1. Doing unstructured assignment autonomously or spontaneously

2. Asking for formative and sub summative test orally 3. Learning material before it

was given in the classroom 4. Making summary

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be get through the hard effort and realize the meaning of the importance of study.

2. Indicator Participation

The indication whether students be active in learning process can be seen from some indicators, as follows:

a. Students are brave to ask question or give opinion.

b. Students have high motivation to join with the lesson (finishing the individual or group task).

c. Students‟ are active in the discussion activity.

d. Students have relation with the teacher during the lesson.

e. Students have relation with other students during the lesson (in discussion activity).

f. Students‟ participation in learning process be active, active in the group task, and always do the teachers‟ interactions.

Based on the theory above, then the researcher and the collaborator teacher determined the indicators of participation, below:

Table 2

The Indicator of Contributive and Initiative Participation

Contributive Participation Initiative Participation Answering question

Asking question

Joining the lesson attentively

Doing the task

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Participatory learning strategies will be conducive to good condition due to students have more roles, more open. In this condition, new ideas are easily received and creativity expanded by the students through interaction. This system can be followed by the students who willing to join and to work hard in pair, or group work. Consequently, through their learning, the students will be more responsible toward the implementation of learning because they have motivation to learn. A teacher should motivate the students in the process of teaching and learning. He/she should be better applying a media to interest his/her students to participate his/her learning in the classroom.

From the explanation previously mentioned, the teacher is not only as facilitator but also as motivator who have important roles. By picture, the teacher will be able to enhance students‟ participation in learning Degree of Comparison.

3. Factors of the Students’ Low Participation

According to Abimanyu in Arsini (2007:17), there are three causal factors of students‟ low participation in teaching learning process. They are as follows:

a. Students have less ability to form their idea. Instructions do not call on specific students to respond the question.

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c. Students have not accustomed to competitive to give opinion or suggestion to other friends.

The mistakes above are not burdened for students but the teachers‟ responsibility. Sometimes a teacher is aware or unaware to implement the authoritative and avoid questions from students; convey the material object, use one way communication, and also consider the students as a recorder, an acceptor or memorize.

4. Some ways to Increase Students’ Participation in a Classroom

Davis (in http://www.teaching.berkeley.edu/bdg/participation.html) says that there are tactic to increase students‟ participation, as follows:

a. To make certain each student has an opportunity to talk in class during the first, second or third weeks.

b. To plan an icebreaker activity in the semester.

c. To ask students to identify characteristic of effective materials. d. To periodically divide students into small group.

e. To assign roles to students.

f. To use poker chips or comment card to encourage and to give their comment.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that there are some factors that can improve students‟ participation, i.e.:

a. The environment in the classroom

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b. The motivation from the teacher

Teacher should provide a safety, encouragement, and mutually appreciate environment in the classroom.

c. The opportunities provided by the teacher

Teacher should provide students many opportunities, such as: 1) Asking and giving opinion

2) Giving suggestion or opinion 3) Leading discussion

4) Joining the lesson attentively 5) Doing the task

6) Sharing with peer or another friend about the lesson in the classroom.

d. Management of the class

Management periodically divides the class in to groups. Almost of the activity require some flexibility in the constitution of groups and organization of the classroom.

B. Learning

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Brown (1980:7) defines learning based on the Contemporary Dictionaries as acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience or instruction.

Kimble and Garmezy in Brown (1980:7) stated that learning is a relatively permanent change in a behaviour tendency and is the result of reinforced practice.

It means that in learning process, there are changes of behaviour in students‟ cognitive, effective and psychomotor to a positive way and it is

hoped that students will be more progressive in their life. For example, the students can write good sentences after they learn grammar, respect the other friend emotionally and also use their part of body to positive activities, such as speak and walk politely in public place.

A more speciallized definition about learning, Hintzman in Muhibbin Syah (2003:65) stated that learning is a change in organism due to experience which can effect the organism‟s behaviour.

From the explanation above, the researcher concluded that learning is a process of acquring knowledge and a process of behaviour change in individuals who are relative permanent as a result of reinforced practice based on the experience.

C. The Nature of Degree of Comparison

Based Grolier Webster International Dictionary (1971:205)

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grammar the modification of an adjective of adverb to express degree of quality, quantity or intensity.

Thus, the Degree of Comparison means grammatical forms of positive, comparative and superlative of adjective and adverb. There are three kinds of Degree of Comparison such as positive, comparative and superlative.

1. Positive Degree

Korhn (1986:158) says that the positive degree is used to compare two equal things, person etc. It uses the words, the same as, different from, like, alike, the same...as, as...as in positive degree.

a. Comparison using the same as/similar to/different from/like used to compare person, thing, animals, place etc.

1. The same as

Subject Verb/tobe The same as Noun/pronoun Nunu

Subject verb/tobe similar to noun/pronoun That cat

Subject verb/tobe different from noun/pronoun Bella‟s bag

Subject verb/tobe Like noun/pronoun

Kiwil

Nunung‟s dress looks is

like like

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b. Comparison using the same...as is used with noun. The exchange from adjective to noun that is used in the pattern of:

Adjective Noun

Subject verb/tobe the same noun as noun/pronoun Suci adverb/adjective/expressions of quality such as much/many, a little, a few.

1. With adverb

Subject verb/tobe as adverb as Noun/pronoun Jane

Subject verb/tobe as adjective as noun/pronoun I

Subject verb/tobe as much/many as Noun/pronoun I have got as much money as yours

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Subject verb/tobe Not as/so adjective as noun/pronoun

Semarang is not as/so hot as Surabaya

2) Not as/so...as with adverb

Subject verb/tobe Not as/so adverb as noun/pronoun Dr. John are not as/so patiently as Dr. Thomas

2. Comparative Degree

According Krohn (1991:94) the comparative degree is used to compare two unequal things or person.

a. Adjective

1) The suffix –er is used with adjective of one syllable

old older

tall taller

clear clearer

Subject verb/tobe adj+er than noun/pronoun My grandfather is older than your uncle

2) When a one syllable adjective end in ‘one vowel + a consonant’, double the consonant add –er

big bigger

hot hotter

fat fatter

subject verb/tobe adj+er than noun/pronoun

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3) The suffix –er used with adjective that end in –y (one syllable). The -y is change to –i

busy busier

easy easier

heavy heavier

subject verb/tobe adj+er than noun/pronoun

Today is busier than yesterday

4) The word ‘more’ and ‘less’ are used with most adjective + adverb of two or more syllables. Less is the opposite of more that used to negative compare.

Famous more famous less famous expensive more expensive

less expensive subject verb/to

be

More/less adjective than noun/pronoun Krisdayanti is more famous than Yuni shara

b. Adverb

1) The suffix –er is used with adverb of one syllable

fast faster

hard harder

subject verb/tobe Adverb + er + than noun/pronoun

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2) The word more and less are used with most adverb of two or more syllable that end in –ly. Less is the opposite of more that used to negative compare.

easily more easily less easily quickly more quickly

less quickly

subject verb/tobe More/less adverb than noun/pronoun Aziz work more quickly than Parto

3. Superlative Degree

Schampfer Azar (1996:398) says that the superlative (-est/most) compares three or more things or people.

The supperlative form is –est and most that is used in adjective and adverb.

a. Adjective

1) The suffix –est is used with adjective of one syllable small smallest

cheap cheapest young youngest

subject verb/tobe the + adjective + -est noun/pronoun

Tina is the youngest in my family

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big biggest

hot hottest

thin thinnes

subject verb/tobe The + adjective + est noun/pronoun This room is the biggest than in my school

3) The suffix –est used with adjective that end in –y (two syllable). The -y is change to –i

happy happiest funny funniest early earliest

subject verb/tobe the + adjective + -est noun/pronoun Lili is the heppiest girl in her office

4) The word ‘most’ and ‘least’ are used with most adjective and adverb of two or more syllables. Less is the opposite of more that used to negative compare.

expensive most expensive least expensive interesting most interesting

least interesting

subject verb/tobe the + most/least + adjective

noun/pronoun Harry

Potter

is the most interesting novel

that I ever read

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clever cleverest/most clever

subject verb/tobe the adjective + est most adjective

noun/pronoun

Adjie is the handsomest/most

handsome

subject verb/tobe the + adverb + est noun/pronoun

Rizky is the faster boy in running

competition

2) The word most and least are used with most adverb of two or more syllable that end in –ly. Less is the opposite of more that used to negative compare.

slowly most slowly least slowly fluently most fluently

least fluently

subject verb/tobe the most/least + adverb noun/pronoun Andika runs the most slowly among the

other

Irregular Comparison of Adjective and Adverb Table

Positive Comparative Superlative

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many

1. Definition of Picture

According to the Grolier International Dictionary (1996:717) picture means a visual representation or image painted, drawn, photograped,or otherwise rendered on a flat surface. In the Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary (1992:711), picture means painting, drawing and sketch of something especially as work of art. Whereas, William little defines picture as following:

a. The action or process of painting or drawing the fact of being painted or pictorially represented the art of painting pictorial representation. b. The concrete result of this process

1) Painting

2) An individual painting, drawing or representation and a surface of an object or objects.

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2. The Function of Picture

According to Jenkins in the Feni‟s thesis (2009:24) states that the function of picture is as follows:

a. To stimulate interest

Pictures are often to attract attention and sometimes is used to stimulate discussion, which shape a course of study.

b. To explain something that is difficult to describe in word

Pictures are used to explain activity, when the words are inadequate. c. To aid learning

Pictures are used in various way to encourage learning. A picture can illustrate a fact that is difficult to understand.

d. To remind

A picture can make the students to catch the lesson material easily, so it will stay longer in the students‟ mind.

e. To variety

Where studying is taken place over extended line, learners need variety to help hold their interest.

Based on experts‟ opinion above it is so obvious that the using of

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4. The Procedure of Teaching Learning Degree of Comparison Using

Picture

The researcher uses picture in learning Degree of Comparison. Picture is good for students because the variety and the complexity of the picture can increase the students‟ competence and active participation in learning Degree of Comparison in a classroom.

There are some steps in learning Degree of Comparison: a. Preparation

The teacher make/design the picture.

The teacher prepare the picture which will be used in learning degree of comparison .

The teacher stimulate students by giving them question of the degree of comparison, such as “ispicture A and B the same?” b. Presentation

The teacher opens the lesson and gives explanation about the material that is learning Degree of Comparison.

Teacher gives some explanation about the use and the pattern of Degree of Comparison.

Teacher shows picture and takes two of pictures for example fat women and slim women then the teacher give example of sentence using Degree of Comparison.

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The teacher gives another example using picture to make sure that the students understand the material well.

c. Practice

The teacher give the students some pictures.

This activity can be done individually, work in pair or group based on the teacher instruction.

The students practice Degree of Comparison using picture.

E. Basic Assumption

The reseacher‟s basic assumption is that learning Degree of Comparisons is difficult. Teacher needs media which make teaching Degree of Comparison more succesful. One of the media in teaching Degree of Comparison is using picture. The reseacher considers that picture can help students in learning Degree of Comparison and it can develop their interest to be active in participating in learning Degree of Comparison in a classroom. It may also increases the learning situation in a class. They can enjoy the lesson by responding to various and colorful pictures. Therefore using picture for learning Degree of Comparison could be assumed the best way to increase students‟ participation in a classroom. By picture, the teacher will be able to

Gambar

Table 1 Contributive and Initiative Participation
Table 2 The Indicator of Contributive and Initiative Participation

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